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Notes and Queries, July 29, 1916. 




"When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 





N ots and Queries, July 29, 1916. 

128. 1. JAN. 1,1916.] 





"NOTES : The Baddeley Cake at Drury Lane, 1 Sir John 
Schorne, 3 Huntingdonshire Almanacs, 5-Dante and 
Poliziano Hogarth : a Contemporary Italian Admirer- 
Notes on Kentish Wills, 8 -" Caterpillar Tractors" 
Halley and Peake Families in Virginia, 9. 

QUERIES : Motto of Richard III. Heraldic Query 
Ferrers. 9 The British Army : Mascots " Fat, fair, and 
forty "-Baron Westbury : Mock Epitaph-Gunfire and 
Rain Ecclesiastical Folk-LoreAuthors Wanted The 
Moray Minstrels, 10-Biographical Information Wanted 
Robert Child, M.P., the Banker John Willett, Mer- 
chantAuthor of French Song Wanted Oudart and 
Worting Families, 11. 

REPLIES -The Society for Constitutional Information. 11 
'The Vicar of Bray' Thomas Griffin Tarpley, 12 The 
Newspaper Placard Hagiography of Cyprus-" All's fair 
in love and war "Anastatic Printing, 13 Ensigns in the 
Royal Navy Portraits Wanted "Yes, Sir" Archbishop 
Bancroft' Loath to Depart ' Colton- J. G. Le Maistre, 
Novelist, 14 Cat Queries Pronunciation : Regularity in 
Misconduct Etruscan Surgical Instruments, 15 Goats 
with Cattle Othello Joseph Sturge " Sniffles " 
Christ's " Seven Eyes " in Welsh Poetry St. Swithm 
and Reea, 16 Gower Family of Worcestershire, 17 -The 
Water of the Nile Baron Westbury : Mock Epitaph 
Dr. Johnson on Fishing, 18 Betham, Artist Red Earth 
"Jerry-Builder," 19. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : ' Lowland Scotch, as Spoken in the 
Lower Strathearn District of Perthshire ' ' The Greek 
Tradition ' ' A Handbook to Kent Records.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 


IN my collection of West's juvenile theatrical 
prints I have one of which I have never seen 
another copy, except that in the Print Room 
of the British Museum. This latter is laid 
down and bound up at p. 43 of the fourth of 
the nine folio volumes comprising the splen- 
did collection endorsed " West's Toy Theatre 
Prints," which was bought of me for the 
nation by Sir Sidney Colvin in 1886. Need- 
less to say that nothing but the direst 
necessity made me part with it. The 
collection includes one of every print I 
then had, and also a number of sheets I 
believe to be unique, for I have no copies, 
though I have assiduously collected since. 
I estimate the Print Room collection to be 
now worth four times what I got for it. At 

all events, the Cruikshank sheets, which I 
then thought worth a shilling apiece, 
Capt. R. J. H. Douglas in his Catalogue 
values at 10s. each. 

To return to West's print with which I 
began ; it bears no title, and the only in- 
scription outside the margin is : " London, 
Published Jan* 1, 1827, by W. West, at his 
Theatrical Print Warehouse, 57, Wych Street, 
Opposite the Olympic Theatre, Strand." 
It represents a number of actors round a 
table; on the tablecloth in front is the 
lettering, "West's New Theatrical Twelfth 
Night," and on the cake above, " Rich 
Treasury Cake." There is no description, 
and most probably none was necessary ; all 
Londoners knew the characters. It might 
have been expected to bear some relation to 
the Drury Lane pantomime produced at 
Christmas, 1826, which was * The Man in the 
Moon ; or, Harlequin Dog-Star,' by William 
Barrymore ; but that is not so. It seems 
clear that the engraving is only intended to 
be generally representative of celebrated 
performers who appeared at Drury Lane 
Theatre at different times, and not at the 
particular time of the previous year's 
celebration, namely, 1826. Thus at the 
head we have Edmund Kean, in costume as 
Richard III., saying to Robert William 
Elliston, who is in the act of cutting the cake, 
" Give me another Slice ! Fill out the Wine ! 
Do justice, Bobby ! " 

Elliston was lessee of Drury Lane Theatre 
from 1819 to 1826, but he did not act there 
after the expiration of his lease. Genest 
in his ' English Stage ' (1832, vol. ix. p. 336) 
says, "In point of versatility he was scarcely 
inferior to any actor that had ever trod the 
stage." I have one of West's prints, dated 
as early as 1811, of Elliston in the character 
of Duke Aranza in ' The Honeymoon.' A 
copy of this is also in the Print Room 
(vol. iv. p. 50), but it is of later date, as it has 
been worked on to remedy the defects caused 
by taking numbers of impressions. 

The figure just under Kean's right arm, 
holding his goblet in his left hand and cake 
in his right hand, is probably James Wallack, 
who " withdrew to the United States in 
1845," the 'D.N.B.' says; but read 1851, 
as he was then at the Haymarket Theatre. 
The man just below him, who is also cutting 
the cake, bears a striking resemblance, both 
in face and figure, to Charles Kemble as he 
is depicted in the character of Thomas 
Cromwell in the splendid mezzotint engrav- 
ing by G. Clint, A.R.A., after the well-known 
picture by G. H. Harlow entitled ' The 
Court for the Tryal of Queen Katharine,' 


[12 S. I. JAN. 1, 1916. 

published Jan. 1, 1818.* Eighteen of the 
figures are portraits, Mrs. Siddons being the 
Queen, and Charles Kemble the central 
figure at the table. But Kemble, though 
he acted frequently in the old theatre, only 
acted once or twice, on the occasion of a bene- 
fit, in the present Drury Lane Theatre. 

I am unable to say why Elliston is dressed 
as an officer in a costume much resembling 
that of " The Governor " in ' The Exile,' 

have a sheet of West's characters in ' The 
Exile,' by W. Heath, on which plate ii. gives 
the Governor's costume. It is dated 16 Jan.,. 
1822. This plate is in the Print Room 
collection, vol. i. p. 66. I also have ^Vest's 
* Theatrical Portrait ' of Mr. Farren as the- 
Governor, so I presume he acted the part 
at the revival of 1821. The Farren portrait 
I only acquired in 1915; it is a quarto 
representation by William Heath of the- 


Janri.Utn.hy of his Thtatricnl Print WarrhmMt.M 1<yrk Strut /}>^fllff tfir Olympic Thteln Strand 

(Reduced from a Print in the possession of MR. RALPH THOMAS) 

revived at Co vent Garden in 1821. It 
may be intended as symbolical of his being 
in command at Drury Lane Theatre. I 

* This plate was printed in such numbers that 
it was worn almost to a shadow. It was reworked 
and published " with the permission of the Duke 
of Devonshire" on March 2, 1829. If the Duke, 
who, I presume, owned the picture, could have 
had any idea of the deterioration the plate had 
undergone, he would never have consented to 
his name being used. In this issue the fine 

small one in the sheet of characters above- 

To return to the print : on the extreme- 
left is John Listen as Paul Pry, with his 

portrait of Charles Kemble is almost unrecog- 
nizable. However, the likeness is worse still in a 
wood engraving of the same size (22 by 30 inches) 
as the original mezzotint, which was issued with 
No. III. of Reynolds's Miscellany (about 1848 > 
as ' The Trial of Queen Catherine ' at the pric* 
of threepence. 

128. I. JAN-. 1, 1916.] 


umbrella under his arm and goblet in his left 
hand ; and on the extreme right is the 
same actor, as Grojan, a character in a long 
since forgotten farce, which seems never to 
have been printed, called ' Quite Correct,' 
adapted from the French by Joseph Ebs- 
worth, and first produced at the Haymarket, 
July 29, 1825. There can be no doubt 
about Listen's features or the characters, 
because he is saying to Elliston, who with 
his left hand is giving a slice of cake to the 
monkey, " That 's not correct," which is a 
catch-phrase of Grojan' s, just as " I hope I 
don't intrude " is of Paul Pry's. It seems 
curious that Liston should be twice repre- 
sented, but he was so popular that he fre- 
quently acted both these parts on the same 

The monkey figure is intended for little 
George Wieland as the Chimpanzee in 
' La Perouse,' a part which he had acted 
at Drury Lane, and which Edmund Kean 
is said to have played when he began, about 
1809, but which had, no doubt, been com- 
pletely forgotten. Wieland acquired a 
unique position as a representative of 
monkeys and sprites, and continued on the 
stage almost to the time of his death, which 
occurred on Nov. 6, 1847, at the age of 35. 
He was a member of the Acting Committee 
of the Theatrical Fund. One of West's 
best sets of characters is to be found in 
" The grand historical ballet called La 
Perouse, or the desolate Island, as performed 
at the English Opera House, published 
25 October, 1819." T. P. Cooke was La 
Perouse, and Miss Leonora Pincott, after- 
wards Mrs. Alfred Wigan, is representing the 

The figures of Punch on the left and Judy 
on the right, holding their goblets in their 
left hands, are simply allegorical. It only 
remains to mention the figure holding the 
goblet in his left hand immediately above 
Elliston, which may be intended for John 
Charles Hughes, an actor of humorous parts^ 
and for some years Secretary to the Drury 
Lane Theatrical Fund. 

Ebsworth, who is mentioned above, 
married an elder sister of Miss Fairbrother, 
afterwards Mrs. Fitzgeorge, the wife of the 
late Duke of Cambridge. The late Rev. J. 
Woodfall Ebsworth was the son of this 
Joseph Ebsworth. 

The artist who drew this Twelfth Night 
print was William Heath.* He did hun- 
dreds of prints for West. Heath was quite 

* For information about him see ' N. & Q.,' 
1908 (10 S. ix. 385, 473 ; x. 13, 93). 

aware of the fact that for a figure to comer 
out right-handed he must draw it left- 
handed on the copper, since a proof taken 
from a copperplate represents everything 
the reverse of what it is in the drawing on 
the copper. Any one who wishes to see 
these prints can do so, at the Students' 
Print Room at the British Museum, where, 
for an occasional visit, no ticket is required^ 
It is quite clear that this copperplate 
engraving represents the cutting of the 
Drury Lane Baddeley Twelfth Night cake, 
well known in theatrical circles. I presume- 
it was intended as a Twelfth Night card, of 
which at that time great numbers were 
issued every year. There is a good article 
' On Twelfth Night as a Religious Period,' 
commenting on the decay of the custom 
of celebrating the twelfth night after Christ- 
mas, in Household Words for Dec. 26, 1896, 
p. 156. RALPH THOMAS. 

(To be concluded.) 


FOB a good many years past the Rector of" 
Long Marston, that Master John Scheme, 
" gentleman born," who conjured the devil 
into a boot and was canonized by the voice of 
the people, if not by the authority of Rome, 
has been a standing subject of interest to- 
readors of ' N. & Q.' The late Dr. Sparrow 
Simpson, in particular, was assiduous in 
collecting any tiling relating to the Bucking- 
hamshire worthy, and there is but little- 
known upon the subject which is not included 
in his articles in vols. xxiii., xxv., and xli. 
of the Journal of the British Archaeological 
Association. Of later date there is a good 
summary in the number of The Reliquary 
for January 1901, not, however, adding 
anything fresh to what was already known, 
about this saint. 

During the last few months I have been 
so fortunate as to come across a second 
copy of the Office for Sir John Schorne 
which was printed by Dr. Sparrow Simpson 
in the Journal of the British Archaeological 
Association for 1885 (vol. xli. p. 262). Dr. 
Simpson's version was taken from Sloane 
MS. No. 389, folio 92, and was obviously the 
work of an illiterate person whose bad hand- 
writing made some passages quite unintel- 
ligible. The new version which has come to 
light is contained in a fifteenth - century 
collection of prayers, offices, &c., of English 
origin, belonging to Robert Berkeley, Esq.,, 


[12 8. I. JAN. 1, 1916. 

-of Spetchley Park, Worcester. Though not 
faultlessly transcribed, the Spetchley ver- 
sion is decidedly better than that in the 
Sloane MS., and enables the lacuna? in the 
latter, as printed by Dr. Sparrow Simpson, 
to be filled up with some degree of certainty . 
The following are the two versions, (a) that 
from the Spetchley MS., and (b) the Sloane 
version, printed side by side : 


Prose of 
B. John Shorne. 

A ffare prayer of 
Mr. John Shorne 
for y- Asces . 

Aue gemma curatorum Ave gemma curatorum 
O iohannes flosdoctorum O Johannesflosdoctorum 
rector de merstonia de Marstonia 

Aue lux predicatorum Ave lux predycat-orum 
vas virtutum via morum Vas vertutum via morum 
ducenjs] ad celestia Ducens ad celestea 

Aue pater clericorum Ave pater clerecorum 
exemplar presbiterorum Exempler presbiterorum 
in carnis mundicia Jn carnis mundicia 

Aue censors angelorum 
contemplator superno- 

et vincens demon ia 

Aue salus infirmorum 

medecina ve xatorum 

febrium molestia 

Aue lumen oculorum 

liberator languidorum 

dencium angustia 

Aue cum miraculorum 
rediuiuus vos tuorum 
proferb testimonia 

Ave consors angelorum 
Contemplator superno- 

Et vincens demonea 

Ave salus infermorum 
Medycina vexatorum 
Febrefum] modestia 

Ave lumen occulorum 

Liberator languidorum 

Dencium angustia 

Ave ccum meraculorum 

Rediviuens bos tuorum 

Profart testimonia 

Aue tu qui es cunctorum Ave dnu puerorum 
suscitator submersorum Suscitator subversorum 
per tua suffragia Per tua stiff ragia 

Aue diuini puerorum \ Ave tu que sunt in tris- 
consolator miserorum ticia 

qui sunt in tristicia 

Aue cmx peregrinorum 
csto due tor via to rum 
ad superna gaudia. 

Ora pro nobis sacerdos 
Christ i Johannes : 

Ave dux peregrinorum 
Esto doctor viatorum 
Ad superna caudia. 

V. Ora pro nobis, beate 
sacerdos Christi, Jc - 

que a sacro Patre filio 
tuoque regie vertutis 
verbi tui febris f ugare 
voluisti, concede pro- 
pecius cunctis febre- 
tantybus dcuotyssime 
sacerdoles tui Johan- 
nes me me ream facien- 
tibus ut sit placitum 
tue pietate eos am- 
plyius vexandi non 
habeant potestatem. 
Qui cum Patre et S., 

I"t nos a cunctis febri- R. Ut a cunctis febre- 
b us bus d ef endat nos gracia 

- def endat gratia Christi. Christi. 


Domine Jesu Christi fili Oracio. Domine Jesu 

dei viui qui a socru Christe, fili Dei vivi, 

Petri filio quoque 

reguli virtute verbi 

tui febres fugare vol- 
uisti concede propicius 

cunctis febricitantibus 

deuotissimi sacerdotis 

tui Johannis memor- 

iam facientibus ut si 

sit placitum tue pietati 

eos amplius vexandi 

non habeant febres po- 
testatem. Qui cum 

Deo Patre et Spiritu 

Sancto viuis et regnas 

Deus per omnia secula 

seculorum. Amen. 

A comparison of the two versions shows 
that the Spetchley MS. is much better than 
the Sloane copy, though it is not altogether 
free from the mistakes of an ignorant 
copyist. In stanza 7 the "vos" of the 
former should evidently be " bos " ; but 
the ninth stanza (Spetchley) and eighth 
(Sloane) offer most difficulty. The MS. 
leaves no doubt as to the word " divini " ; 
but this is obviously incorrect. " Dnu " 
(in the same place in the Sloane MS.) was 
read by Dr. Sparrow Simpson as " domnus," 
which seems equally unlikely. Mr. Herbert 
(of the Department of MSS., British Museum) 
suggests that in both places the original 
word was " dulcis," which became corrupted 
by a succession of ignorant scribes. The 
Spetchley MS. enables us to make sense of 
the absurdities of the last stanza and the 
collect as given in the Sloane MS. Con- 
sidering the extreme rarity of local offices 
in England, it is satisfactory to possess this 
record of the popular devotion to Sir John 
Schorne in a fairly complete and accurate 

As some confusion exists with regard to 
the representations of the famous miracle of 
the devil and the boot, it may be of interest 
to give a list, corrected by personal inquiry, 
of paintings which are still extant. Sir 
John Schorne figures on the following rood- 
screens : 

Alphington, Devon; Cawston, Norfolk ; 
Gateley, Norfolk; Suffield, Norfolk; Wol- 
borough, Devon. 

According to F. B. Bond and B. Camm's 
' Rood-screens and Rood-lofts ' (1909), ii. 238, 
the saint's figure also occurs on screens at 
Portlemouth (Devon) ; Barton Turf, Biii- 
ham Abbey, Litcham, and Ludham all in 
Norfolk. The Portlemouth and Litcham 
figures are so much effaced that it requires a 
good deal of imagination to see a representa- 
tion of Sir John Schorne in them ; at 

12 S. I. JAN. 1, 1916.] 


Barton Turf, Binham, and Ludham his 
figure is not to be found, so probably the 
note in Messrs. Bond and Camm's book has 
been misplaced. 

To end with a query. In the Proceedings 
of the Bury and West Suffolk Archzeologica 
Institute (vol. i. p. 222) there is described 
a representation of Sir John Schorne which 
is said to have come from a rood-screen at 
Sudbury. In 1850 it belonged to Mr 
Gainsborough Dupont. In The Archaeological 
Journal (vol. xxv. pp. 334-44) a description 
is given of a stained-glass panel with a figure 
of Schorne, which in 1838 belonged to a 
resident of Bury St. Edmunds. And in The 
Reliquary for 1902 (p. 40) mention is made of 
the leaf of a vellum Antiphoner at Clare, 
in private possession, with an illumination 
or miniature of Sir John. Can any one say 
where these are now to be found ? 


THE printing of almanacs in England 
can be traced back to pre-Elizabethan 
times, for the earliest one known was printed 
by Richard Pynson in 1497. Afterwards 
the exclusive right to sell almanacs and 
prognostications was granted by Queen 
Elizabeth to the Stationers' Company, and 
James I. extended the privilege to the 
Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, 
and for about two centuries these bodies 
were the only ones permitted to issue 
printed calendars. It was not until 1834, 
when the heavy stamp duty of one shilling 
and threepence per copy was repealed, that 
local printers were able to publish their own 
productions; and even up to the present 
day most of the locally printed almanacs 
contain the calendar and other matter 
supplied^by the Company, and used for the 
" inside," having added thereto advertise- 
ments and much local information to make 
up the little volumes, which are mostly 
small octavos. It is this extra material, 
or Companion to the Almanac, that I am 
here most concerned with and interested in, 
for I wish to indicate how useful it is for 
topographical and genealogical purposes 
a point which has not been sufficiently noted. 
Yet a small collection of such annuals of any 
county should be most instructive and may 
well be consulted for the above information. 
These little records of a year's work are 
still popular, and their genesis from the 
official sheets and later forecasts and prog- 
nostications of Old Moore, Poor Robin, 

and poorer Partridge is well known ; the 
calendar itself is derived from the old 

To show the growth of these slender 
ephemerides I subjoin a list of almanacs for 
the county of Huntingdon, with a few notes 
detailing the local uses and some of their 
contents. My list commences with a small 
volume published by the Stationers' Com- 
pany in 1782, but the county is yet more 
closely connected with the Company than 
this implies, for in the year 1802 the latter 
consigned to " Mr. Gregory the editorship of 
the Gentleman's Diary and another of the 
almanacs." From the year 1817 he 
had the general superintendence of the 
almanacs published by them, which had 
been for a long time conducted by Dr. 
Hutton. " Mr. Gregory" was the famous 
mathematician, Dr. Olinthus Gregory born 
at Yaxley, Huntingdonshire, Jan. 29, 1774,. 
died at Woolwich in 1841 ; so the pleasure 
of perusing these slight works is enhanced 
by their recalling some interesting historical 
associations. Mr. J. Wright of St. Neot& 
kindly sent me a list of those in his collection,, 
which added to mine and the B.M. sheets 
make up the total. 

After the repeal of the stamp tax, almanacs 
became much more numerous, and some of 
them published from Stationers' Hall, about 
this time and later, contained information 
relating to many counties, so that their 
circulation was extensive, whilst others 
limited their scope to a district or just a few 

(1) The earliest almanac connected with 
Huntingdonshire is one in my possession 
dated 1782. It is printed in red and black, 
size 5 in. by 3 in., and called 

" The Bedfordshire, Cambridgeshire, and 
Huntingdonshire Almanack For the Year of 
Our Lord God 1782. Second after Bissextile 
or Leap Year." 

It has an engraved view of Stationers' 
Hall and the Stationers' arms, and gives a 
list of the fairs in Huntingdonshire, and 
the names of members of Parliament, &c. 
This particular copy belonged to seme one 
in St. Neots, and he made almost daily 
entries about the weather. The forecast in 
the almanac for Feb. 11 was "mild and 
temperate weather for the season," and the 
observer writes : " Very windy, high wind " ; 
and on May 16 the forecast was: "Hot 
and dry weather." He noticed that it wa& 
" Rainy weather to the 28th," and on the 
31st, " River out of its banks." 

This copy seems of quite a recent date for 
weather lore compared with the Lincoln- 


[12 S. I. JAN. 1, 1916. 

shire MS. in the Bodleian by William Merle, 
written about 133744. Merle was one of 
the first to keep a record of the weather in 
Any way to be compared to modern meteoro- 

(2) The British Museum library has a 
fine run of large folio sheet almanacs, which 
include this county, from 1822 to 1894, with 
.some few years missing. The press-mark is 
1878 d. 3. The title of the 1822 one is 
as follows : 


Oamb ridge - 

Isle of Ely. 




the Year of Our Lord 

Being the Second 
after Bissextile or 
Leap-Year, and the 
Third of the Reign 
of His Present 




52 deg. 
30 min. 

London : Printed for the Company of Stationers. 
Sold by George Greenhill at their Hall in Ludgate 

[Price Two Shillings.] 

It gives lists of the fairs and members of 
Parliament. From 1822 to 1849 the al- 
manacs were sold by George Greenhill ; from 
1850 to 1883 by Joseph Greenhill ; and from 
1884 to 1894 they were "published by the 
Stationers' Company." The price of each was 
two shillings up to 1834 ; the next year and 
subsequent years the price was reduced to 
sixpence, the result possibly of the repeal of 
the stamp duty. 

(3) ' Hannay & Dietrichsen's Almanack 
for 1844 ' amongst other counties includes 
Huntingdonshire, but gives only the usual 
local information of that period. 

(4) The first of the locally published 
almanacs was a folio sheet, 14t in. by 24^ in., 
piinted by David Richard Tomson, Market 
Square, St. Neots, who had recently siicceeded 
his uncle J. Stott. It is called ' Tomson's 
Almanack for the Year 1852,' and piinted 
in blue. ' Tomson's St. Neots Almanac, 
1854,' gave an engraving of St. Neots Church; 

-and another one entitled ' Almanack for 
1869 ' was 21 in. by 28 in., and all were issued 

(5) Tomson also printed the ' " Family 

Paper" Almanack, 1855,' a sheet 9 in. by 

14 1 in., printed in red and blue ; the similar 

one for 1856 was printed in black. Issued 

-gratis with the St. Neots Family Paper. 

(6) Tomson also printed the first book 
almanac, small 8vo, in the county ' Tom- 
.son's Household Almanack, 1856,' Id. 

(7) The ' " St. Neots Chronicle " Alma- 
nack,' a sheet 17 in. by 22^ in., was pre- 
sented to subscribers to the St. Neots Chro- 
nicle by F. Topham. The almanac was issued 
yearly'from about 1856 to 1871. 

(8) Evans & Wells succeeded Topham, 
and they issued a similar almanac from 1872 
to 1886, when the Chronicle was absorbed 
by the Hunts County News. 

(9) 'Handford's Family Almanack, 1863,' 
is the next book almanac, printed and pub- 
lished by Robert Wm. Handford, Market 
Place, St. Neots, Id. He was in business 
as a stationer for only about a year. 

(10) The Rev. E. Bradley (" Cuthbert 
Bede ") was curate of Glatton with Holme, 
1850-54, and Rector of Denton with Caldi- 
cote, 1859-7 1 . He presented his parishioners 
with an almanac, as the following note 
shows : 

(11) The * Denton and Caldicot Almanack, 
1872,' was dated by Harry M. Wells from 
Denton Rectory, November, 1871. 

" Continuing a practice established by your late 
Rector, the Rev. E. Bradley, I have resolved to 
present you with a sheet almanack." 

The one for the year 1873 had the same 
address and the same illustrations dated 
November 1871. 

(12) The 'Caldicote Almanack,' 1873, a 
large single sheet, was also dated from 
Denton Rectory by Harry M. Wells, Dec. 7, 

( 13) ' Foster's Illustrated Huntingdonshire 
Almanack,' St. Ives, 1872-82, 8vo. The year 

1881 has advertisements only. That for 

1882 (the eleventh year) was called ' Foster's 
Huntingdonshire Almanack,' and gave St. 
Ives local information, a list of carriers from 
St. Ives, and a calendar of local events. 

(14) ' Hankin's Huntingdonshire Alma- 
nac and Fireside Companion,' St. Ives, 
1882-1916, 8vo. Contains Companion to 
the Almanac (tales), conundrums, &c., 
all printed at St. Ives at first by James 
G. Harikin, and after 1885 by James G. 
Hankin & Son. The following* years have 
rather interesting frontispieces : 

1888. The Old Bridge, St. Ives. By C. R. B. 


1889. The Old House, St. Ives. By C. R. B. 

Barrett. (This is the old house- 
referred to in my note at 11 S. x. 501.) 

1890. Ramsey Abbey in Huntingdonshire. Haw- 

kins, sculp. 

1891. The Waits, St. Ives. By C. R. B. Barrett. 
1S92. Skating Match at Chatteris, 1823. 

1893. Congregational Church, St. Ives. 

May I be allowed to mention that in 1884 
appeared my ' Notes on the History of 

12 S. I. JAN. 1, 1916.] 


St. Ives,' and in 1886 ' Municipal History 
of Huntingdon ' ? This was about the com 
mencement of any attempts at writing any 
thing about the county, and, so far as I know 
these were the only local articles in the series 
Although I was told by my friend the late 
Theodore Watts-Dunton that he had contri 
buted to it, I have failed to find anything 

(15) St. Neots Parish Almanac,' 1883-98 

(16) 'Free Church Sunday School, St 
Ives, Illustrated Almanack.' Sheets, 1886-9 
Sunday School Union, 56 Old Bailey 
London, E.G. 

(17) ' Jarman & Gregory's " Hunts 
County Guardian " Almanack and Direc 
tory,' St. Ives, 1888-93, 8vo (with County 
Map, 4e, I have not seen). It has lists of 
fairs, members of the County Council 
carriers, magistrates, and clergy of Hun- 

1892. Frontispiece, Church of St. Peter and 

St. Paul, Fenstanton. 

1893. Frontispiece, North Hunts Constitutiona 

Club, St. Ives. 

(18) 'The "Hunts County Guardian' 
Almanack and Directory.' Sheets, St. Ives, 

(19) 'The Saint Ives Wesleyan Sunday 
School Almanack for 1889.' Sheet, 2 
Castle Street, City Road, B.C. 

(20) '"Hunts County News" Almanack 
and Year-Book for Huntingdonshire,' Hun- 
tingdon, 1891-1903," 8vo. Contains full in- 
formation as to the various county authorities 
and local bodies, public institutions, places 
of worship, &c.; and 1903 adds " a Gazetteer 
of the whole county." 

(21) * Wells's Almanack and Directory for 
St. Neots and District,' St. Neots, 1891-1901, 
8vo. Zachariah Wells, 1891-7 ; Wells & Son, 
1898-1901. Contains full information as to 
the various local authorities, places of 
worship, public institutions, &c., in St. 
Neots and neighbourhood. 

1893, 1894, 1897, 1898. Very useful record of 
local events. 

1895. Local chronological landmarks ; and a 

short account of the stained-glass 
windows in St. Neots Church, and by 
whom presented. 

1896. A thick-paper edition, 2d. (fifth year 

of publication) ; and an Edition de 
Luxe, 2s. (Two only printed.) 

(22) 'Mrs. WaUis's Kimbolton Almanack,' 
1890-94, 8vo. (Mrs. Adelaide Selena Wallis, 
Post Office, Kimbolton.) Kimbolton local 

(23) 'The " Huntingdonshire Post " Con- 
stitutional Almanack/ 1894. Large sheet, 

printed by McCorquodale & Co., Ltd. 
Portrait of A. H. Smith Barry, M.P., and 
another copy with portrait of Hon. Ailwvn 
Fellowes, M.P. 

(24) ' The " Huntingdonshire Post " Al- 
manack and Diary,' 1895, Huntingdon, 8vo. 
This is a specially interesting number, 
containing several outline sketches, and a 
' Calendar of local events ' as the Calendar ; 
Carlyle's description of St. Ives ; and verses 
by E. J. Naish of St. Ives, viz., ' Hemingford 
Abbots Church,' ' Hemingford Grey Chuich,' 
and 'A Summer's Day.' (Even some early 
German almanacs contained pieces by 
poets. ) 

(25) * Wrycroft's Almanack for St. Neots 
and District,' D. S. Wrycroft, St. Neots, 
1900-1905, 8vo. Contains original articles: 

1900. Historical Notes. Trades Directory. The 

Town of St. Neots, with illustrations. 

1901. James Toller, the Eynesbury Giant, and 

portrait frontispiece. 

1902 . A Short Sketch of the Life of the celebrated 

Saint " Neot." Frontispiece, Alfred's 
Famous Jewel. Summary of Chief 

1903. A Brief Account of the Circumstances 

which led to Two Atrocious Attacks 
on the Person of Ann Izzard (of Great 
Paxton) as a reputed Witch. 

1904. The Great Bridge of St. Neots (frontis- 

piece). Witchcraft in Huntingdon- 
shire. Summary of Chief Events. 

1905. The Great Frost of 1814, ' Sno\yed Up.' 

(26) ' St. Neots Advertiser Almanack,' 
P. C. Tomson, St. Neots, 1901-16, 8vo 

\d. 1888, and afterwards Id. ). I subjoin a 
selection from the contents : 

1902. The Windows of St. Neots Parish Church 

[By William Emery. Died Dae. 1, 

1903. The Charities of St. Neots. 

1904. Links with the Past. By J. Wright. The 

W T ar hi South Africa local names. 

.906. The Great Robbery at St. Neots in 1829. 

1907. A Huntingdonshire Jury in 1619, &c. 

1909. St. Neots Paper Mills. 

1910. St. Neots Bridge (illus.). 

1911. Interior of St. Neots Church (illus.). 
^.912. A Musical Genius who lived at St. Neots 

in the Eighteenth Century. [By 

.913. Huntingdonshire and the Volunteer Move- 
ment of Fifty Years Ago. [By J. W.] 

914. The Hawthorn Hunter of Southoe Turn- 

pike Gate. By Joseph Wright. 

915. Some Happenings in Huntingdonshire 

One Hundred Years Ago. [By J. W.] 

916. List of St. Neots Men serving in the Army 

and Navy. 

(27) 'W. Goggs & Son's Almanack and 
Year- Book,' Huntingdon, 1904, 8vo. Con- 
ains Huntingdon Directory, Magistracy, &c. 

(28) ' South Hunts Liberal Calendar,' 
905. Large sheet, with five portraits. 



[12 8. 1. JAN. 1, 1916. 

Various almanacs, or rather calendars, 
with local views, came into fashion about 
1910 (one for 1912 showed Houghton Mill, 
St. Ives, Hunts) ; but such things do not 
really belong to our subject. 



DANTE AND POLIZIANO. In his ' Studies 


coming from the pen of Politian or Marsilio 
Ficino, or Ludovico Vives, or Pico della 
Mirandola." But some of the most eloquent 
lines of Poliziano's fervent ' Nutricia,' ' Argu- 
mentum cle poetica et poetis ' (1486), salute 
the founders of Italian literature with no 
mean praise. True, the great Renaissance 
scholar does not lavish upon the na-tive 
writers the erudition with which he chants 
Homer, Virgil, and above all Pindar, yet 
the following lines are assuredly not without 
grace and dignity sufficient to contradict 
Dean Plumptre's all too sweeping statement : 

Nee tamen Aligerum fraudarim hoc munere 


Per styga per stellas mediique per ardua mentis, 
Pulchra Beatricis sub uirginis ora, uolantem ; 
Quique Cupidineum repetit Petrarcha triumph urn ; 
Et qui bis quinis centum argumenta diebus 
Pingit ; et obscuri qui semina monstrat amoris : 
Unde tibi immensae ueniunt praeconia laudis, 
Ingeniis opibusque potens Florentia mater. 

Thus Englished by Addington Symonds : 

" Nor yet of this meed of honour would I 
cheat wing-bearing Dante, who flew 1 through hell, 
through the starry heavens, and o'er the inter- 
mediate hill of Purgatory beneath the beauteous 
brows of Beatrice ; and Petrarch too, who tells 
again the tale of Cupid's triumph ; or him who 
in ten days portrays a hundred stories ; or him 
who lays bare the seeds of hidden love : from 
whom unmeasured fame and name are thine, by 
wit and wealth twice potent, Florence, mother of 
great sons ! " 

Del Lungo, who, in his ample commentary 
on Poliziano, rather carpingly characterizes 
these beautiful lines as " Scarso tributo, 
quasi un' elemosina, dell' aureo latinista alia 
povera poes'a volgare," is none the less bound 
to modify his judgement with " Xota felicita 
dei versi che dipingono il viaggio dantesco." 

It is noticeable that Symonds punctuates 
the line " Pingit ; ..." thus: " Pingit et ob- 
scuri . . .," and renders "... hundred stories, 
and lays bare . . .," obviously taking it that 
"qui semina monstrat amoris" stil] refers 
to Boccaccio. I have ventured slightlv to 
alter the translation at this point, as it seems 
to me that the Latin, without unnecessary 

harshness, will hardly bear Symonds's inter- 
pretation. Accordingly I here follow Del 
Lungo, who takes " qui semina monstrat 
amoris" to be Guido Cavalcanti, " di cui 
si allude (Obscuri ecc.) alia canzone sulla 
natura d'amore, comentata, a' suoi tempi 
e poi, largamente." 


ADMIRER. Count Alessandro Verri, the 
first Italian to attempt to translate Shake- 
speare, was a confirmed Anglomaniae 
even before the few months he spent in 
London during the winter of 1766-7. He- 
wrote home some interesting letters to his 
brother, Count Pietro, the distinguished 
economist, describing his visit. He was 
not favourably impressed by our tragedies,, 
but in comedy he regards us as equal, if not 
superior, to the French. 

" The Englishman has a more marked and pro- 
found sense of the ridiculous than the Frenchman,, 
who is too subtle and metaphysical. I have 
watched scenes in English comedy which, in their 
completeness, reach the highest point of the- 
ridiculous and the comic. 

" You have only to compare an English carica- 
turist, such as Hogarth, with the famous Callot. 

" English humour is more concentrated. I 
have seen prints in the shopwindows here that 
would keep me laughing whole days figures so 
weird, costumes so outrageous, so much that is 
ridiculous collected into a single point, that it 
Would be impossible to find more amusing pictures, 
in the whole world." 

For Hogarth, especially for " Marriage a la 
mode,'' 1 he has a great admiration. His 
brother asks him to bring him a set, if it is 
not too dear. He willingly promisee, as it 
only costs eight shillings. He possessed 
one himself, and we find him sending for- 
another after his return to Milan. 


Having had occasion to transcribe sc me 
wills of the Commissary Court of Canterbury,. 
I have made the following memoranda,, 
which perhaps may be of some interest. 
Wills and testaments are usually spoken of 
indifferently, but a testament means properly 
a distribution of personal property, whereas 
a will may refer to either personal or real 
property ; and it may be noted that 
previously to the year 1476 all testaments 
were made in Latin, wills being indifferently 
made in either Latin or English. Then we 
find in 1551 a will wherein the names of 
witnesses were omitted, and the seal and 
signature of the testator added for the first 
time. In 1559 occurs the first codicil to a 

12 S. I. JAN. V1916.] 



will. We note also that funeral sermons 
were charged 6s. 8d. in the first year of 
Queen Elizabeth's reign, and just double 
that amonnt at the end. 

In 1466 Thos. Bysmer of Herne wills 
26s. Sd. for one Peace-Kiss of silver (this 
word not in the ' JST.E.D.'). 

In 1485 John Caxton was buried in the 
nave of St. Alphege, Canterbury, by his wife 

In 1505 Thos. Toller of Sandwich wills 
31. 6s. 8d. to the High Roode for guilding 
him, also a piece to make him a crown, and 
as much broken silver to make him a pair of 
gloves, with the workmanship. 

In 1567 Peter Brown of Maidstone, 
" Bocher," wills to buying a great Bible, of 
the largest volume that was used, 26s. 8d., 
to be set in the nether end of the church 
there, in the place where it was wont to be set 
in the time of the late King Edward VI., 
and to be fast bound with a chain, for all 
men to read. 

In 1573 John Baker of West well, Hus- 
bandman, bequeathed all his manors, lands, 
&c., the inventory being 1801. 8s. 8d. 

In 1585 Richard Beseley, preacher, desires 
to be buried in the body of Christ Church, 
Canterbury, beside his companions in exile, 
John Bale and Robert Pownal. 

In 1570 John Butler, Prebend of Ch. Ch., 
Canterbury, left his property in Calais, 
where he formerly lived, if Calais should 
again become English. 

In 1533 John Hatch of Feversham 
desired to be buried before the Bachelor's 
Light in the Church of Our Blessed Lady of 
Feversham. An important Feversham will. 
In ^1530 William Chapman wills his best 
bow "of ewe" and arrows. 

In 1665 Thos. Simon, citizen and gold- 
smith and Chief Engraver of the Royal Mint, 
divided his property into three parts, accord- 
ing to the custom of the city of London one 
part to his wife, one part to children, and the 
third part he wills, having power to dispose 
of it by the said custom, &c. 

W. L. KING. 
Paddock Wood, Kent. 

or editors of any future edition of ' H.E.D.' 
will find a number of words or sub-words 
(if that be the correct term) to be added 
because of the present war. " Bantam " in 
its military meaning to-day will be among 
these, while another may be found' in a 
question put in the House of Commons on 
8 December to the Under-Secretary of State 
for War, inquiring whether the Comptroller 

of Munitions Inventions has made any 
report to the War Office on the use of mobile 
forts propelled by " caterpillar tractors " 
for use in traversing ground honeycombed 
by trenches ; and, if so, whether he has 
reported favourably on their utility. 

GINIA. (See US. xii. 339.) I am again 
indebted to Mr. Henry I. Hutton of Warren- 
ton, Virginia, for data concerning the two 
above-named families as follows : 

" In Prince William County we find James 
Hally married a Miss Peake, and had a son 
Craven Halley, named for Craven Peake, and one 
son Humphry, named also for Humphry Peake ; 
while one Jesse Peakes married a Sybilla Halley 
about 1785. Find the following in Prince 
William County, Qverwharton parish records : 

" Mary Pike, died at Michael Pike's, Feb. 27, 

" Ann Pyke, married Henry Hunt, March 20, 

" Robert Peake came to Virginia in 1623. 

" Found in some old records in Washington, 
D.C., that one of the Hawleys who came from 
England and settled Haw ley, Massachusetts, 
married a Mary E. Peake. There were three 
brothers, it is said, one settling in Massachusetts, 
one in Virginia, and the other one went further 
south. There is certainly an affinity between 
Halleys and Peakes or Pikes, both in U.S. and 
England. Give you the above for what it is 


1200 Michigan Avenue, Chicago. 

WE must request corresp9ndents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

MELIE." In Sir Winston Churchill's ' Divi 
Britannici,' 1675, p. 279, under the royal 
arms is the motto " Lovalto Melie," and 
in the letterpress following it is eaid 1 hat- 

quit his abhorr'd Stile of PROTECTOR, to take 
upon him, contrary to his dissembled Motto of 
Lovalto Melie, the better known Title of KING." 

If this motto was a form of " Loyaute me 
lie," what is its origin or history ? 


the various Ferrers coats was the one borne 
by Sir John Ferrers, whose daughter Jane 
married Sir John Rouse of Rouse Lench 
in the seventeenth century ? 




[12 S. I. JAN. 1, 1916. 

be much obliged if you could let me know 
where I can have full information and 
photographs about pets and mascots in the 
British Army. Is there any book on the 
subject ? DR. SEE. 

Hopital 23. Houlgate (Calvados), France. 

" FAT, FAIR, AND FORTY." This alliteration 
has been attributed to the Prince Regent 
as descriptive of what a wife should be. 
Douglas Jerrold is reported to have said 
that such a wife would be all very well if 
you could do with her as you could with a 
bank note, viz., change her. when you felt so 
inclined, for two of twenty. With regard 
to the alliteration, I find in Bartlett's 
' Familiar Quotations,' in a note to a 
quotation from Dryden, p. 275, a re- 
ference to Scott's ' St. Ronan's Well,' 
chap, vii., where " a comely dame " is 
spoken of as " Fat, fair, and forty," and 
also a reference to a letter of Mrs. Richard 
Trench of Feb. 18, 1816, in which she 
writes : " Lord is going to marry 

Lady , a fat, fair, and fifty cardplaying 

resident of the Crescent." 

In canto i. stanza 62 of ' Don Juan,' 
Byron, referring to Donna Julia, says : 

Wedded she was some years, and to a man 
Of fifty, and such husbands are in plenty ; 

And yet, I think, instead of such a ONE 

'Twere better to have Two of five-and-twenty, 

Especially in countries near the sun ; 

And now I think on't, " mi vien in mente," 

Ladies even of the most uneasy virtue 

Prefer a spouse whose age is short of thirty. 

Does this witticism appear anywhere 
before the publication of ' Don Juan ' ? 

Inner Temple. 


11 S.xii. 422, 464.) Would SIR HARRY B. 
POLAND be good enough to state, for the 
benefit of those who are not lawyers, what 
is the meaning of : 

" He abolished the time-honoured institution 
of the Insolvents' Court, the ancient mode of 
conveying land, and the eternity of punish- 

" He dismissed Hell with costs, and took away 
from orthodox members of the Church of Eng 
land their last Hope of Eternal Damnation " ? 


GUNFIRE AND RAIN. Can any reader 
of ' N. & Q.' bring forward evidence to show 
that the belief, which one hears constantly 
expressed, that heavy gunfire causes rain, 
has a foundation in fact ? 


ists (e.g. S. Alphonsus de Ligorio, 4. i. 1, 
quoting Busembaum) condemn as super- 
stitious such practices as hearing Mass 
before sunrise with candles arranged in a 
particular order, position, or number, or 
said by a priest named John, or by one of 
the exact stature of Christ. Is there other 
evidence of these superstitions, and of what 
date are they ? S. G. 

AUTHORS WANTED. A poem, ' The 
Swords of India,' dedicated to H.H. the 
Maharaja of Mysore, appeared in a news- 
paper some months ago, but the name of 
the author was not appended. The name 
of the newspaper (with date of issue) and 
the author's name required. A. B. 

Can any one inform me who wrote, and 
where I could obtain, the homely country 
poem beginning as under ? 

A friend of mine was married to a scold ; 

To me he came and all his troubles told. 

Said he, " She's like a woman raving mad." 

Said 1, " My friend, that 's very bad. ' 

" No, not so bad," said he, 

" For with her I had house, lands, and money, too." 

Said I, " My friend, that was well for you." 

" No, not so well," said he 

I am unable to quote the rest. I shall be 
obliged for information. C. B. 

I have a little calendar for the year 1796, 
wanting its title-page. It includes several 
pages of ' Poetry for the Ladies,' and the 
first of the poems is an ' Elegy on Retire- 
ment,' which begins : 

Silent and clear thro' yonder peaceful vale, 
While Marne's slow waters wave their mazy way, 

See, to th' exulting sun, and fost'ring gale, 
What boundless treasures his rich fruit display. 

The fifth verse says : 

dire effects of war ! The time has been 
When desolation vaunted here her reign ; 

One ravag'd desert was yon beauteous scene, 
And Marne ran purple to the frighted Seine. 

Who is the author of this elegy ? 

I. Y. 

tuary notice of a musical amateur described 
him as " one of the original members of the 
Moray Minstrels." My only recollection 
of that body was that the programme of 
the amateur performance on behalf of the 
family of the late C. H. Bennett (a well- 
known artist, and illustrator of publications 

which appeared 1855-65) at the Theatre 
Royal, Adelphi, on May 11, 1867, includes : 
" Those Celebrated Amateurs, the ' Moray 
Minstrels,' will sing the following glees, part 

128. 1. JAN. 1,1916.] 



songs, &c. Conductor, Mr. John Forster." 
(Then follow nine items. ) As first-rate talent 
was represented at this benefit performance 
by Shirley Brooks, Mark Lemon, John 
Tenniel, Horace Mayhew, F. C. Burnand, 
and the Misses Kate, Florence, and Ellen 
Terry (Mrs. Watts), it may be assumed 
that the Moray Minstrels occupied a fairly 
high plane. Information or personal re- 
miniscences of them would be welcome. 

W. B. H. 

I should be glad to obtain any particulars of 
the further career of the following persons, 
and the dates of their respective deaths: 
(1) Thomas Hobart, fellow of Trin. Coll., 
Camb., who graduated M.A. 1694. (2) Robert 
Hobbes, scholar of Trin. Coll., Camb., who 
graduated M.A. 1605. (3) John Hockett, 
fellow of Trin. Coll., Camb., who graduated 
M.A. 1666. (4) John Hoddesdon, who gra- 
duated M.A. at Oxford from dunst Church in 
1617. (5) George Hodges, who graduated 
B.A. at Oxford from Christ Church in 
1743, and became Rector of Woolstanton, 
Salop. (6) Samuel Holford, who matricu- 
lated at Oxford from Magdalen Hall in 1712, 
and was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn, 
April 28, 1719. (7) Walter Holmes, scholar 
of Trin. Coll., Camb., who graduated M.A. 
1622. G. F. R. B. 

July 28, 1782. Whom and when did he 
marry ? I should be glad to ascertain also 
the maiden name of his mother, the wife of 
Samuel Child of Osterley, who died " im- 
mensely rich " in 1752. Is there any printed 
pedigree of this family ? G. F. R, B. 

This gentleman, the son of Thomas Willett, 
Esq., of New York City, and grandson of 
Capt. Richard Willett of the same place 
(but some time previous to 1693 of Barbados, 
W.I.), was a merchant in London in 1783. 
It is possible that he was already a resident 
of London in 1767 ; for the administration 
of his father's will, dated 26 Dec., 1766, at 
New York, and who was " speedily about 
to depart beyond the seas," was granted to 
John Willett, the son, on 20 Oct., 1767 
(P.C.C. 399 Seeker). 

It is probable that he is the John Willett, 
mentioned in ' Caribbeana ' (vol. ii. p. 291) 
as of " parentage unknown," of Broad 
Street, London, merchant, 1767, and of 
St. Benet Fink, 1769, who on 2 March of the 
latter year married at St. George's, Hanover 

Square, Elizabeth St. Leger, daughter of 
James George Douglas of London, agent 
for St. Kitts. 

Any information regarding the above will 
be welcome. Did he leave any issue, and 
are there any descendants living to-day ? 

4 Somers Place, Hyde Park, W. 

any reader kindly tell me the composer and 
date of first publication of the French song 
"Ah, vous dirai-je, maman ? " It was 
probably written about 1800. E. L. 


Worting or Werting was Master of the 
Grammar School at Guilsborough about 
1700-1718, and I should be grateful for any 
particulars of his parentage and education. 
His wife's name was Dorothy, and they had 
a son born Sept. 12, 1703, and baptized by 
the name of Oudart. Nicholas Oudart, 
F.R.S., Latin Secretary to King Charles II., 
had a daughter Dorothy, unmarried at the 
date of his will, 1672, as I learn from Chester's 
note on his burial in Westminster Abbey. 
Did this Dorothy become the wife of Joseph 
Worting ? A. T. M. 


(11 S. xii. 462, 508.) 

THIS Society was formed in 1780, and in 
April of that year it issued a preliminary 
statement, in which it was resolved : 

" That this Society be unlimited in its number ; 
and that no one shall be esteemed a member 
who hath not subscribed and paid at least one 
guinea as an annual subscription towards its 
expenses ; and that no annual subscription shall 
exceed five guineas ; and if any one shall choose 
to compound by paying down fifty guineas, 
he shall be deemed a perpetual member." 

All subscriptions and donations were to 
be paid to T. B. Hollis, Esq., Craven Street, 
Strand, "until a Treasurer be appointed." 

This preliminary circular is signed by 
the following: 
Ed. Bridgen, Esq., J. Jebb, M.D., F.B.S. 

F.B.A.S. C. Lofft, Esq. 

B. BrockJesby, M.D., Colonel Miles. 

F.B.S. B. Price, D.D., F.B.S. 

Bev. Mr. Bromley. Thomas Bogers, Esq. 

Major Cartwright. B. B. Sheridan, Esq. 

John Churchill, Esq. James Trecothick, Esq. 
John Frost, Esq. John Vardy, Esq. 

T. B. Hollis, Esq., Frederick Vincent, Esq. 



[128. 1. JAN. 1,1916. 

The objects of the Society are stated in a 
further circular to be 

" to diffuse throughout the kingdom as univer- 
sally as possible, a knowledge of the great principles 
of Constitutional Freedom, particularly such as 
respect the election and duration of the 
representative body. With this view Constitu- 
tional Tracts, intended for the extension of this 
knowledge and to communicate it to persons of all 
ranks, are printed and distributed Gratis, at the 
expence of the Society. Essays and extracts 
from various authors, calculated to promote the 
same design, are also published under the direc- 
tion of the Society, in several of the Newspapers : 
and it is the wish of the Society to extend this 
knowledge throughout every part of the United 
Kingdom, and to convince men of all ranks, 
that it is their interest, as well as their duty, to 
support a free constitution, and to maintain and 
assert those common rights, which are essential 
to the dignity and to the happiness of human 

" To procure short parliaments and a more equal 
representation of the people, are the primary 
objects of the attention of this Society, and they 
wish to disseminate that knowledge among their 
Countrymen, which may lead them to a general 
sense of the importance of these objects, and 
which may induce them to contend for their 
rights, as men, and as citizens, with ardour and 
with firmness. 

" The communication of sound political 
knowledge to the people at large must be of great 
national advantage ; as nothing but ignorance 
of their natural rights, or inattention to the conse- 
quence of these rights to their interest and happi- 
ness, can induce the majority of the inhabitants 
of any country to submit to any species of civil 
tyranny. Public Freedom is the source of natural 
dignity, and national felicity ; and it is the duty 
of every friend to virtue and mankind to exert 
himself in the promotion of it." 

The earliest meeting of the Society was 
held at the King's Arms Tavern, New Palace 
Yard, and later meetings at the Freemasons' 
Tavern (May 27, 1780), at New Inn Coffee- 
House (Feb. 15 and May 24, 1782), at 
Holyland's Coffee-House (Jan. 24, 1783), and 
at 11 Tavistock Street, Covent Garden 
(Oct. 29, 1784). 

The only list of officials I can find is as 
follows : 

Martin, James, Esq., President. 
Bridgen, Edward, Esq., Treasurer. 
Churchill, John, Esq., Vice-President. 
Shove, Alured Henry, Esq., Vice-President. 
Trecothick, James, Esq., Vice-President. 
Yeates, Thomas, Jun., Secretary. 

The Societj^ issued a quantity of leaflets, 
&c., under the general title of 

" Tracts published and distributed gratis by 
the Society for Constitutional Information, with 
a design to convey to the minds of the people, a 
knowledge of their rights, principally those of 
representation." London, W. Richardson, 403 
Strand, 1783, &c. 


187 Piccadilly, W. 

'THE VICAR OF BRAY' (US. xii. 453). 
Bray folk, of whom I am one (for I was a 
resident parishioner for thirty years, and 
have still a small holding in the parish), have 
always been taught that the original Vicar 
of Bray was Simon Dillin (? Allen or Aleyn), 
Canon of Windsor, d. 1565. 

Gough, 'Berks,' 26, Steele's Collection, 
p. 21 (Bodleian), says : " This is he of whom 
ye Prouerb ' The Vicar of Bray still.' ' 

He was the twentieth vicar. I have not 
the date of his institution, but his predecessor 
was instituted 1522/3. The author of 
' Hundred of Bray,' pub. 1861, confirms the 
statement about Col. Fuller, but gives no 
authority. It is not perhaps generally 
known that there was a Vicar of Bray who 
to a great extent coincides with the song. 
His tombstone is in the centre aisle of Bray 
Church, and the inscription is as follows : ' 

" Subter jacet Devoniensis Franciscus Carswell 
sacra3 Theologia? Doctor, Regibus Carolo 2do et 
Jacobo 2do Capellanus ; Ecclesiae de Remnam 
Rector. Hujus Bibrocensis Vicarius 42 annos. 
^Etatis SU83 70. Obiit 24 Aug., 1709." 

It may well be that, if the tradition of 
the song being written by an officer of 
Guards temp. George I. is founded on fact, 
this officer may have been a Bray man, who 
in recording the tradition had his own vicar 
in mind. G. H. PALMER. 

In a List of Successions of Colonels tl ere 
occurs Francis Fuller, 29th Regt., Aug. 28, 
1739. See 'Army List,' printed by J. Millan, 
the whole complete for 1773, p. 215. The 
regiment at that date would probably be 
known by the name of its colonel. 


On his son's matriculation at Christ 
Church, Oxon (Dec. 24, 1798, aged 17), 
Dr. Tarpley was given as "of the Isle 
of Jersey, armiger." He had married 
Catherine, fourth daughter of Kenneth, 
Lord Fortrose, eldest son of William 
Mackenzie, fifth Earl of Seaforth, attainted 
by Act of Parliament for his participation in 
the rebellion of 1715. The younger Tarpley, 
at Christ Church, was Student until 1816, 
B.A. 1802, M.A. 1805, Proctor 1813, and 
Vicar of Flower, Northants, 1815. 


This family held Moratico in Virginia, 
and was connected with Griffin, John 
Tarpley in 1749 being an executor of Leroy 
Griffin's will. 

Th. G. Tarpley must have reached England 
before 1783, as he married here in 1773 Miss 

128. 1. JAN. 1,1916.] 



(not Lady) C. Mackenzie, and apparently 
went to live in Jersey, where, about 1780, 
was born his son, who became Vicar of 
Floore 1815. The father was possibly son 
of the "polished" Dr. Th. Tarpley of 
Lunenburg, in Virginia. OLD SABUM. 

I cannot say when newspapers first began 
to issue placards announcing their principal 
contents ; but such method of advertising 
is obviously a mere development of the 
use of the posters which were common in 
pre-newspaper days. The first posters were 
properly so called. They were notices 
pasted on the posts which once separated 
the footpath from the roadway or at all 
events indicated where the footpath might 
be supposed to be. These bills on posts are 
often alluded to in seventeenth-century 
literature. In 1567 Londoners seem to have 
taken great interest in the whereabouts of 
certain Flemings who had fled from Flanders ; 
and Stowe mentions that on the morning 
of May 4, " beyng Sonday," bills against 
the fugitives, adorned significantly " with 
gallowsys, and, as it were, hangynge of 
Flemyngs drawne in the same papars or 
bylls," were found " fyxed on postes abowte 
the citie," to the great excitement of the 
passers-by. Plays were announced in the 
same way. Pepys says he went out to see 
what play was to be acted, but found none 
upon the post because it was Passion week. 
New books and pamphlets were announced 
by these early posters. Gay winds up his 
' Trivia ' with a couplet, in the spirit of his 
friend, and everybody's friend, Horace, in 
praise of his own work : 

High raised on Fleet-street posts, consigned to 

This work shall shine, and walkers bless my name. 

All kinds of advertisements were similarly 
posted, as well as police notices and de- 
scriptions of criminals. Hermione, in ' The 
Winter's Tale,' says that her guilt has 
been proclaimed " on every post." The 
newspaper placard is one of the innumerable 
modern developments of an old practice. 

460). Can Pakhou be a form of Pakhom 
(Pachomius), so greatly venerated in neigh- 
bouring Egypt ? I suspect that many of 
the others, especially if local saints, will be 
very difficult to identify. Some help might 
be obtained if the date of the saint's festa 
could be ascertained by local inquiry. 

S. G. 


xi. 151, 198 ; xii. 380, 446). Whoever first 
formulated this sentiment may be supposed, 
like the Eatanswill Gazette reviewer of the 
work on Chinese metaphysics, to have 
" combined his information." For the 
separate notions that all is fair in war and 
that all is fair in love must have been current 
in very early times. When Virgil makes 
^Eneas cry ('^En.,' ii. 390), 

Dolus an virtus, quis in hoste requirat ? 
a commentator tries to affiliate the thought 
to Pindar's 

\pr) Se Trav epSovra tiaupfckrat TOV e^^/ooi'. 
' Isthmian Odes,' iii. 66. 

Dr. James Henry in his entertaining if 
discursive '^Eneidea' quotes (vol. ii. p. 197) 
from Casti, ' Animali Parlanti,' xi. 4, 
Vincasi per virtude, ovver per frode, 
E sempre il vincitor degno di lode ; 

and, after giving the words from Ammianus 
Marcellinus, xvii. 5, in which the Persian 
king Sapor is represented as reproaching 
the Romans for drawing no distinction 
before "virtus" and " dolus," adds: 

" Innocent Sapor ! how little he knew about 
' virtus ' or ' dolus ' ! that never man lived who 
had not one ' virtus,' as one 'dolus,' for his friends, 
and another 'virtus,' as another 'dolus,' for his 

That all is fair in love has been expressed 
by Ovid in 

Juppiter ex alto periuria ridet amantum, &c. 
' ArsAm.,'i. 633. 

and, before him, by Tibullus, iv. 21, 
Nee iurare time : Veneris periuria uenti 
Irrita per terras et f reta summa ferunt ; 

and that love is warfare finds expression 
in Ovid's 

Militat omnis amans. 

' Amores,' I. ix. 1. 


ANASTATIC PRINTING (11 S. xii. 359, 403,. 
443). The following extract from 'The 
Repertory of Arts,' 1832, pp. 401-2, shows 
that the invention ascribed to Appel (Woods' 
Patent Specn. 10,219 of 1844) is of much 
earlier date. Though the two processes are 
not identical, the similarity between them is 
very close. The extract runs : 

" A new process has been discovered and 
brought into use at Brussels, whereby French 
books and journals may be printed with great 
facility and accuracy. It consists of an operation, 
by which, in less than half an hour, the whole of 
the letterpress upon a printed sheet may be trans- 
ferred to a lithographic stone, leaving the paper 
a complete blank. By means of a liquid the 
letters transferred to the stone, are brought out 
in relief within the space of another hour, and 



[12 S. I. JAN. 1, 1916. 

then, with the usual application of the ordinary 
printing ink, 1,500 or 2,000 copies may be drawn 
off, resembling the original typography. The 
immense advantages of this discovery, for which 
M. Mecus Vandermaeien has solicited a patent, 
may be easily conceived. A first application of 
this discovery has been made by him upon the 
Gazette des Tribunaux, which is to appear at 
Brussels under a new title." 

Meeus Vandermalen is the correct form of 
the name. E. WYNDHAM HULME. 


xii. 463). The first introduction of ensigns 
in the Xavy appears to have taken place 
in 1189, when, according to Wm. Laird 
C owes in the first volume of his work 
' The Royal Navy,' Richard I. first used 
the flag of St. George as the regular national 
ensign. Then, again, in the second volume 
cf his work he states that 

" soon after the Union of England and Scotland 
in 1603, all British vessels for a time flew the 
Union Flag of the Crosses of St. George and 
St. Andrew, but on May 5th, 1634, it was ordered 
by proclamation that men-of-war only Were to 
ily it in future, and that merchantmen, according 
to their nationality, were to wear the St. George's 
or the St. Andrew's Flag merely. This rule 
endured until Feb., 1649, when Parliament directed 
men-of-war to wear as an ensign the St. George's 
Cross on a white field." 

In addition to Clowes's great work this 
subject is fully dealt with in the various 
encyclopaedias. E. E. BABKEB. 

John Rylands Library, Manchester. 

PORTRAITS WANTED (US. xii. 462, 509). 
For portraits of Frederick Barnard (Dickens 
illustrator) see Illustrated London News 
(1892), c. 592; ibid. (1896), cix. 423, and 
The Magazine of Art (1896), xx. 56. For 
portraits of Finley Peter Dunne (creator of 
" Mr. Dooley ") see The Academy (1899), Ivi. 
231; The Book-buyer (1899), xviii. 13; 
Tl\& Bookman (1899), ix. 216 ; The Century 
Magazine (1901), xii. 63 ; The Critic (1899), 
xxxiv. 205; ibid. (1902), xl. 336; and 
Harper's Weekly (1903), xlvii. 331. 


"YES, SIR "'(11 S. xii. 458). I have 
twice heard " Yes, sir," used by children 
when addressing a lady, but only twice 
Probably in each instance it was an erro 
arising from nervousness. 

In what parts of England does th 
reverential curtesy hold its own as i 
greeting ? About 1875, when it was stil 
used in a Midland district which was visitec 
by a Scotch friend of mine, she expressec 
surprise, for she was quite unfamiliar wit 
it. About the same time the wife of 

anded magnate, also in the Midlands 
lought her husband's tenants ill-mannered 

they merely took off their hats to her, 
nstead of giving what she considered 
tie more appropriate salutation of raising 
tie hand to the forehead, as if to pull or 
mooth down the forelock. Her opinion 
aused both irritation and merriment 
mong young people. Some of the older 
nes, however, liked the ancient, traditional 
estures, which in their youth had been 
n indication of polite training, distin- 
uishing mannerly people from the vulgar 
nd ignorant who had nothing to do with 
mportant families. 

This reminds me that about the middle 
f the nineteenth century the great lady 
f a parish took means to prevent the 
laughters of the village doctor using 
>arasols, which she considered quite un- 
itted for their position. 


Dr. G. W. Marshall, sometime Rouge Croix, 
efers to Harleian Society, vol. v. (Oxford- 
hire), p. 279. A. R. BAYLEY. 

' LOATH TO DEPABT ' (11 S. xii. 460). 
See ' N. & Q.' 3 S. ix. 433, 501, where a corre- 
spondent is referred to Chappell's ' Popular 
Music of the Olden Time,' i. 173, ii. 772, 
or both words and music. 


COLTON (US. xii. 459). Witting Cotton 
,vas admitted to Westminster School about 
1710. He tried unsuccessfully to get on the 
bundation in 1711, but in the following year 
got in head of his election. In 1716 he was 
elected head to Trinity College, Cambridge, 
where he was admitted scholar, 10 May, 
1717 ; minor fellow, 2 Oct., 1722 ; and major 
fellow, 2 July, 1723. In the ' Parentelse ' 
or lists of Minor Candidates for 1711 and 
1712 he is described as the son of Richard 
Colton of London. G. F. R. B. 

J. G. LE MAISTBE, NOVELIST, 1800 (11 S. 
xii. 480). John Gustavus Le Maistre was 
admitted to Westminster School Jan. 13, 
1778, and matriculated at Oxford from 
Ch. Ch. July 5, 1786. He subsequently 
migrated to Queen's, and graduated B.A. 
in 1790. He was admitted to Lincoln's Inn 
June 23, 1786, and was called to the bar 
June 29, 1791. In his admission to Lincoln's 
Inn he is described as " the only son of Hon. 
Stephen Caesar Lemaistre of Calcutta deed." 
In the ' Biographical Dictionary of Living 
Authors' (1816) his name appears as the 

12 S. I. JAN. 1, 1916.] 



author of 'A Rough Sketch of Paris' and 
of ' Travels through France, Switzerland, 
and Germany' (1806). I should be glad to 
ascertain the date of his death. He was 
apparently alive in 1835, as his name appears 
in Whishaw's ' Synopsis of the Members of 
the English Bar ' which was published in 
that year. G. F. R, B. 

CAT QUERIES (US. xii. 183, 244, 286, 330, 
369, 389, 428, 468). In my notebook I have 
the following : 

" There is a curious Belgian record of a race 
between a cat and twelve pigeons. They were 
taken a distance of over twenty miles from their 
village home and let loose. Although there was 
a strange river to cross, Puss triumphed and was 
the first to reach home." 

Can any reader give me further details 
of this race, or any similar trial of the 
""homing" instincts of domestic cats ? 


CONDUCT (US. xii. 430, 490). Une grande 
incompetence en philologie me permettra, 
au moins, d' etre bref en essayant de repondre 
a la question si spirituellement posee. Les 
etrangers, j' imagine, continueront a com- 
mettre obstinement les m ernes fautes de 
prononciation dans notre langue aussi 
longtemps que les Francais mettront de la 
Constance a zezayer le th anglais, a defigurer 
le j espagnol (et je ne parle pas, pour cause, 
du ch et des aspirations de 1'idiome german- 
ique). La dimculte a former les sons 
inusites, qui parait, pour nous, resider plutot 
dans la gorge et dans la bouche, me semble 
en partie provenir, pour les etrangers, de 
I'oreille ; il s'agit, pour eux dans notre 
langue, de menues intonations, de differences 
peu sensibles, auxquelles, pourtant, il 
convient d'accorder un certain respect, ne 
f ut-ce que pour 1'anciennete de leur existence. 
Notre peuple est, cornme on sait, le plus 
conservateur du monde, malgre certaines 
apparences. La langue, du moins dans nos 
campagnes, n'a guere bouge depuis La 
Fontaine et Rabelais, quand ce n'est pas 
depuis Joinville. Cette immobilite relative 
tient precisement a une certaine fixite dans 
la prononciation, qui, chez nous, observe assez 
exactement la difference etymologique entre 
les divers sons, ou verts ou fermes, 
d'une meme voyelle, entre les labiales ou 
les dentales, suivant qu'elles sont dures ou 
adoucies. Pour une oreille avertie, la langue 
irancaise peut n'etre pas aussi monotone 
qu'elle le parait, surtout a ceux qui la vont 
^tudier dans les pays ou on la prononce le 
plus mal, ou qui 1'entendaient parler a 

eurs enf ants par d'invraisemblables " French 
maids " nees un peu partout, sauf en France. 

Ces differences, d'ailleurs importantes, 
peuvent bien etre un peu subtiles pour une 
oreille etrangere. En Allemagne surtout 
on ne fait pas tant de f aeons a distinguer les 
consonnes. J'ai pu, moi-meme, longtemps 
m'y faire parfaitement comprendre en 
confondant les b et les p, les d et les t, parce 
que, mon etat de sante m'interdisant 
absolument la lecture, j'avais du me fier a 
mon oreille pour reteiiir les mots sans en 
pouvoir jamais controler 1'orthographe. Je 
me suis demande, plus d'une fois, si 1'emploi 
exclusif de la methode orale, au moins dans 
les debuts de 1'enseignement d'une langue, 
n'etait pas indispensable pour nous permettre 
de capter des sons que la lecture des mots 
nous masque bien plutot qu'elle n'est apte 
a nous les reveler. C'etait la rnethode du 
pere de Montaigne, qui reussissait ainsi 
(avec 1'aide d'un certain Horstanus) a 
obtenir que son fils un sujet bien doue, il 
est vrai parlat latin couramment avant de 
savoir lire. Ce devait etre, sans doute, le 
systeme employe au moyen-age, ou il ne 
semble pas, pourtant, que 1'etude des langues 
ait ete moins florissante que de nos jours au 
contraire. Mais ceci nous entrainerait trop 
loin. P. TURPIN. 

The Bayle, Folkestone. 

xii. 260, 325, 366). : 'The Etruscans were 
wonderfully skilled in dentistry" ('Intro- 
duction to the History of Medicine,' by F. H. 
Garrison, Philadelphia and London, 1914, 
p. 80). 

The Graeco-Roman references hitherto 
mentioned can be brought nearer to date, 
thus : Milne's book is said to be somewhat 
hasty in its inferences from part only of the 
available material ; Deneffe's special works 
on Gallo-Roman collections are called 
" excellent " (see Histor. Vierteljahrschrift, 
1914, xvii. 135-6). There is a review of T. 
Meyer-Steineg's ' Chirurgische Instrumente 
des Altertums,' w T hich is highly praised, 
though elsewhere said to be weak in its 

A find of instruments in Ionia finally 
came to Baltimore, and has these articles 
upon it : ' Notes on a Group of Medical and 
Surgical Instruments found near Kolophon,' 
by Caton in Journal of Hellenic Studies, 
1914, xxxiv. 114-18, which has references 
at 118 ; the same w r riter, with Buckler, has 
' Account,' &c., in the Proceedings of 
the Royal Society of Medicine, London, 
1913-14, vii., Section on History of Medicine, 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. i. JAN. i, me. 

235-42 ; ' A Collection of Greek Surgical 
Instruments ' was copied in the Boston 
Medical and Surgical Journal, 1914, clxx. 
777-8, from The Times of about 1 April, 

' Grseco-Pvoman Surgical Instruments re- 
presented in Egyptian Sculpture,' by H. S. 
Wellcome, is in Proceedings xvii. of the 
International Congress of Medicine, 1913, 
Section xxiii., 207-10. This has pictures 
and descriptions of a tablet showing a 
cabinet of obstetric instruments, including 
forceps such as were used a few years ago. 
The same volume has at pp. 137-42 a 
German article on ' Saws,' by E. Hollander, 
who has an article (also in German) on the 
' Surgical Saw ' in Archiv /. klinische 
Chirurgie, Berlin, 1915, cvi. 319-39. 

A pertinent story was in the (London) 
Nation of 12 Dec., 1911, p. 426 : A doctor 
was bored in an archaeological excursion 
till he chanced to see a case of Roman 
surgical instruments : " By Jove, they 've 
got the latest pattern ! 

Boston, Ma^s. 

GOATS WITH CATTLE (11 S. xi. 452, 500; 
xii. 39). This custom first came under my 
observation in Leicestershire in 1891. On 
inquiry" of an experienced farmer, owner of 
a large dairy herd, I was informed that the 
presence of a goat had a soothing effect on 
grazing cows-in-calf, and prevented prema- 
ture births. W. JAGGARD, Lieut. 

OTHELLO (US. xii. 460). A list of sixty- 
six different works dealing with the play 
of ' Othello ' and its sources, &c., will be 
found on pp. 428, 429, and 726 of the 
' Shakespeare Bibliography,' 1911. 

WM. JAGGARD, Lieut. 

JOSEPH STURGE (US. xii. 338, 370, 406). 
MR. HOWARD S. PEARSON'S " some years 
ago " as the approximate date of the accident 
to the Sturge statue at Edgbaston is liable 
to be misunderstood. I remember it well, 
and was surprised myself to find out, on 
looking through my set (1861-89) of 
Birmingham's classic serio-comic, The Town 
Crier, when a monthly, how long it is 
since it happened. 

In The Town Crier for November, 1872, 
are the following announcement and im- 
promptu : 

We regret to announce that one of our 
cherished local monuments is already falling to 
limbo. The other day the statue of Joseph Sturge 
suddenly amputated itself at the shoulder. Alas 
poor Sturge ! The arm that was never raised 
against any one in life has nearly dropped, upon 

somebody in death. He who in the flesh was 
always giving alms, in stone is beginning to lose 

The good that men do in their lives 

In after years increases ; 
J. Sturge, in life a man of peace, 
Is now 1 a man of Pieces." 

The lopsided Sturge looked down upon 
" Peace " and " Charity " for many months. 
I cannot find out when he recovered his 
arm, but there is a reference to him as still 
" armless " in The Town Crier of July, 1873 ; 
and long after-wards a suggestion is made to 
place the limb that fell in a " Museum of 
Amis," then being formed in the gunmakers" 
town, as a representative historic relic of 
Birmingham's earlier Joseph. 


"SKIFFLES" (11 S. xii. 400, 466).- 
YGREC'S guess souffles would seem somewhat 
too modern for a country housewife of the 
seventeenth century if he suggests thereby 
the "kickshaws" of French cookery. At 
the same time it points possibly in the right 
direction for " shiffles " might be "bel- 
lows " or " snuffers" ; but if so, it is strange 
that dictionaries do not give the word as an 
alternative for the one or the other. 

L. G. R. 

POETRY (US. xii. 420, 486). The last note 
that I received from the late Sir John Rhys 
of Oxford refers to the number of ' N. & Q. ' 
containing the above query, and runs as 
follows : 

Coll. Jesu Oxon : Dec. 5th, 1915. 
DEAR MR. DODGSON, Many thanks for the en- 
closed. I am afraid I cannot answer the question* 
I don't know of the occurrence of the " seven eyes " 
in any other passage besides those you mention. 

Yours truly, J. RHYS. 

May he rest in peace ! 


ST. SWITHIN AND EGGS (US. xii. 480). 
Let no one suspect me of being egotistical 
if I try to be informing on this subject. A 
punster might call me egg-otistica], but he 
should not do it in the decorous columns of 
'N. & Q.' 

I know not where the le gend was originally 
told. I have not found it in ' Gloucester 
Fragments,' i., edited by the late Prof. Earle 
in 1861, where he gives and comments on 
some leaves in Saxon handwriting on St. 
SwiShun ; but he quotes (p. 84) a passage 
from Caxton's ' Golden Legende,' 1483, 
which may well be repeated here : 

" Saint Swythyne guyded full well his bysshop- 
ryche and d'yd moche good to y e toun of Wyn- 

12 S. I. JAN. 1, 1916.] 



hestre in his tyme : He dyd do make without y e 
weate gate of the toun a fayr brydge of stone at his 
propre cost/ And on a tyme there came a woman 
over the brydge with her lappe full of egges : <fe a 
rechelles felaw stroglyd and wrestelyd wyth her/ 
& brak all her egges/ And it happed that this holy 
bysshop came that waye the same time : & bad the 
woman lete hym see her egges/ And anone he lyf te 
vp his honde and blessyd the egges/ & the were 
made hooll and sounde euerychon by the merytes 
of this holy bysshop." 

Hone prints a doggerel version of the story 
in ' The E very-day Book,' vol. i. p. 478 : 
A woman having broke her eggs 
By stumbling at another's legs, 
For which she made a rooful cry. 
St. Swithin chanc'd for to come by, 
Who made them all as sound or more 
Than ever that they were before. 
Mr. Baring-Gould does not mention the 
egg-mending miracle in his ' Lives of the 
Saints,' but he used as sources the metrical 
life by Wolstan of Winchester, 990, and a 
life by Gotselin, a monk, 1110, as well as 
referring to William of Malmesbury's ' Gesta 
Pontificum.' One of these authorities 
might contain the legend sought by your 
correspondent, but he would have to go to 
the British Museum to get at them all. 


This miracle is first recorded in the monk 
Goscelin's ' Vita S. Swithuni,' printed by 
Surius, and also apud ' Acla Sanctorum ' 
(July 2). The passage in question runs 
thus : 

" Sanctus Episcopus pontem Wintoniensem, qui 
est ad Orientem, construxit. Cumquc ei aedificando 
solicitam navaret operam, quodam die, illo ad opus 
residents, qusedampaupercula mulier eo venit, ova 
venalia in vase deferens : quam apprehensam 
operarii lascivientes et ludibundi, magno incommode 
affecerunt, ovis universis nonereptis, sed contractis. 
Ilia igitur pro illata injuria et damno dato, cum 
lacrymis et ejulatu corain Episcopum conquerenti, 
vir sanctus pietate permotus, vas, in quo erant 
reposita ova, corripit, dextra signum Crucis ex- 
primit, ovaque incorrupta et integra restituit." 

A similar incident is related in the life 
of Blessed Margaret of Ypres, a Dominican 
tertiary, who died in 1237. Her cult is 
somewhat obscure. She is often represented 
in art holding a basket of eggs, of which 
two or three are falling to the ground. 

Pons Wintoniensis is a well-known stone 
bridge across the Itchin, at the eastern gate 
of Winchester. 

It should be noticed that St. Swithun 
must be written. The common " Swithin " 
is an error. Thus in the Breviary (' Propria 
Anglise,' July 15) we have Swithunus. 



tn.uiked for leplies.] 

iv. 53). MR. H. A. BULLEY'S correction of 
the account in Nash's ' History of Worces- 
tershire ' of the descent of the Boughton 
St. John estate to the Ingrams in the female 
line contains several statements that genea- 
logists must question. For instance, lie 
states that George Gower of Colemers, co. 
Worcester, second son of William Gower by 
his wife Eleanor Folliott, and grandson of 
Henry and Barbara Gower, and great- 
grandson of William Gower (died 1546), 
succeeded to the Boughton St. John pro- 
perty on the death of his elder brother John 
Gower in 1625, and was father of Abel 
Gower of Boughton St. John. In the 
Gower pedigree in Mr. Hardwicke-Jones's 
' Hardwicke of Burcott,' published about 
the same time, we are told that John Gower 
was succeeded by his nephew Abel, son of 
George. Mr. William Page, F.S.A., in his 
Worcestershire section of the " Victoria 
History of the Counties of England," agrees 
with these two that Abel was the son and heir 
of George, but declares that the latter was a 
brother of William Gower, who died 1546, 
and that the estate was sold by William's 
son Henry in 1617 to his cousin Abel. As 
this Henry died 1548, this was impossible. 

Mr. F. A. Crisp in his ' Notes on the Visita- 
tion of England and Wales,' vol. xi. p. 164, 
informs us that the estate passed from 
William Gower in 1546 to his son Henry, 
who died 1548, and that Henry's grandson 
Henry sold it in 1617 to his father's cousin 
Abel (born 1565), son of Robert (died 1599). 
and grandson of William, who died 1546, 
This account has all the appearance of being 
the correct one, is supported by ample and 
reliable documentary evidence, and is corro- 
borated by the 1569 ' Visitation of Worcester- 
shire,' p. 61 (Harl. 1566, fol. 52), where 
we read that William Gower left by his wife 
Anne, daughter of Richard Tracy e, a son 
Henry of Boughton, who married Barbara, 
daughter of Edward Littleton, by whom 
he had a son William of Boughton, who 
married Ellinor, daughter of John Folliott 
of Pirton, by whcm he was father of Henry 
and other children. We read further that 
William and Anne had two other sons, one 
of whom was Robert of Rydmarli, who 
married Cicely, daughter of Richard Sheldon, 
by whom he had, with other issue, a sen 
Abell. There is nowhere in this account 
any mention of a George. 

MR. BULLEY next tells us that Abel Gower 
had by his wife Anne Withers a son Abel, 
born 1620 ; but Mr. Crisp proves conclusively 
that Anne was Abal's first wife and died 



[12 S. I. JAN. 1, 1916. 

s.p., and that Abel's second wife Mary was 
mother of Abel No. 2. Then, again, MB. 
BULI/EY informs us that Robert Gower of 
ButtonbridgeHall married in 1671Katherine, 
daughter of Sir William Lacon Childe of 
Kinlet, whereas in the parish register it is 
recorded that Robert Gower married, Aug. 8, 
1670, Katherine, daughter of Sir William 
Childe of Kinlet. As a matter of fact, there 
was no such person as Sir William Lacon 
Childe. Sir William Childe was succeeded 
in turn by his two sons, Sir Lacon William 
Childe and Thomas Childe, which latter had 
a son William Lacon Childe of Kinlet Hall. 

In one important particular, however, 
MR. BULI.EY is supported by indisputable 
extant documentary evidence, and that is 
that the Boughton. estate and lordship were 
sold in 1729 by William Gower, then of 
Cbiddingstone in Kent, grandson of Robert 
and Catherine ; though Mr. Arthur W. 
Isaac, on p. 1 1 of his ' Bolton in St. John 
in Bedwardine,' after incorrectly stating 
that Robert Gower married Catherine, 
daughter of Thomas Childe, in 1682, tells us 
that their elder grandson Abel Eustace had 
a son Francis, born 1736, and a daughter, 
born 1744 the truth being that Francis and 
his sister were children of Abel and Elizabeth 
Gower, members of another branch of the 
family, and that Abel Eustace enjoyed his 
inheritance for a short time only after his 
father's death, and died s.p. 1711, aged 14 
years, his younger brother William succeed- 
ing him, as is clearly shown by Mr. Crisp 
and the parish records. 


510). The beans mentioned as used to 
clear Nile water in floodtimes acted in the 
same way as does the "clearing-nut" of 
India, the seed of Strychnos potatorum (noted 
in the ' N.E.D.' and in the ' Anglo-Indian 
Glossary'). Perhaps this nut, resembling a 
button-shaped bean, may have been used 
in Egypt. The sediment deposited from 
turbid water, when the vessel in which it is 
contained has been previously rubbed inside 
with a clearing-nut, is the fine clay which 
otherwise settles very slowly, sometimes 
imperfectly after many days' standing, from 
the water of rivers in flood or of ponds in 
which there is no vegetation to produce this 
effect naturally. This fine clay is very 
difficult to remove by filtration ; indeed, il 
often chokes domestic filters. Precipitation 
by the clearing-nut is due to the coagulation 
of an albuminous constituent of the seed 
and this leaves a slight bitterness in the 

leared water. Turbid water can be cleared 
much better by the addition of alum, seven 
grains to the gallon (or of aluminium sulphate 
five grains), previously dissolved. The small 
quantity of carbonates or of silicates usual 
n even the softest surface-water decom- 
poses either of these alum-salts ; the gela- 
,inous alumina produced subsides in a few 
lours, carrying down with it all suspended 
lay, and the water can then be poured off 
perfectly clear. Only suspended impurities 
are removed ; those in solution are not 
appreciably affected, otherwise tnan by the 
substitution of an equivalent quantity of 
sulphate of lime or of soda for the salts which 
decomposed the added sulphate of alumina. 
Neither is of any hygienic importance. 

Les Cycas, Cannes. 

xii. 422, 464). Perhaps the phrase which 
nost persistently adhered to Lord Westbury 
was one originating in the way in which 
le spoke of himself in addressing the local 
Y.M.C.A. at Wolverhampton on Oct. 4 r 
1859. This was summarized in Vanity Fair 
of May 15, 1869, as 

' the information he once volunteered to 
an assembly of serious young men, to whom he 
pointed out that the reputation he had achieved 
as a lawyer was nothing compared with that to 
which he is entitled as an eminent Christian 

The accompanying cartoon had the last four 
words printed above appended to it by way 
of motto. W. B. H. 

DR. JOHNSON ON FISHING (11 S. xii. 462). 
I am glad to see NONA'S letter at the 
above reference, in which he points out that 
there is nothing in Dr. Johnson's writings,, 
or Boswell's records of his sayings, to show 
that he ever described angling as " a fool at 
one end of the line and a worm at the other. ' r 
This saying has been attributed to Johnson 
times out of number. I told the late Dr. 
Birkbeck Hill (who knew all there is to 
know about Johnson) that Johnson was very 
civil to our sport, and had suggested to 
Moses Browne, the pastoral poet; that a 
new edition of the ' Angler ' was wanted, 
and spoke of writing a Life of Walton. 
Would that he had done so ! Dr. Hill told 
me that he could not find that the libel on 
angling could be brought home to Johnson ;: 
it seems that he, too, had taken it for granted. 
Ed. Fishing Gazette. 

19 Adam Street, Adelphi, W C. 

12 S. I. JAN. 1, 1916.1 



BETHAM, AKTIST (11 S. xii. 481). An 
artist named William Beetham nourished 
about the time indicated by your correspon- 
dent. He exhibited sixteen pictures in the 
Royal Academy, all of which were portraits, 
between the years 1834-53 from three 
different addresses in London. Among them 
were Hon. Reginald and Randolph Capel 
(1842), ' Group of Portraits ' (1844), and Mrs. 
W. Beetham (1852). 


RED EARTH (US. xii. 442). " And that 
red earth runs from Devonshire right up to 
Cumberland, and wherever you find red 
earth you find apples." This remark was 
made to me, years ago, by an elderly gentle- 
man having association with Devonshire. 
I give it for anything it may be worth, on 
the chance of its being of interest to 

"JERRY-BUILDER" (11 S. xii. 482). 
Colloquially " Jerry-builder " is certainly 
older than the late " sixties." I lived in 
Liverpool from 1862 to 1866, and was 
familiar with it, I may say, for the whole of 
that time, though I never heard any ex- 
planation of it. My recollection is that it 
was accepted as a well-understood word 
that needed no explanation, though to me 
it was quite new. C. C. B. 

Lowland Scotch, as Spoken in the Lower Strathearn 
District of Perthshire. By Sir James Wilson, 
K.C.S.I. With Foreword by W. A. Craigie, 
LL.D. (Oxford University Press, 5s. net.) 

THAT branch of Northern English which is known 
as Lowland Scotch is gradually losing its function 
as a medium of intercourse, and is tending to wane 
into desuetude. At one time it had universal 
sway in the middle and south of the country; 
and less than a century ago it was spoken, and 
even written, by people of culture and position. 
Some still living can recall how it was used, 
vigorously and with sure grip of idiom, within 
the learned purlieus of the Court of Session in 
Edinburgh. Now, for various reasons, notably 
the more direct and larger intercourse with 
England and fuller educational advantages than 
existed of yore, all this has undergone and is 
undergoing a radically transforming change. 
English vocabulary and phraseology are now 
fashionable as they used not to be ; and, as 
Lowland Scotch is not generally taught in schools, 
it is gradually losing its hold as a colloquial factor, 
and begins to have literary value as an exceptional 
feature, and sometimes merely as an experiment. 
Thus the poems of Burns and the vernacular 
dialogues in the Waverley Novels are less 
generally understood in Scotland than they once 

were, and readily yield their full significance 
only to experts and such as have not quite lost 
hold of the national tradition. 

Forty years ago the late Sir James Murray 
realized that the disintegrating process was at 
work ; and, when he published his ' Dialects of the 
Southern Counties of Scotland,' he expressed 
the hope, as Sir James Wilson now recalls, that " a 
omplete dictionary of the northern variety of 
English speech would be compiled." Jamieson's 
book, which is a century old, was a remarkable 
achievement for its time ; but, while it maintains 
standard value as a storehouse of reference, it 
naturally contains less than the modern student 
requires. Materials are now being prepared for 
the production of such a work as was adumbrated 
by Sir James Murray, and meanwhile Sir James 
Wilson, in his systematic and minutely elaborated 
volume, does yeoman service by delineating the 
folk-speech of his native district. Familiar with 
this in his youth, he now gives it a literary Sitting, 
aided by local experts whom he distinguishes as 
his authorities in a photographic frontispiece. 
He explains that he takes responsibility only for 
the speech prevalent in the parish of Dunning, 
and he adds, " When I describe words or ex- 
pressions as ' Scotch,' I mean Scotch as at present 
spoken in the Lower Strathearn district of Perth- 
shire." Concerning himself only with forms and 
sounds, he proffers a \vell-arranged and interesting 
record, fully warranting Dr. Craigie's compliment 
on finding that the study " has been car/ied out 
with so much thoroughness, and presents so 
complete a survey of its special theme." Choosing 
a comparatively simple system of pronunciation, 
he adopts the grammatical method, and, after fully 
illustrating the uses of vowels and consonants, 
proceeds seriatim through the various parts of 
speech. Then he gives an attractive Series of 
word-lists, following these with proverbs, idio- 
matic expressions, and so forth, and closing with 
illustrative riddles and different types of verse. 
In the issue he produces a compact and fairly 
exhaustive presentment of his engaging subject. 

Rigidly applying his scheme of pronunciation, 
Sir James Wilson is occasionally constrained to 
give forms that outwardly differ from their 
literary equivalents. " Ane " meaning one, for 
instance, as we find it in the best authors, has to 
appear as " ain," which besides causes it to conflict 
with the possessive adjective " ain " for own. 
On the author's plan the contracted form " ae " 
has to be written " ay," which makts ib clash 
with the affirmative interjection. A famous 
idiom in consequence becomes " aw ayoo," which 
looks strange. Then the incautious reader may 
become bewildered over " bray " for brae, 
" caanay " for canny, " coal " for cole, a, haycock,- 
" gouun " for gowan, " ruil " for rule, " unkul " 
for uncle, and other peculiarities, all of which are 
to be regretted, even if they are inevitable. One 
dislikes also " haim " in the sense of home, and 
recalls Sir Walter Scott as he murmured in his 
distress, " Hame, hame, hame ! " Sir Jarres 
Wilson says that in Lower Strathearn " hoakh " 
(hough) means thif/h, which seems odd. Both in 
text and glossary " staig " is defined as stallion, 
whereas elsewhere in Scotland (even just over 
the Ochils) the staig is an unbroken colt or filly. 
Obviously, as the author says, one thing to be 
learnt from this valuable book is that " the 
indigenous speech of the people varies consider- 
ably from district to district." 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. i. JAK. i, me. 

The Greek Tradition : Essays in the Reconstruc 
tion of Ancient Thought. By J. A. K. Thom 
son. (Allen & Unwin, 5s r net.) 

NOTHING could be more unlike the intricate 
carefully sustained cadences of Walter Pater's 
prose than Mr. J. A. K. Thomson's eager 
jaunty sentences. Yet these studies in ancienl 
modes of thought belong intrinsically to thai 
group of which ' Marius the Epicurean ' might 
almost be called the progenitor. The scholars 
addicted to it look away from the grammar of 
language and from the grammar of abstract ideas 
to that aspect of Greek literature which reflects 
man's relation with the visible world, his daily 
life, his customs and beliefs. They read Herodo- 
tus, Pindar, Sophocles, with the intention of the 
original audience whom these addressed for whom 
form was not divorced from meaning, rather 
existed only to interpret the meaning. Prof. 
Gilbert Murray writes a few 1 paragraphs of intro- 
duction to these essays, and, drawing attention 
to this change of emphasis, commits himself to 
the use of the word " semantics." We confess 
we saw this with a shuddering surprise. What 
has the poet that Prof. Gilbert Murray has 
proved himself to be sensitive, discriminating, 
alert to perceive how words throw back their 
shadow upon reality to do with this ugly, pseudo- 
scientific jargon ? 

The nine essays which constitute the book 
are of very unequal value. On the whole, the 
more detailed they are the better. Where the 
writer launches out into generalities he is apt to 
make rash statements, which mean little, or 
could be only too effectively challenged. Such, 
for instance, is the dictum in the essay on Lucre- 
tius, to the effect that that poet " has the in- 
stinctive preference of the artist and the re- 
ligious for moods rather than ideas." But 
where he stays by the actual data of Greek life 
and thought preserved for us in Greek literature 
not attempting to drag them into relation with 
other literatures he is at once sound and truly 
imaginative. The essays on ' Greek Country 
Life,' ' On Alcestis and her Hero,' and ' On an Old 

Map ' should be of real use both as interpretations 
and as accounts of facts and materials. The 
study of Heracles and of the Kuj/ios in the second 
of these is particularly good and convincing ; in 
fact, heavily as both have been commentated, 
we do not remember to have come across any 
exposition of them more satisfactorily worked 
out than this. What Mr. Thomson has to say 
on Thucydides is also well worth attending to, 
though, in relation to the subject, it strikes one 
as less adequate. A very interesting member 
of the collection is a sketch in dialogue called 
'Mother and Daughter' Demeter's finding of 
Persephone. Here the author's close attention to 
all the descriptions of and hints concerning the 
peasantry and their ways stands him in admirable 
stead. The scene and the talk are packed with 
delightful detail, most skilfully interwoven, yet 
derived from chapter and verse, and not lacking 
altogether in vitality. The conclusion albeit 
it rests upon the Greek perception ra Tradrifiara 
fj.a6r)fj.a.Ta in its profounder meaning is coloured 
by later ideas, later human experiences than 
those which belong to the legend itself or even 
to Greek literature as a whole ; but it is none the 
worse for that. 

We are a little doubtful as to Mr. Thomson's 
view of the city versus the country in the Greek 
state. It seems hardly true that " the old Greek 
civilization was more characteristically urban 
than our own." At any rate, we should be more 
willing to say that Athens was the centre 
the meeting-point or focus of Attica than that 
Attica was a diffusion of Athens. But the latter 
way of putting it would suit better the mode of 
civilization, characteristically urban, familiar to 
us in our great cities, which are neither metro- 
politan centres of a state, nor formed by the 
centripetal movement from limited districts. 

He hope Mr. Thomson has many more books 
of essays, and perhaps yet greater work than 
essays, m store for us. He will, we fancy, always 
provoke criticism and disagreement ; yet we also 
i j ^ that the P revail ing notion of its being 
difficult to realize Greek habits of thought other- 
wise than as decorative tags upon our own system 
of ideas proceeded chiefly from the lack at one 
;ime of ]ust such scholars as he or men, that 
s, who are not afraid to give imagination equal 
ilay with memory in their reading of this, the 
'ichest portion of our heritage from antiquity. 

to Kent Records. Compiled and 
Sodet ) 7 Churchm - (Kent Archaeological 

A SELECTION of official documents, charters 
writs, and other diplomatic instruments connected 
with the county of Kent is here published under 
the very competent editorship of Miss Churchill, 
and should be of interest to students of historical 
and institutional antiquities. Most of them are 
here printed for the first time. It was no slight 
task to disinter these documents, which may be 
found scattered " anywhere from a public library 
like the British Museum to the stable-loft of an 
old country house." Their proverbial dryness 

sometimes relieved 
of quaint humour. 

by a welcome touch 
A grant of land by 

King yEthelstan to his servant Ealdulf in the 
year 939 is confirmed by these terrifying 

threats : "If any one which Heaven forbid 

walking in the garb of pride, shall try to infringe 
tnis our definition, let him suffer from the chill 
winds of ice and from the winged army of 
malignant spirits, unless with tearful groans of 
penitence and sincere reformation he first make 
amends. The divine was in those days the 
best surrogate of the lawyer. 

^ N S 1 } comn junications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
ucation, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately, 
n 9 r a n we advise correspondents as to the value 
of old books and other objects or as to the means 
ot disposing of them. 

EDITORIAL communications should be addressed 
to "The Editor of Notes and Queries '"Adver- 
tisements and Business Letters to "The Pub- 
lishers "at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancerv 
Lane, E.G. 


n s. i. JAN. s, 1916.] N OTES AND QUERIES. 




NOTES :-The Baddeley Cake at Drury Lane, 21-' The 
Tragedy of Mariam,' 22 Did Fielding write Shamela ? 
24-CoL John Hayes Sr, Leger-Epitapbs of Finroore and 
Willis at North Hinksey, 26 An Early Circulating 
Library" Murray's Railway Reading," 27. 

VJW6n I'DOllicis i.vj{*y f xvccuiuoi \Ji xyuiv/Mvm^v*! ^ - 

mayne, the French Schoolmaster ' The Meteor, or 
Monthly Censor' Arthur Hughes, the Pre-Raphaelite- 
Authors Wanted- Village Pounds-Oil-Pamting Archer : 
Bowman Parish Registers ' L'Espion Anglois, 29 
Regimental Nicknames-Nodding Mandarins Sir George 
Mouat Keith- John Whitfield, Actor Passage of Funeral 
through Church Ann Cook Glace Kid Gloves, 30. 

REPLIES : The Society for Constitutional Information, 30 
Anastatic Printing-Enemies of Books, 82-' Loath to 
Depart' Letter-Books of Chester-Carol Wanted, 33 
Kennett, M.P.-Napoleon's Bequest to Cantillon- Vanish- 
ing London : Baker's Chop-House The Observant Babe 
Nelson Memorial Rings, 34 The Meaning of "Trent 
Nathaniel Lee, the Dramatist, 35 Thunder Family- 
Duchesses who have married Commoners Comic 
Arundines Cami ' Undergraduates as Officers of the 
Reserve Forces, 36 War and Money Elder Folk-Lore 
M Lyulph " : Christmas Numbers J. S. Brewer and E. C. 
Brewer Tigers' Whiskers, 37 Dr. Philip Doddndge 
Song Wanted Water of the Nile Churches used for the 
Election of Municipal Officers T. Griffin Tarpley Moira 
Coals Armorial Bearings Sought, 38. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : ' A Bibliography of Unfinished 
Books in the English Language' Reviews and Magazines. 

Notices to Correspondents. 

(See ante, p. 1.) 

THE Drury Lane Twelfth Night cake- 
cutting arises under the will of Robert 
Baddeley. The origin of the custom, which 
has been kept up for over one hundred years, 
has been stated to be as follows : 

One year Baddeley went into the Green 
Room on Twelfth Night, and noticed all the 
company were dull and moping round the 
fire ; so he immediately sent out for cake 
and punch, and said, as long as he could 
prevent it, such a thing should never occur 
again, meaning, of course, the depression of 
his brother and sister artists ; for Twelfth 
Night in those days was always a night of 
festivity. Robert Baddeley was the last 
of the actors who availed himself of the 
privilege of wearing the Royal livery, 

which all the company of Drury Lane are 
entitled to do now if they like, as His 
Majesty's servants. 

Accordingly on Baddeley 's death it was 
found that he had generously left a fund 
in trust for a Twelfth Right cake. I was 
unable to find any authoritative account 
of Baddeley 's will by which this trust was 
created. There is no copy at Drury Lane 
Theatre, the late James Fernandez had none, 
neither has the present trustee. I have, 
therefore, obtained the following informa- 
tion from the official records. The will is a 
very long one, over sixty folios, occuping 
upwards of six large folio pages. The fol- 
lowing is an extract from it : 

" Robert Baddeley of New Store Street Bedford 
Square in the County of Middlesex and of Drury 
Lane Theatre Comedian. . . I hereby direct that 
the sum of One hundred pounds Stock in the 
Three per Cent. Consolidated Bank Annuities 
may be purchased immediately after my decease 
if not found there at that time And if there found 
there to be continued until the said Stock shall 
or may be paid ofi; And in that instance then to be 
placed out in some other Stock or Perpetuity or 
Fund to procure as nearly as possible the Annual 
Sum of Three Pounds Which Annual Sum of 
Three Pounds I direct shall be applied and ex- 
pended in the purchase of a twelfth Cake or 
Cakes and Wine or Punch or both of them which 
Cake and Wine or Punch it is my request the 
Ladies and Gentlemen Performers of Drury 
Lane Theatre (or wheresoever the performances 
lately Exhibited at that Theatre may be carried 
on) will do me the favour to accept on twelfth 
night in every Year in the Green Room or by 
whatever other Appellation may be known what 
is now 1 understood to be the Great Green Room 
the care of which bequest 1 leave to the Directors 
of the said last mentioned Theatre for the time 
being or whoever they shall appoint as Master 
of the Ceremonies on that Occasion who shall 
give at least three days' notice thereof to the Com- 
pany at large." . . Dated April 23, 1792. Proved 
at London, 18 Dec., 1794, by Catherine Strick- 
land, spinster, Thomas Brand and Richard 
Wroughton, Esquires, the Executors named in 
the Will." 

It may be noticed that the wording is in 
legal style, with no punctuation ; the con- 
text must be clear without any. The above 
Consols bequest is a fine piece of drafting ; it 
clinches everything. There is no loophole 
as there was in the case of the " Asylum " 
devise. How could so skilful a lawyer as 
he who drew the will make such a failure 
of the devise -of freehold house property at 
Moulsey (which Baddeley desired should be 
used as a home for decayed actors) that the 
devise was declared void under the Statute 
of Mortmain ? A large portion of the will 
is occupied by directions as to the carrying 
out of this trust, which was to be called 
"The Society for the relief of indigent 


[12 S. I. JAN. 8, 1916. 

persons belonging to His Majesty's company 
of comedians of the Theatre Royal, Drury 
Lane," and for short, " Baddeley's Asylum." 
I fear this wo aid have turned out as great 
a failure as some similar bequests, seeing 
that retired actors want congenial company. 
They declined to live at the " Dramatic 
College," because they did not like solitary 
confinement, notwithstanding that they had 
an uninterrupted view of green fields all 
round their " asylum," with the occasional 
delight of seeing trains pass. 

T. P. Cooke, celebrated as the sailor 
" William " in Jerrold's ' Black-Eyed Susan,' 
a part he acted 833 times between June, 
1829, and his retirement from the stage in 
1861, left what the late Joseph Knight in 
the ' D.N.B.' calls " the insufficient amount " 
of 2,0007. to the " Dramatic College " ; but 
the object for which he left it was such a 
failure " that when the Royal Dramatic 
College was wound up the bequest was 
too (see 8 S. iv. 62, July 22, 1893). 

Robert Baddeley was for many years a 
member of the Drury Lane Company, and 
is said to have been an inferior actor of old 
men, but an excellent one of Jews and French- 
men. In early life he spent some time in 
France, travelling as valet to a gentleman, 
and he made the best of his time while there, 
as he not only performed his ordinary duties, 
but became sufficiently expert to serve 
afterwards as cook to Samuel Foote, the 
celebrated comedian. 

Baddeley made his first appearance as an 
actor at the Haymarket Theatre (then 
under Foote' s management), June 28, 1760, 
as Sir William Wealthy in 'The Minor.' 
He was soon afterwards engaged at Drury 
Lane, where he was the original representa- 
tive of Canton in' The Clandestine Marriage,' 
and Moses in ' The School for Scandal.' 
While dressing for the last-named part on 
the night of Oct. 19, 1794, he was seized with 
illness, 'and conveyed to his house in Store 
Street, Bedford Square, where he died on 
the following day in his 61st year. 

Baddeley's wife predeceased him. Both 
he and his son (who died before his father) 
are buried at St. Paul's, Covent Garden. 

It seems worth while to note that so great 
a dramatic critic as W. Clark Russell con- 
sidered Baddeley and his wife to be repre- 
sentative actors of their day. 

Alderman Birch, pastrycook and drama- 
tist, for many years till his death, was in 
the habit of supplementing Baddeley's gift. 
Birch's most successful play was 'The 
Adopted Child,' 1795, but I cannot find 
that it was ever printed. His fame must 

always rest on his being the founder of 
" Birch's " in Cornhill. The shop is still a- 
popular resort, and still has the iron front 
(the first in London) which he put in, with 
" Birch, Birch & Co." over it, as correctly 
depicted in * Chambers' s Book of Days, 1 
1869, vol. i., under January. The original 
kitchen in the basement is also still in use 
with the oven, which extends underneath 
and beyond the footway. 

Your contributor MR. WILLIAM DOUGLAS 
has assisted me in identifying the characters: 
in West's print, and generally in composing 
this article ; in fact, without his professional 
knowledge of actors and the literature of 
the stage I could not have written it. He 
informs me that it was the custom to drink in 
solemn silence " To the memory of Badde- 
ley's skull," but other toasts are now given.. 
Of late years the managers of " Old Drury" 
have added to Baddeley's gift. The late- 
Sir Augustus Harris was extremely generous 
in promoting the festivity of the annual 
celebration, contributing as much as a 
hundred pounds. There were probably over 
one hundred guests. The Drury Lane Green 
Room no longer exists, having been con- 
verted to other purposes some years ago. 

(Malone Society's Reprints, 1914.) 

THE following notes are supplementary 
to those given by the Malone Society's 
editors, Mr. A. C. Dunstan and Dr. W. W. 
Greg. In some cases they afford explana- 
tions which no doubt appeared to the editors 
to be obvious, but which perhaps would not 
be obvious at first sight to all their readers. 
In others they suggest emendations, in some 
cases different from those which the editors 
have proposed. It should be stated that 
the editors do not profess to emend their 
text, though as a matter of fact they have 
suggested many emendations, some of which 
are very happy and ingenious. 

Line 46. Assent ( = Ascent). Cp. 1. 713. 

Line 70. To be punctuated " your admirer, and 
my Lord." 

Line 153. tfunfce. Read " thanke." 

Line 187. leeke. The editors say "read 
' seeke.' " But " leeke " is probably right. 
This form of " like " is found in the sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries according to the ' N.E.D.,' 
which gives a quotation from T. Howell's 
'Deuises' (1581): " Wante makes the Lyon 
stowte, a slender pray to leeke." 

Line 190. bare ( =bar). Cp. 11. 316 and 1020. 
t Line 203. And part. The editors' suggestion, 

Apart," would hardly help the sense. For 

12 S. I. JAN. 8, 1916.] 


" part " read " past " ( =surpassed). Cp. 11. 256, 

Lines 223-5. she laments (riming with " dis- 
content "). The editors would read " discontents," 
but this would leave the sense of 1. 223 still un- 
satisfactory. Mariana is not lamenting, and 
Salome has remarked, " Her eyes doe sparkle 
ioy." Alexandra is defending her. Read " she'd 

Line 226. And if she ioy, she did not causelesse 
ioy. The editors would read " doth" for " did." 
It is simpler to read " And if she ioy'd." 

Line 272. To be punctuated " Mariam. Herods 
spirit " 

Line 308. Keepes me lor being the Arabians 
wife- This use of "for ' may be paralleled by 
'2 Henry VI.,' IV. i. 74 : 

Now will I dam up this thy yawning mouth 

For swallowing the treasure of the realm. 
And ' Clyomon and Clamydes ' (Malone Society), 

I. 833 : " He is safe for ever being free." 

Line 324. To be punctuated " Lord, but for 
the futures sake." 

Line 366. Who thinkes not ought but what 
Silleus will? The editors suggest "on" for 
" not." The better change is to remove the note 
of interrogation and make the line a statement. 
The source is Josephus, ' Antiq.,' book xvi., 
Lodge's ' Josephus ' (1640), p. 425 C. : " There 
was "a King of the* Arabians, named Obodas, a 
sloathfull man.... and there was one Syllabus 
that did govern all his affairs." 

Line 368. Shalt be to me as It: Obodas slill. 
Read " as I t' Obodas still." 

Line 381. Proverb : " lupus in fabula." 

Line 444. Waters-bearing. Read " Water-bear- 
ing." Cp. Joshua ix. 21. 

Line 537. Where in a propertie, contempt doth 
breede. Read " Wherein a propertie contempt," 
&c., i.e., minds which despise a thing because 
they have it. 

Line 569. Since Loue can teach blood and kindreds 
s^.orne. The line is a syllable short, and the 
editors suggest " teach us." " Blood," however, 
is unsatisfactory, especially as it is used in the 
previous line in a different sense. Query, " high 
blood " ? 

Line 650. Proverb: " Amicorum omnia com- 

Line 693. rigor. Read " vigor." 

Line 765. Omit " a," which has perhaps crept 
in from the line above. 

Line 769. scope. Read " stope " (stoop). 

Lines 876-7. 

So light as her possessions for most day 
Is her affections lost, to me tis knowne. 
The editors would read " losse " for " lost," but 
it appears .to me they would still not get the 
sense. Constabarus is speaking of Salome's 
fickleness, not of his own feelings with regard to 
her. I am inclined to read : 

So light as her possessions formost day 

Is her affections lost, to me tis knowne, 

i.e., " I have reason to know that her love is lost 

as lightly as the first day of her possessing the 

object of her love." Cp. 1. 879. 

Line 905. After this line there should be a 
stage-direction : " They fight." 

Line 911. A full-stop required after " twelue 

Line 930. Then list. Read "Thou list" 
(liest). For the spelling cp. " did " (died), 

II. 2027, 2132. 

Lines 944-5. I see a courtious foe, 

Sterne enmitie to friendship can no art. 
The editors' note seems to suggest that the- 
error lies in the word " Sterne." If so, the obvious 
course would be to change it to " Turne." I. 
think, however, the corruption is elsewhere, and 
would read : 

I see a courtious foe 

Sterne enmitie to friendship can inuart. 
The sense is borne out by what follows, and the 
corruption of " inuart " or " mart " to "no art '* 
may be paralleled by ' Larum for London ' 
(Malone Society), 1. 76, where " in't " is misprinted 
for "not." On the use of "invert," cp. 'Tem- 
pest,' III. i. 70 : " invert What best is boded 
me to mischief." 

Line 973. That makes false rumours long ^v^th' 
credit past (riming with "last"). Although 
the rime would be sacrificed , the sense seems to 
me to require " pass " for " past." If " past " 
is retained, it must be the past tense. I suppose.' 

Line 999. that honour not affects. The sense- 
is " that affects (affect) not honour." 

Lines 1060-1. 

Graphina still shall be in your tuition, 
And her with you be nere the lesse content. 
The editors would read " here with you. Be." 
Rather for " her " read "he." 

Line 1068. done to death. The proposed 
emendation " doomed to death " is bold, and,, 
perhaps, hardly necessary. 

Line 1091. To call me base and hungry Edomite.. 
Perhaps for " hungry " we should read " mun- 
grel." Cp. 11. 241, 244 : 

My birth, thy baser birth so far exceld. 
Thou Mongrell. 
The word " hungry " is not found in the invective. . 

Line 1210. To be punctuated " still, nay more,, 
retorted bee." 

Line 1251. For " they," perhaps read " she." 

Line 1287. The worlds commaunding. Prob- 
ably " world - commaunding." Cp. 1. 1305, 
" Rome commanding." 

Line 1297. To be punctuated " Whose there ? 
my Mariam ? more then happie fate ! " 

Line 1323. Phasaelus. Read " Phasaelus's " 
or " Phasaelus his." 

Line 1391. The missing line should follow this. 

Line 1432. cease ( = " seize," as frequently). 

Line 1451. / ivould. From the editors' note 
one gathers that " I " should not come in the 
text. [Dr. Greg informs me that "I" was 
inserted by the printer after the sheets had been 
passed for press, and that it has been erased 
in the remaining copies of the play.] 

Line 1484. stares ( =" stars . ). Cp. 1. 190. 

Line 1512. and Hebrew. Read " ah, Hebrew." 

Line 1560. Tis. Read " This," rather than 
" Thus " as the editors suggest. 

Line 1566. your. Perhaps read "her," rather 
than " our." 

Line 1569. Were by ( = Whereby). 

Line 1571. therefore. Perhaps read "where- 

Line 1596. staid. My friend Mr. Walter Worrall 
suggests " stand." 

Line 1600. icreake. Query " wracke " or 
" wrecke " ? 

Line 1638. your. Query " our " ? 

Line 1639. They. Query "Then"? 

Line 1646. the. Read "her," unless "her"' 
hi 1. 1644 should be " his." 


[12 8. I. JAN. 8, 1916. 

Line 1719. The worlds mandates. The line 
is short and the sense unsatisfactory. Bead 
"Their wordles mandates." The changes of 
'* y r " to " y e " and "wordles" to " wo rides " 
are both very easy, and a good sense is obtained. 
p. Shakspeare, ' Lucrece,' 11. Ill, 112 : 

Her joy with heaved up hand she doth express, 

And wordless so greets heaven. 

Line 1751. The Hittitfi.Resid " The Hittite " 
(sc. Uriah). 

Line 1853. What art thoit that dost poor Mariam 
pursue ? We should probably omit " thou " or 
"' that." 

Line 1918. The line should end with a colon. 

Line 1924. to be. Read " to beg." 

Line 1936. The line should end with a full-stop. 

Lines 1937-9. 

To fixe her thoughts all iniurie aboue 

Is vertuous pride. Had Mariam thus beneprou'd, 

Long famous life to her had bene allowd. 
The editors, who apparently run these lines on 
to the preceding line, suggest " In " for " Is." 
The sense is got by keeping " Is." Possibly 
" her thoughts " should be " the thoughts." 
" Prou'd " is of course " proud." 

Line 1944. her end. Perhaps " your end." 

Lines 1989-90. Put a colon after " storie," 
and a comma after " infamy." 

Line 2027. did (= " died," as in 1.2132). 
-Cp. 1. 930. 

Line 2051. Proverb: "Try and trust." 

Line 2073. guide. Query " guile " ? 

Line 2112. the creic. Query " thy crew " ? 

Line 2137. bloics (= " blowse," as in 'Tit. 
-And.,' IV. ii. 72). 




IN November, 1740, was issued Richardson's 
' Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded,' an amplifi- 
cation of his previously published ' Familiar 
Letters,' and it rapidly attained as full a 
measure of popularity as its author could 
have desired. Amid the din of applause a 
note of disapproval was sounded by the 
appearance of a brochure of some seventy 
pages announced in the Register of Books 
of The Gentleman's Magazine for April, 1741 
(p. 224), thus : " Item 20. An Apology for 
the Life of Mrs. Shamela Andrews. Price 
Is. Qd. Dodd." On its title-page ' Shamela' 
purports to be the work of Mr. Conny 
Keyber, a satirical reference to Colley 
Gibber, who, earlier in 1740, had published 
his famous ' Apology,' for which he was 
" devilishly worked " by Fielding in the 
celebrated trial of the Poet Laureate for an 
attempted murder of the English language, 
in The Champion of May 17, 1740. 

The purpose of the author of ' Shamela ' 
was to ridicule ' Pamela ' as a picture of 
life, and to challenge its morality as a guide 
to right conduct. To this end the author 

I did not hesitate to out-herod Richardson 
in indelicacy when satirizing the absurd 
and wholly unnatural situations into which 
the characters in ' Pamela ' were forced. 
Probably "Conny Keyber" would have 
left Richardson and his ansemic creations 
alone, had not the clergy (e.g. Dr. Benjamin 
Slocock of St. Saviour's, Southwark) ex- 
tolled the book in public, ranking it as next 
to the Bible. The author of ' Shamela ' 
laments, in all seriousness, 

"the confederating to cry up a nonsensical, 
ridiculous book, and to be so weak and wicked 
as to pretend to make it a matter of Religion ; 
whereas, so far from having any moral tendency, 
the bock is by no means innocent." 

In February, 1742, appeared 'Joseph 
Andrews ' published anonymously, but ac- 
knowledged, were proof needed, by Fielding 
in his 'Miscellanies' of 1743. 'Joseph 
Andrews ' is largely devoted to satirizing 
' Pamela,' so that Fielding's disregard for 
Richardson as a painter of manners was 
patent. Our inquiry, in this note, is to 
ascertain whether Fielding's first novel was 
the outcome of a previous literary tilt at 

The extrinsic evidence stands thus. Miss 
Clara Thomson ( Samuel Richardson,' 1900) 
finds that Richardson ascribed ' Shamela ' 
to Fielding in a letter to Mrs. Belfour 
(Richardson's ' Correspondence,' iv. 286, 
1804). Mr. Austin Dobson, while examining 
the Richardson correspondence at South 
Kensington, found a document in which 
' Shamela ' is mentioned, with a note thereon, 
in Richardson's own script : " Written 
by Mr. H. Fielding." But evidence more 
cogent is afforded by a letter written in 
July, 1741, by Mr. T. Dampier, afterwards 
sub-master of Eton and Dean of Durham, to 
one of the Windhams : 

" The book that has made the greatest noise 
lately in the polite world is ' Pamela,' a romance 
in low life. It is thought to contain such excellent 
precepts that a learned divine at London recom- 
mended it very strongly from the pulpit. . . .The 
dedication [of Conyers Middleton's ' Life of 
Cicero '] to Lord Hervey has been very justly and 
prettily ridiculed by Fielding in a dedication to 
a pamphlet called ' Shamela,' which he wrote to 
burlesque the fore-mentioned romance." Hist* 
MSS. Commission, 12th Report, Appendix, 
part ix. p. 204 ; also Austin Dobson's ' Fielding,' 
1909, p. 210. 

Furthermore, Fielding was acquainted 
with Dodd, the publisher of ' Shamela.' 
He had printed Fielding' s ' Masquerade ' 
in 1728, and Fielding makes a very friendly 
reference to his bookshop (the Peacock, 
without Temple Bar) in The Covent Garden 

12 S. I. JAN. 8, 1916.] 


Journal for Jan. 21, 1752. Dodd, too, was at this very time publishing Fielding's 
' Crisis' (see item. 5 of Gentleman's Magazine for April, 1741, supra], a political pamphlet 
of which hitherto only the title has been known. Quite recently, however, a copy 
o :' ' The Crisis ' has come to light, and the owner has been good enough to write to me 
saying that it appears to be Fielding's work. 

That Fielding was well versed in Middleton's 'Life of Cicero,' and had, apart from 
its dedicatory passages, a high opinion of it, is manifest from his remarks in the 
Preface to his ' Enquiry into the Causes of the Increase of Robbers,' 1751. 

Nor is it devoid of significance that when Bonnell Thornton made, in 1752, in ' Have 
at You All, a Drury Lane Journal by Lady Roxana Termagant,' an ill-natured, not 
to say malicious, attack on Fielding's novel ' Amelia,' he referred to it as ' Shamelia.' 

Despite these indications, Fielding's biographers have been very shy of attributing 
'Shamela' to him. The best bibliography of his works, that supervised by W. E. 
Henley (Heinemann), makes no mention of it. The British Museum Catalogue is silent, 
although it is said the Reading - Room possesses a copy. Miss Godden in her 
' Memoir of Fielding,' 1910, has naught to say on the matter. 

The purpose of this note is to offer intrinsic evidence in support of the extrinsic. 
' Shamela' is largely composed of Richardson's own language, ironically adapted, but the 
author occasionally breaks into characteristic expressions and turns of thought, some of 
which are here set out accompanied by parallel passages from writings unquestion- 
ably Fielding's. 

Title-page. " By Mr. Conny Keyber." 

P. 5, 1. 23. " Wretches ready to maintain 
schemes repugnant to the liberty of mankind." 

P. 9, 1. 22." How I long to be in the balcony 
at the Old House." 

P. 11, 1. 5. " Your last letter put me into a 
great hurry of spirits." 

P. 12, 1. 27. " I have enclosed you one of Mr. 
Whitfield's sermons." 

P. 14, 1. 9." Ah, child ! if you had known the 
jolly blades of my age." 

P. 16, 1. 22. " Can you forgive me, my injured 
maid ? By heaven, 1 know not whether you are 
a man or woman." 

P. 23, 1. 5." At the age of 11 only, he met my 
father -without either pulling off his hat, or riding 
out of the way." 

P. 24, 1. 18. " Be not righteous overmuch." 

P. 31, 1. 3. " How sweet is revenge : sure the 
sermon book is in the right in calling it the sweetest 
morsel the Devil ever dropped into the mouth of 
a sinner." 

P. 33, 1. 2." Mrs. Jewkes : ' O, sir, I see you 
know very little of our sect.' " 

P. 47, 1. 7. " 1 am justly angry with that 
parson whose family hath been raised from the 
dung-hill by ours." 

P. 52, 1. 9. " I am sure I know nothing about 

P. 52, 1. 24. " Spindle-shanked young squire." 

P. 55, 1. 14. "They sacrifice all the solid com- 
forts of their lives." 

P. 55, 1. 33. " Vice exposed in nauseous and 
odious colours." 


'The Author's Farce,' Act I. sc. iv. "I have- 
been with Mr. Keyber, too." 

' Joseph Andrews,' I. 17. " Designing men. 
who have it at heart to establish schemes at the 
price of the liberty of mankind." 

' The Temple Beau,' Act II. so. vi. " I will meet 
you in the balcony at the Old Playhouse." 

' Amelia,' IV. 2. " Booth hi his present hurry 
of spirits could not recollect." 

' Joseph Andrew's,' I: 17. " I would as soon 
print one of W T hitfield's sermons as any farce 

' Miscellanies ' : 'A Sailor's Song.' " Come,, 
let's abroad, my jolly blades." 

' Joseph Andrews,' IV. 14. " As I am a 
Christian, I know not whether she is a man or a 

' Tom Jones,' III. 5. " He was not only defi- 
cient in outward tokens of respect, often forgetting 
to pull off his hat, or to bow at his master's; 

The Champion, April 5, 1740. " 1 would not 
be righteous overmuch." 

The Champion, Feb. 2, 1740. " Revenge, 
which Dr. South calls ' The most delicious morsel, 
that the devil ever dropped into the mouth of a 
sinner.' " 

'Joseph Andrew^s,' II. 4. "'More fool he,' 
cried Slipslop; ' it is a sign he knew very little of 
our sect.' " 

' Joseph Andrews,' I. 2. " He had no ancestor* 
at all, but had sprung out of a dunghill." 

' Jonathan Wild,' II. 5. " Lying, falsehood,, 
&c., which are summed up in the collective name 
of policy or politics, or rather pollitricks." 

'Joseph Andrews,' III. 2. "Spindle-shanked 
beaux and petit-maitres of the age." 

'Miscellanies,' Preface. "From whom I draw 
all the solid comfort of my life." 

'Amelia,' 111. 12. " The cheerful, solid 
comfort which a fond couple enjoy in each other's 

The Champion, March 6, 1740. " Represents 
vice in its natural odious colours." 



[12 8. I. JAN. 8, 1916. 

To these excerpts may be added such 
-expressions as Statute of Lamentations 
{Limitations), p. 28 ; poluteness (politeness), 
p. 20 ; instuted (instituted), p. 53 ; syllabub, 
p. 54, &c., which suggest, to an ear attuned 
to Fielding's creations, a Slipslopian simili- 

No one can fully relish ' Shamela ' who 

does not first read ' Pamela.' ' Shamela ' 

-is the grosser, but having read it we lay 

it aside with a hearty laugh, and with 

a distinct preference for virtue, whereas 

' Pamela ' lingers long in our thoughts : we 

are perplexed how so many deeply-laid 

schemes to inveigle a girl miscarry ; we 

meditate how, by discreeter handling, suc- 

cess might have been secured. 


1 Essex Court, Temple. 

ix. 76 ; x. 95, 175, 376 ; 2 S. viii. 225, 362.) 
No biographical information respecting 
Colonel, afterwards Major-General, St. Leger 

lias appeared in ' N. & Q.' since the somew 
scanty details given more than fifty years 
ago. We know that he was a member of 
the Doneraile family, that he was born on 
July 23, 1756, and that he died at Madras in 
1799 (Gent. Mag. Ixx. parti. 187). The most 
interesting portion of his career was during 
the time of his intimate association with the 
Prince of Wales, and it is with regard to 
this period that references would be welcome. 
A short but valuable biography will be found 
in The European Magazine of June, 1795 
(vol. xxvr. pp. 363-5), from which we learn 
that he was gazetted Captain (with the rank 
of Colonel) in the First Regiment of Guards 
011 Oct. 25, 1782. In this particular it is 
interesting to note that as early as March 19, 
1781, The Morning Herald speaks of him as 
Colonel St. Leger, and says that he is one of 
" the principal companions " of the Prince 
of Wales. For this reason I conclude that 
he is the hero of one of the famous tete-a-tete 
' Histories ' in The Town and Country Maga- 
zine in July, 1781 (vol. xiv. p. 289), the letter- 
press of which seems to point to him. The 
portrait, given under the title of ' The 
Gallant Colonel,' while quite dissimilar to the 
prints after the famous picture by Gains- 
borough, is not altogether unlike that re- 
produced in The European Magazine. Other 
references will be found in J. Chaloner Smith's 
' British Mezzotinto Portraits,' p. 242 
" Gainsborough,' Sir Walter Armstrong 
j). 278 ; ' Thomas Cfainsborough,' William B 
JBoulton, pp. 180, 207, 252-3; 'Memoirs o: 

eorge IV.,' H. E. Lloyd, pp. 115, 324; 
Hist. MSS. Com. 15 Report, Appendix, 
)art vi. pp. 470, 553 ; ' Reminiscences of 
Henry Angelo ' (KeganPaul), ii. 177 ; 'Female 
Jockey Club,' Charles Pigott (London, 1794), 

NORTH HINKSEY. In the chancel of the 
church of St. Laurence, North Hinksey, 
distant a mile to the west of Oxford, and 
famous for its remains of Norman architecture, 
one finds the following epitaphs : 

1. On the floor to the north of the altar. 

Here lyeth the Body of 
Elizabeth Wife of Rich' 1 Fynmore Esq : of Kidling- 
ton who Died the 15 th of 
November 1716. 

2. To the south. 


Beneath this Stone 

Rest the Remains of William Fynmore 
Late of this Parish Gentleman, 
Who departed this Life 
On the 22 d De<? 1757 
And in the Year of his Age 85. 
Here also lyeth 
Martha his Wife 

Who Exchanged this Life for a better 
On the first Day of No v r 1723 
In the 38 th Year of her Age. 
William Fynmore Gent : 
And James Fynmore Citizen and Vintner 

Of London 
Caused this Marble to be laid 

In Memory 
Of their Deceased Parents. 

3. On a marble slab on the north wall Inside. 


Guil: ^ f obijt Jun: 19^| fxxix 

V Finmore { 1687 J-atat:-{ 

lobijt Jun : 5 J l^xxviii 

Consanguine! conjuges, 

Maritus charus 

Sponsa non minus chara : 

Qua, non imaturo sed precoci fato avulsa 

Lugens sponsus 

(pro dolor !) 

Per 14 tantii dies superfuit. 
Interiit Record : de Abingtoii, 
Tarn comitatus quam oppidi pacis Justiciarius ; 

Nulli officio, 
Soli dolori impar ; 

Vitse integer, 

Amicis aniicissimus, 

Pauperibus benevolus, 

Omnibus benignus. 


Unicsc prolis posuit 
Ma3rens Mater 
Jane Finmore. 

4. On the inside of the south icall. 


Look to thy feet, honest & Loyall men are sleeping 
under them, there lies W m . Fynmore, Fellow of 
S 1 Johns in Oxford, & Batch', of Law, who in y e 

Martha J 

12 S. I. JAN. 8, 1916.] 



year of his age 87, & in y e year of our IA 1646, 
-when loyalty, & y e Church fainted, lay down, & 
died. There lies W m . his only child, who marryed 
first Katherin Cox, by whom he had Ann, John, 
"Mary, W m ., & Richard, Deceasd. after a 5 
yars (sic) widdowhood, he tooke to wife Martha 
TVfayott of Abington,widdow, of y e ancient family 
of the Wickhams, who brought him Elianor, & 
Thomas, & built him this monument. 

He dyed lune y 3 A. D ni . 1677. 
aged about 83. 

prepare to follow. 

5. On the floor toivards the nave. 

Underneath lyeth Interred 
Thomas Willis Gent, and Rachell his Wife 
'(Parents of y e famous Physician D r . Thomas Willis. ) 
"She departed this life & was here buried July 5. 
1631. And He (in Defence of y 6 Royal Cause at 
y e Seige of Oxford) August 4. 1643. 


Francis the son of Browne Willis of Whaddon Hall 
in y 6 County of Bucks Esq r . by Katherine his 
Wife who died at Oxford July 1. 1718. Aged 
."8 Months & 23 days. 
In memory of whom the said Browne Willis hath 

caused this stone 
to be laid here & thereon renewed y 6 Inscription 

his deceased Ancestors. 

Oxford Union Society. 

8 S. ix. 447 ; x. 99, 145, 259.) 

" If any Gentlemen please to repair to my 
House aforesaid, they may be furnished with all 
manner of English, or French Histories, Romances, 
or Poetry : which are to be sold, or read for reason- 
able considerations." 

This notice occurs at the end of the 1661 
edition of Webster and Rowley's play ' The 
Thracian Wonder.' It was mentioned re- 
cently in a daily paper, but I do not think 
the notice has been placed on record in 
"* N. & Q.' The imprint to the work is as 
follows : 

' London : Printed by Tho. Johnson, and are 
to be sold by Francis Kirkman, at his Shop at the 
Sign of John Fletchers Head, over against the 
Angel Inn, on the Backside of St. Clements, 
without Temple Bar. 1661." 


St. Bride Foundation, Bride Lane, E.G. 

xii. 432.) In a notice of book-catalogues 
an editorial mention of the above appeared 
to suggest that information might not be 
unacceptable. I have one of the publica- 
tions that were included in the series, bearing 
date 1853, and from a full advertisement on 
the back cover it appears that " Murray's 
Railway Reading ; containing works of sound 
information and innocent amusement : suited 
for all Classes of Readers," issued by the 

well-known house in Albemarle Street, then 
comprised some seventeen items, the price 
ranging from 6d. to 5.9., but being generally 
2s. Qd. Amongst the works are Lord Camp- 
bell's ' Life of Bacon,' Lockhart's ' Spanish 
Ballads,' Hallam's 'Essays and Characters,' 
essays from The Times, Nimrod's ' Chace, 
Turf, and Road,' Lockhart's 'Theodore Hook,' 

Lord Mahon's ' Forty-Five,' James's ' ^Esop ' 
with Tenniel's illustrations, and Sir F. B. 
Head's ' Emigrant.' How far this list may 
have been extended I am unable to say. 

W. B. H. 


WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 


IN September, 1749, the Bishop of Sodor 
and Man, who was described for the purpose 
as " the Most Reverend Thomas Wilson," 
became, at the age of 86, by election and 
without other consecration than he had 
theretofore received for the episcopal office, 
" one of the Anetecessors (sic) of the General 
Synod of the Brethren of the Anatolic 
Unity," and to him was given liberty to 
delegate the episcopal jurisdiction so con- 
ferred to the Rev. Thomas Wilson, Royal 
Almoner, and Prebendary of Westminster.* 

At a date within the memories of many 
now living, Monsignor Jules Ferrette, who 
had been consecrated to the episcopate by 
Peter the Humble, Archbishop of Emesa, 
and afterwards Jacobite Patriarch of Antioch, 
consecrated the Rev. R. W. Morgan, curate 
of Mapledurham, Oxfordshire, to the 
episcopate, and the succession thus begun 
has been perpetuated to the present day.t 

Somewhat later Monsignor Luigi Nazari 
di Calabiana, acting, if the account be 
accurate, with formal sanction such as 
would have been required, consecrated the 
late Rev. T. W. Mossman, then and after- 
wards Vicar of East and West Torrington, 
in the Church of England diocese of Lincoln, 
to the episcopate. An attested copy of the 
records of this consecration were duly de- 

* TyermanV Oxford Methodists, 'p. 188. 
t Pall Mall Gazette, Dec. 12, 1866. * Hazell's 
Annual,' 1902, art. 'Old Catholic.' 



[12 8. I. JAN. 8, 1916. 

posited for examination, it is said, in the 
Registry of his diocese.* 

It is certain that on Aug. 30, 1879, T. W. 
Mossman ordained John Elphinston-Robert- 
son to the priesthood, and that thereafter 
Mr. Elphinston-Robertson ministered in the 
Church of England, duly depositing evidence 
of his priesthood with the proper authori- 
ties, f With the knowledge of Archbishop 
Temple he acted as Chaplain to the Convent 
of the Sisters of the Faith at Stamford Hill, 
of which institution his Lordship, as Bishop 
of London, was Visitor. At previous and 
later dates Mr. Elphinston-Robertson offici- 
ated freely in several dioceses. J 

Of some of these facts I have personal 
knowledge ; in addition I give other 
authorities in foot-notes. 

I have not the slightest wish either to 
impugn or to defend the propriety of the acts 
to which reference is made. What I desire 
is to collect additional instances of bishops 
or clergy of the Church of England occupying 
ecclesiastical positions in other religious 
organizations. I am acquainted with many, 
of course, but the desirability of preserving 
a record of each and every one will make 
me grateful for the communication of all 
detail of like occurrences. 

To write the history of some of the 
eighteenth - century attempts at Catholic 
Revival is well-nigh impossible, because of 
the deliberate obscurity achieved by the 
originators of the movements. Whilst those 
concerned in the particular class of activity 
to which I have referred yet survive from 
the nineteenth century, may I ask of them, 
in the interests of research, to communicate 
what is now communicable, and to leave a 
sufficient register of the remainder. 

24 Old Square, Lincoln's Inn, W.C. 

DUBLIN TOPOGRAPHY c. 1700. Does any 
one know of a map or plan of the city of 
Dublin during the last yeprs of the seven- 
teenth century and the fiist years of the 
eighteenth, viz., from 1695 to 1715 ? 

I have been anxious for some time to 
procure a list of the parishes and churches 
in Dublin at that time, and to know the 
situation of the military barracks then 
existing. Can any one help me ? 

F. DE H. L. 

* Catholic Herald, July 5, 1912. The Torch 
passim. Order of Corporate Reunion Magazine' 

t Attestation at Doctors' Commons before G H 
Brooks, Notary' Jan. 13, 1882. 

Leaflet of the Church Association : 'Sacrilegious 

(ANNIE OGLE). For many years I had been 
trying to secure a copy of the above work,, 
but was so repeatedly told that it was out of 
print that at last I gave up the quest. 
Hope revived when less than a year ago I 
happened to see, in an article by Sir Robertson* 
Nicoll on Mark Rutherford, a quotation 
from the latter stating that he had searched 
all London through for a copy and had at 
last found one, which he never regretted 
buying. The quotation (undated) goes on : 
" This very week I see in The Athenceum, to 
my great surprise and delight, that it is to be . 

With this clue I recommenced my search,, 
but, so far, have been unsuccessful. Could 
any reader of ' N. & Q.' furnish me with 
particulars as to where the book could be 
obtained ? 

Mark Rutherford, in writing of the book,, 
states that one of the greatest of living poets 
counselled him to read it, and this reminded 
me that I was once told that Browning, with, 
whom Miss Ogle was intimately acquainted ,. 
had suggested that she should put her own 
life- story into the form of a novel. 
1167 Henleaze Avenue, Moose Jaw, Sask. 

1683. The pedigree of the family of May of 
Rawmere, Mid Lavant, Sussex, is given on 
p. 21 of Berry's ' Sussex Genealogies," and 
repeated^ in the first volume of Dallaway'si 
' History of the Western Division of 
Sussex.' The Middle Temple records 

ii. 649) show that Thomas May, son and 
heir apparent of John Maye of "Ramer,"" 
was admitted on May 8, 1620, arid that 
Richard, tiie fourth son, was admitted 
on Jan. 28, 1631. Richard, according to- 
Foss's ' Judges of England,' became Recorder 
of Chichester at the Restoration, was M.P. 
'or the city in 1685, and appointed Cursitor 
Baron of the Exchequer on March 17^ 
1683. He was succeeded in the Recorder- 
ship by his nephew (grand - nephew ?) y 
another Thomas May. The statement in 

he pedigrees that this Thomas May became 
a Baron of the Exchequer seems to b& 

rroneous. The pedigree also adds that 
this Thomas May died in 1718. 

Thomas May of Rawmere was returned 
M.P. for Chichester on Jan. 9, 1688/9, and 
again on Feb. 24, 1689/90. He was knighted 
on March 9, 1697, and again returned for 
Chichester on Jan. 7, 1700/1. He seems to 
have been the son of the second John May 
of Rawmere, who died in 1677, and he left 

12 S. I. JAN. 8, 1916.] 



as his only child Henry May, who died with- 
out issue according to the pedigree. Accord- 
ing to Dallaway, Thos. May, Alderman of 
Chichester, was one of those removed by 
James II. on Feb. 17, 1688 (vol. i. p. 159); 
and the same authority states on p. 113 that 
" about the year 1765 this estate [of Raw- 
mere] had devolved to Thomas May, Knight, 
Esq., by whom it was sold to Charles, Duke 
of Richmond." The house was then pulled 

Was the Thomas May, M.P. in 1689 and in 
1690, the same person as the Sir Thomas 
May, M.P. in 1701 ? Can any one give 
further particulars of him ? I believe him 
to have been the author of several important 
tracts. J. B. WILLIAMS. 

MASTER. His name appears in Sir Edward 
Waldegrave's ' Account of the Burial of 
King Edward VI.,' printed in Archceologia, 
xii. 334-96. I should be glad to obtain any 
information about him. G. F. R. B. 

I am unable to find this in the National 
Library Catalogue. Capt. Douglas in 
his Cruikshank Catalogue says it was 
published by T. Hughes in 1814. He puts 
the value of a perfect copy at 100Z. 

Nor can I find, either in Douglas's catalogue 
or in the National Library, ' The Meteor, 
or General Censor,' in 2 vols., London, 
Longman, 1816. This, I believe, has a 
frontispiece of E. Kean as Richard III., 
signed G. Ck. 

Neither is in the London Catalogue. 


Where was he born ? Can the question of 
Welsh extraction be substantiated with 
some particulars ? ANEURIN WILLIAMS. 

AUTHORS WANTED. Who is the author of 
the stanzas entitled ' Good-bye,' the first of 
which runs : 

We say it for an hour, or for years ; 
We say it smiling, say it choked with tears ; 
We say it coldly, say it -with a kiss, 
And yet we have no other word than this 


A. J. B. 

Can any one tell me who said : 

Spring in the North is a child that wakes from 

dreams of death ; 
Spring in the South is a child that wakes from 

dreams of love. 

G. J. 

VILLAGE POUNDS. I am collecting infor 
mation about Pounds which still exist, or 
which have fallen into decay or have dis- 
appeared within recent memory, and shall 
be greatly obliged to any one who can tell 
me of examples, with particulars as to shape, 
materials of construction, state of repair, 
use, &c., in the following counties: Bed- 
fordshire, Buckinghamshire, Cambridgeshire, 
Cheshire, Cornwall, Derbyshire, Gloucester- 
shire, Hampshire, Herefordshire, Monmouth- 
shire, Norfolk, Northampton, Shropshire, 
Suffolk, Westmorland. Will correspondents 
kindly write to me direct ? 


97 Buckingham Road, Brighton. 

OIL-PAINTING. Can any reader recom- 
mend to me a practical work on painting in 
oils to serve as a guide to a beginner ? I 
have done a good deal of painting in water- 
colour without the aid of a teacher. 

T. N. G. 

ARCHER : BOWMAN. These two surnames 
widely dispersed are not, so far as I can 
find, placed chronolog(ically or locally by 
any writer on " names and places." By the 
middle of the thirteenth century the two 
words were indifferently applied to such 
soldiers (cf. Robert of Gloucester, 1269), but 
presumably one must have had the start, 
just as the Anglo-Frisian preceded the Anglo- 
Norman dialect and vocabulary. What 
would be more interesting would be to 
ascertain whether the adoption of one or 
the other as a family surname was or was 
not practically simultaneous, and whether 
the choice was decided by local influence 
and surroundings. L. G. R. 

PARISH REGISTERS. Can any reader of 
' N. & Q.' say whether any society has 
undertaken to index the Parish Registers of 
Oxfordshire, Cambridgeshire, or the town 
of Eton ? What dates do these embrace ? 
To whom should one apply for publications ? 

Castle Eden, co. Durham. 

' L'ESPION ANGLOIS.' Who was the 
author of ' L'Espion Anglois, ou correspon- 
dance secrete entre Milord All Eye et 
Milord All Ear,' London, John Adamson, 
1779 ? There is a long description of the 
work in ' Bibliographic des ouvrages relatifs 
a L' Amour, aux Femmes, au Mar. age,' pub- 
lished by Gay and Quaritch, v. 278, but 
the author's name is not given. MR. RICHARD 
EDGCUMBE (at 8 S. xi. 243) says that Ange 
Goudar, the friend of Casanova, was the 



[12 S. I. JAN. 8, 1916. 

author of * L'Espion Frangais a Londres,' 
published in 1779. M. Charles Samaran, 
however, in his recently published ' Jacques 
Casanova, Venitien,' p. 94, gives the title 
of Goudar's book as ' L'Espion chinois.' 
Had Goudar anything to do with 'L'Espion 
Anglois,' published by John Adamson ? 


reader supply a list of regimental nicknames 
in actual current use ? The variations in the 
books of reference make it clear that many 
of the nicknames are quite unknown to-day, 
and so they differ according to the his- 
torical equipment of the compilers. Thus : 
1st Life Guards. 

"The Cheeses," " The Piccadilly Butchers," 
" Tin Bellies," and " The Patent Safeties " 
(Farmer's ' Regimental Records,' 1901). 

" The Cheeses," " The Tin Bellies " 
(Charles White's ' Our Regiments,' 1915). 

"The Lumpers," " Tinbellies " (Hon. 
John Fortescue in The Times, Nov. 3, 1915). 

There must be some sort of standard nick- 
name among soldiers. 

A Highland Light Infantryman told me 
the other day that the Gordons are called 
"The Paper Highlanders," apropos of the 
war correspondents' "boom" of them at 
Dargai. Is this generally used of the 
Gordons ? J. M. BULLOCH. 

NODDING MANDARINS. Is there any con- 
nexion between the nodding of little figures 
supposed to represent mandarins, and any 
action of the real mandarins ? E. L. 

xii. 430.) In the year 1806 I find serving 
as lieutenant on board the gun-brig Boxer 
Sir George Mouat Keith, Bart. Can any 
of your readers say to what family he 
belonged, as I do not find his name in the 
' Baronetage ' ? A. H. MACLEAN. 

14 Dean Road, Willosden Green, N.W. 

formation as to the parentage and marriage 
of John Whitfield, the comic actor. He 
died in London, 1814, and is known to have 
had a sister Margaret who married one 
William Green. William Whitfield, son of 
the actor, had an uncle, Thomas Lane, who 
devised lands in Romney Marsh, in the parish 
of Brookland, Kent. William Fynmore of 
Craven Street, Strand, was an executor to 
the above Thomas Lane. 


11 Brussels Road, New Wandswcrth. S.W. 


In a village in Northants there is a feeling 
that a dead body must always be taken to 
the church and pass through it for burial ; 
it is immaterial whether it passes north to 
south, or south to north. Can anybody sug- 
gest the reason for this feeling ? 



ANN COOK. I should be most grateful to 
any reader who could spare a few minutes 
to help me in the following matter. Owing 
to the frightfulness of war, I have now 
access to no library. 

On Feb. 5, 1821, died Mary Ann, dau. of 
Joshua and Ann Cook, and was buried at 
Framlingham. A memoir of her life ap- 
peared in The Methodist Magazine for that 
month, I believe. I should like a note of 
this memoir, with the exact date of publica- 
tion of the magazine, and any other in- 
formation as to Miss Cook that can easily be 

GLACE KID GLOVES. When were these 
first introduced ? The earliest authoritative 
reference to them I know of is in the Dic- 
tionary of Furetiere, 1690, s.v. " glace " 
where the definition unequivocally points to 
an article analogous to, if not positively 
identical with, the modern thing. 



(11 S. xii. 462, 508; 12 S. i. 11.) 

THE Society for Constitutional Information 
descended from the Bill of Rights Society, 
which was founded in 1769 by John Home 
afterwards Horne-Tooke John Wilkes, Ser- 
jeant Glynn, and others, to urge reforms 
based upon the principles legalized in the 
Bill of Rights. Its meeting-place was the 
London Tavern, and among the reforms it 
advocated were annual Parliaments, the 
exaction of oaths against bribery, and the ex- 
clusion of pensioners and place-holders from 
Parliament. The Revolution of 1688 had 
established parliamentary government, and 
safeguarded the law against the sovereign. 
In other words, it had established a limited 
monarchy, with Parliament controlling the 
Crown, on a sound basis. Parliamentary 
representation, however, was far from 

12 S. I. JAN. 8, 1916.] 



satisfactory, and control by patronage was 
increasing. The lack of homogeneous leader- 
ship threatened the effective force of Parlia- 
ment in the chaos of ministries, whilst 
George III. allowed no opportunity of re- 

faining control for the Crown to escape him. 
t was natural, then, that advanced poli- 
ticians, recalling the advantages gained by 
the great Whig revolution of 1688, should 
organize to debate methods of frustrating the 
growing power of the Crown. 

The Bill of Rights Society undertook to 
raise funds to pay Wilkes's debts, and when 
Home applied for assistance on behalf of a 
printer named Bingley, who was in prison 
on account of his connexion with reprinting 
The North Briton, the maj ority of the members 
declined to accede to any request until 
Wilkes's obligations were fully met. At a 
meeting held April 9, 1771, Home said that 
" the society had become nothing more than 
-a scene of personal quarrel ; the public 
interests were absorbed in the petty faction 
of one individual ; that regularity, decency, 
order, and concord were banished together." 
He therefore moved : " That the society 
should be dissolved." As this motion was 
not carried the minority adjourned to an- 
other room, where they formed a new body 
known as the " Constitutional Society." 
This society gained notoriety during the 
American War. On June 7, 1775, some of 
the members passed a resolution which was 
published in the newspapers, and which 
resulted in Home being fined 200Z. with im- 
prisonment for one year, and in the printers 
of the newspapers being fined for libel. It 
directed that a subscription should be raised 
on behalf of " our beloved American fellow- 
subjects " who had " preferred death to 
slavery," and " were for that reason only 
inhumanly murdered by the king's troops " 
at the Lexington skirmish, April 19, 1775. 

This society evidently expired with the 
incarceration of its leader, but the Society for 
Constitutional Information was formed to 
take its place in 1780. Its objects were the 
instruction of the people in their political 
rights and the advocacy of parliamentary 
reform. The Duke of Richmond, Pitt, Fox, 
Sheridan, and Capell Lofft were among its 
-early members. They, however, soon de- 
tached themselves, but Horne-Tooke, Major 
Cartwright, Mr. Wyvill, and others con- 
tinued to support it in its demand for 
universal suffrage. It held an annual 
dinner on Dec. 16, that being the date when 
the Bill of Rights passed into law. It 
continued for about fifteen years, and took 
an active part in corresponding with the 

Jacobin societies in France during the 
Revolution. Together with the Revolution 
Society (1788-91), it was attacked by 
Burke in his ' Reflections on the Revolution 
in France.' Many of the most active mem- 
bers of one" society were also attached to the 
other, notably Samuel Fa veil, who joined the 
Society for Constitutional Information soon 
after Sir William Jones became a member of 
it, and was one of the most active supporters 
of the Revolution Society during the whole 
of its existence. Another and more violent 
society, the Corresponding Society, was 
formed to link up these societies with 
similar societies in the provinces and with 
the revolutionary societies in France. There 
is much information on the activities of these 
societies in The Annual Register for the years 
1792-4, whilst the activities of the 
provincial Constitutional Societies are fully 
discussed in John Waddington's ' Congre- 
gational History, 1700-1800,' London, 1876. 

38, King's Road, Willesden Green, N.W. 

MR. HORACE BLEACKLEY can obtain, the 
facts concerning this society and the Radical 
activities of the time in : 

G. S. Veitch, ' The Genesis of Parliamentary 
Reform.' An excellent record of the events of the 

H. N. Brailsfprd, ' Shelley, Godwin, and their 
Circle.' A spirited monograph in " The Home 
University Library." 

C. B. R. Kent, * The English Radicals.' A 
general survey which touches the activities of these 

Walter Phelps Hall, ' British Radicalism,' 1791- 
1797. A Columbia University thesis which gives 
a synthesis of the Radical thought of the time. 

W. T. Laprade, ' England and the French 
Revolution.' A thesis from Johns Hopkins 

' Trial of John Home Tooke.' To be found in 
Howell's ' State Trials ' and in several contem- 
porary shorthand accounts published in book-form. 
Records of the chairmen and members present at 
the meeting were brought into court. Also other 
trials, of Hardy, Thelwall, Sinclair, Margaret, &c. 

Blackwood's Magazine for July and August, 
1833, gives an original and unpleasant inter- 
pretation of Tooke 's connexion with the Society. 

In addition there is some slight evidence 
in the ' Narrative of Facts relating to the 
Late Trials,' by Thomas Holcroft (1795); in 
the ' Memoirs of Thomas Hardy,' written by 
himself (1833); in a very valuable collection 
of MSS. in the British Museum relating to 
the London Corresponding Society (Add. 
2781 ff.); and in the records in the Office 
of the Privy Council for 1794, particularly 
May and June (33 Geo. III., 77 ff.). 


11 Torrington Square, W.C. 



[12 S. I. JAN. 8, 1916. 

ANASTATIC PRINTING (11 S. xii. 359, 403, 
443 ; 12 S. i. 13). Having acquired nearly 
all of the volumes issued by two societies 
formed for issuing drawings by this process, 
and from inquiry finding that these publica- 
tions are not generally known, I think the 
following particulars may be worth record- 
ing. The prospectus of the Anastatic 
Drawing Society is dated April 13, 1855, and 
signed by the Rev. John M. Gresley, Over 
Seile, Ashby-de-la-Zouch, who was the 
originator and hon. secretary of the society. 
The subscription was half-a-guinea, and 
each member contributing drawings was 
entitled to ten extra impressions of each of 
these, the size of which was limited to 
7 in. by 9| in. The first volume (for 1855) 
was issued early in 1856. The members 
then numbered 145, but by the next year 
they had increased to 267. There are 
66 plates in this volume, of which 20 copies 
in folio (issued at a guinea) and 140 in 
quarto were printed by Messrs. W. & J. 
Hextall, Ashby-de-la-Zouch. A volume was 
issued each year until 1862, but the one for 
1863 was not published until 1866, there 
having been some delay in the completion of 
the plates. The preface is dated 1863, and 
to this a note Xov., 1866 is added stating 
that in consequence of the death of Mr. 
Gresley the series of drawings had come to 
an end. The complete series of this society 
thus comprises nine volumes, which contain 
563 plates. The first four were printed by 
Hextall, and the remainder by his successor 
in business, John Barker. 

In 1859 the Ham (Staffs) Anastatic Draw- 
ing Society was formed by the Rev. G. R. 
Mackarness, himself an original member of 
the earlier society. Under his direction nine 
volumes were issued, the one for 1868 
(published 1869) being the last. He was 
succeeded as secretary by the Rev. W. F. 
Francis, who was responsible for the volumes 
issued from 1870 until 1873. From the 
references in later volumes, and the number- 
ing, it appears that nothing was published in 
1874 or 1875, when the editorship passed into 
the hands of Llewellynn Jewitt. The volume 
for 1873 is numbered xiii. ; those for 1876 
and 1877 are not numbered, but 1878 is 
vol. xvi. In 1876 the word " Ham " is 
omitted from the title-page. In the preface 
to this volume Mr. Jewitt writes as if the 
original Anastatic had been amalgamated 
with the Ham Society, but this, it is evident, 
'was not the case. The lists of members of 
the latter are, with the exception of a few 
names, entirely different from those of Mr. 
Gresley 's society, and the number very much 

smaller. Mr. Jewitt edited annual volumes 
until 1883, but the next did not appear until 
1887. This included drawings for the years 
1884, 1885, and 1886, and was prepared 
partly by him, but, owing to his death in 
June, 1886, was completed by William 
George Fretton, who also edited vol. xxiii.,, 
for the years 1887, 1888, and 1889. This is 
the latest volume I have seen, and I shall be 
glad to hear of any others. The members 
of this society numbered 137 in 1887. The^ 
volumes from 1864 (the earliest I have) until 
1868 were printed by M. Hoon of Ashbourne, 
and after this at Cowell's Press, Ipswich. 

The drawings in these two series illustrate 
a very wide range of subjects, and include 
antiquities of every description. The execu- 
tion varies as to merit, but many of the 
plates are exceedingly well drawn. 

A report of Faraday's lecture on the 
process was published in The Polytechnic 
Review for May, 1845, and reprinted later in 
The Medical Times. Poole gives references 
to papers in The Southern Literary Messenger , 
xi. 383, and Littell's Living Age, v. 56, 534 
(in addition to that given by MB. HUM- 

The earliest reference given in the ' Oxford 
Dictionary ' is 1849, a paper on the process 
having been read by H. E. Strickland at the 
meeting of the British Association in 1848. 
The title only is given in the Report dated 
1849. It will be seen from MR. HUMPHREYS'S 
reply that the word is of older date. 



ENEMIES or BOOKS (11 S. xii. 480). Poor 
torn-tit has again as on so many occasions 
in garden and orchard been wrongfully 

The tit is essentially practical and utili- 
tarian. He is too intent on getting his 
living (insect life, sometimes garnished with 
the additional luxury of fat or cocoa-nut when 
obtainable) to risk his life and liberty in 
invading libraries to peck the " calf bind- 
ings." The appearance of the tits' " mis- 
chievous activities " means an insect pest, 
I recommend your correspondent and the 
Chapter Librarian to examine the books and 
wallpaper with a powerful glass. They will 
at once understand the presence of the tits. 

I am no entomologist, and cannot name 
the insect the bird is waging war upon, but 
I have had the displeasure of making both 
his acquaintance and that of the little wood- 
boring beetle and so-called bookworm, and 
have successfully eradicated them. The 
insect now under trial appears to feed on the 

12 S. 1. JAN. 8, 1916.] 



starch used as an adhesive ; apparently he 
does not intentionally touch the leather ; 
but the tit, when snapping up the dainty 
morsels, occasionally pulls off a dry speck of 
leather ; hence his share in the damage. 

Drastic measures should at once be taken 
to ensure complete removal, or the pest will 
spread all over the premises. Powerful 
sulphur fumigation, followed by the stripping 
of the w T alls, should be thoroughly under- 
taken. After stripping off the paper, it 
should be burnt in the room, to avoid trans- 
ference of any insects elsewhere ; and the 
walls should be washed in a strong solution 
of Jeyes's Cyllin. Repapering should not be 
proceeded with for at least a fortnight, 
during which time fumigation should be 
repeated as many times as a thorough 
searching shows it to be necessary. All 
bookshelves should be washed in the same 
solution, and all books, as far as possible, 
should be opened somewhat and left standing 
upon their edges in order that the sulphur 
fumes may have full access. 

I found that the insects actually burrowed 
into the wall-plaster in pursuit of the paste 
that had soaked in ; hence the necessity of 
thorough disinfection. E. W. 


' LOATH TO DEPART ' (11 S. xii. 460 : 12 S. 
i. 14). This was originally, no doubt, a 
special song or tune, but gradually it became 
a common term for any song or tune played 
on taking leave of friends. 

Some of our regiments when ordered on 
foreign service play ' The Girl I' ve left 
behind Me.' This is their ' Loath to 

Chappell gives a lute tune with this title, 
and quotes Teonge, and also gives quotations 
from Tarleton, Beaumont and Fletcher, &c. 

Edward Jones in his ' Relics of the Welsh 
Bards ' gives an old tune of a melancholy 
character which he calls ' Anhawydd 
Ymadael Loath to Depart.' I think I have 
also met with an Irish tune with this title. 

Teonge's ' Diary' is a very interesting book. 
It contains an early mention of cricket and 
muted or flatted trumpets; and his list of 
ships is useful for comparison with that 
given by Pepys. JOSEPH C. BRIDGE. 

462). These have not been published as a 
whole, but extracts have been given in 
several works. MR. KENNY should read 
' Chester during the Plantagenet and Tudor 
Periods,' by the Rev. Canon Morris, as it 
contains valuable extracts from our city 
archives. Apply for a copy to Griffith & Co., 

printers, Grosvenor Street, Chester ; or look 
out for a second-hand copy, which costs 
about ten shillings. 

Then the Historical MSS. Commission 
Report on Chester should be studied. Dr. 
Furnivall also published some of the letters,, 
but I cannot call to mind the exact publica- 

If MR. KENNY will write me direct, I shall 
be pleased to help him in any way I can. 

CAROL WANTED (11 S. xii. 461, 508). I 
have a small pamphlet entitled ' Nine Antient 
and Goodly Carols for the Merry Tide of 
Christmass,' by Edmund Sedding, published 
by Novello & Co., 1864. 

One of these nine carols is evidently the- 
one your correspondent is looking for. I 
send a copy of the seven verses. The first 
verse is almost exactly as quoted bjr 
M. G. W. P. 

1. All you that are to mirth inclined, 
Consider well and bear in mind 
What our good God for us has done 

In sending His beloved son. 


For to redeem our souls from thrall 
He is the Saviour of us all. 

2. The night before that happy tide, 
The spotless Virgin and her guide 
Went long time seeking up and dowit 
To find them lodging in the town. 

3. That night the Virgin Mary mild 
Was safe delivered of a Child, 
According unto Heaven's decree 
Man's sweet salvation for to be. 

4. With thankful hearts and joyful mind 
Three shepherds went this Babe to find,. 
And as the Heavenly Angel told, 
They did our Saviour Christ behold. 

5. Within a manger was He laid ; 
The Virgin Mary by Him stay'd, 
Attending on the Lord of Life, 
Being both Mother, Maid, and Wife. 

6. Three Eastern Wise Men from afar, 
Directed by a glorious star, 

Came boldly on, and made no stay 
Until they came where Jesus lay. 

7. And being come unto the place 
Wherein the blest Messiah was, 
They humbly laid before His feet 
Their gifts of gold and odours sweet. 

Mr. Edmund Sedding, who was well known 
as an architect as well as a musician, in his 
preface states that the words of this carol 
are given in the ' Garland of Goodwill,' and 
that it is therein called 'The Sinner's, 


[12 S. I. JAN. 8, 1916. 

Redemption.' This was a publication by 
Thomas Deloney, the first edition appar- 
ently being in 1596. Lowndes describes the 
book as a collection of local tales and his- 
torical ditties in verse, which has run through 
numerous editions, and was till very lately 
printed as a chapbook. 

Mr. Sedding appears to have brought out 
several sets of carols recovered from ancient 
times during the years 1862, 1863, and 1864. 


Elmhurst, Oxton, Birkenhead. 

KENNETT, M.P. (US. xii. 481). In the 
Blue-book of Members of Parliament, part i. 
12131702, the name Kennett does not 
appear in the index. This does not prove 
the negative, as the early returns are not 
always complete. 

In the Parliament of 1383 Johannes Kent, 
mercer, was one of the two members for 
Reading. The name occurs again, without 
description, in that of 1389/90, and again in 
that of 1403. 

Later, Reading had, as one of its two 
members, Simon Kent in the three Parlia- 
ments of 1446/7, 1448/9, 1449. In the last 
he is described as mercer, and his colleague 
Thomas Clerk as draper. 


xii. 139, 188, 324, 383, 430, 449). The late 
George Augustus Sala, in his ' Echoes of the 
Year Eighteen Hundred and Eighty-Three,' 
published in 1884, p. 48, says : 

" The legacy was not paid until the establish- 
ment of the Second Empire, when ' the sub- 
officer, Cantillon,' was found keeping (I believe) 
a chandler's shop at Brussels." 


HOUSE (US. xii. 500). It is a pleasure to be 
able to supplement MR. REGINALD JACOBS' s 
interesting note, and assure lovers of old 
London that the demolition of this house has 
been postponed, and there is every proba- 
bility of its being preserved and continued 
in its present uses for many years. It is 
doubtful if any of the coffee-houses of 
'Change Alley can claim association with the 
early seventeenth century ; Garraway's 
probably dates from the Restoration, 
but to Baker's there is no reference earlier 
than the advertisement cited by MR. 
JACOBS. See ' The Grasshopper in Lombard 
Street,' by J. Biddulph Martin, 1892, p. 

THE OBSERVANT BABE (US. xii. 439, 505). 
W. W. Rouse Ball in his ' Primer of the 
History of Mathematics ' records of the 
well-known mathematician Poisson (1781- 
1840) : 

" His father had been a common soldier. . . .The 
boy was pat out to nurse, and he used to tell 
how one day his father, coming to see him, found 
that the nurse had gone out on pleasure bent, 
while she had left him suspended by a small 
cord to a nail fixed in the wall. This, she ex- 
plained, was a necessary precaution to prevent 
him from perishing under the teeth of the various 
animals and insects that roamed on the floor. 
Poisson used to add that his gymnastic efforts 
carried him incessantly from one side to the other, 
and it was thus in his tenderest infancy that he 
commenced those studies on the pendulum that 
were to occupy so large a part of his mature age." 

This may be of some interest to your 
readers. F. M. R. 

361, 402, 469). The letter of MR. GEO. 
W. G. BARNARD of Norwich (11 S. xii. 469) 
is one of the most interesting of the series 
on this subject. It not only reveals the 
fact that there are memorial rings to 
Admiral Lord Nelson in existence other than 
those provided for his funeral, but also shows 
that these have receptacles for his hair. 
The sixty memorial rings made by John 
Salter for the executors are black enamel 
with gilt letters side by side. MR. BARNARD 
describes his ring as oval, 

" with the letters N. B., above which is a 
viscount's coronet with the cap, and below a ducal 
coronet without the cap, all in blue enamel." 

He adds that there is no inscription nor 
hall-mark, and (apparently) there is no hair 
in the " locket " at the back of the oval. 
In the list that MR. PAGE gives of rings lent to 
the Royal Naval Exhibition at Chelsea in 
1891 there are no fewer than three with 
hair one with an inscription, lent by 
Messrs. Lambert & Co., and another by Miss 
A. J. Grindall. The question therefore is, 
For whom and by whom were the memorial 
rings with hair made, and are they all 
similar ? It is well known that Sir Thomas 
Hardy cut off and brought to England the 
Admiral's hair, and that it was somewhat 
lavishly distributed by Lady Hamilton. 
But did she cause it to be put into rings for 
presentation, or did the recipients of the 
relics themselves have the rings made ? Un- 
fortunately John Salter' s successors in the 
Strand cannot answer the former question, 
for they say that the present firm (Messrs. 
Widdows & Veal) do not possess Salter' s 
books of that period ; but they state that, 
they have themselves repaired Salter's 

12 S. I. JAN. 8, 1916.1 



original memorial rings, and have made 
copies to replace lost ones. There exists a 
bill of " John Salter to Lady Hamilton, from 
Jan., 1800, to 1803," and among the " items " 
are many presents ; so that if she gave 
n-emorial rings after 1306 she probably em- 
ployed his firm to make them. After her 
death in 1813 " the effects of Lady Hamilton, 
deceased," were advertised to be sold by 
auction by Messrs. Abbott at the instigation 
of a Mr. McGorman and other creditors, and 
Salter was instructed to safeguard " Miss 
Nelson's " interests by inspecting the cata- 
logue before the sale to ascertain if any of 
the articles belonged to her. His bill " for 
examining the inventory, and for making 
three fair copies thereof, and for giving 
notice to Abbott," &c., amounted to 
31. 5s. Wd. In vol. vii. p. 389 of Sir Harris 
Nicolas' s ' Nelson's Dispatches ' is the 
account of Lord Nelson's visit to the shop 
of John Salter very early in the morning 
af Aug. 30, 1805, together with a copy of a 
paper " in the possession of Mrs. Salter " 
relating to the purchases he then made. 

If any reader can give a detailed 
description of the diamond memorial ring, 
with Nelson's hair and inscription at the 
back, lent by Messrs. Lambert & Co. to the 
Chelsea Exhibition, it would be a valuable 
addition to the lore already collected by 

* N. & Q.' on the subject of Nelson memorial 

502). The two lines of verse quoted by 
MR. DODGSON seem to be altered from 
Drayton, ' Polyolbion,' song 12, 11. 548-53, 
and song 26, 11. 187-92. Here are the 
lines from song 12 : 

A more than usual power did in that name consist, 
Which thirty doth import ; by which she thus 


There should be found in her ; of fishes thirty kind ; 
And thirty abbeys great, in places fat and rank, 
Should in succeeding time be builded on her bank ; 
And thirty several streams from many a sundry 

Unto her greatness should their wat'ry tribute pay. 

The note to " Trent " by the Rev. R. Hooper 
in his edition of 1876 is to the effect that the 
word means " thirty." S. L. PETTY. 

It is the merit of Dr. Henry Bradley to 
have first discovered the ancient name of 
the River Trent, " Trisantona," by his 
ingenious emendation of Tacitus's * Annal.,' 
xii. 31, and, simultaneously, to have identi- 
fied with it the River Transhannonus, 
Trahannonus, or Trannonus of Nennius's 

* Historia [Britonum ' (cf . his two letters to 

The Academy, vol. xxiii., of April 28 and 
May 19, 1883). 

As to the original sense of this river-name, 
a foot-note may deserve to be quoted which 
occurs in Jos. Stevenson's edition of ' Nennii 
Historia Britonum ' (Lond., 1838), on p. 56, 
viz., that its (Cymric or Ancient Welsh) 
equivalent appears to have been the " Traeth 
Annwn," i.e., the Tract or Shore of the deep 
(sea) or region of the British Neptune. 

Nennius describes the estuary of the 
Trent among the topographical wonders of 
Britain : " Ostium Trans Hannoni fluminis, 
quia in una unda instar montis ad sissam 
tegit littora, et recedit, ut cetera maiia " 
(Z.c.), thus alluding to the famous " Eagre, 
or tide-waves of its mouth, reaching as far 
back as Gainsborough " on its shore. 


The lines quoted form the concluding 
couplet of stanza xxxv. of Canto XI. in the 
Fourth Book of Spenser's ' The Faerie 
Queene.' If the English river is derived 
from the French trente, surely it must be 
unique among river-names ; for such, as a 
rule, seem to be connected with the earliest 
settlers in a country in ours being derived 
from Keltic, Cymric, or Gaelic roots. 

Can it be related to the verb " trend," in 
the sense of bending in some direction ? 


Viator asked this question in the second 
chapter of the second part of ' The Compleat 
Angler,' but Piscator was unable to answer 
it ; and Mr. Johnstone in his recently pub- 
lished book on ' The Place-Names of England 
and Wales ' confesses that the origin of the 
name " seems unknow r n." G. F. R. B. 

xii. 502). It is hardly correct to say that 
Lee, " according to Lord Rochester, was 
'well lasht' by the headmaster Busby." 
The lines to which reference is made, and 
which occur in Rochester's ' Horace's Tenth 
Satire of the First Book Imitated,' bear, as 
will be seen, a rather different signification. 
I quote from the Rochester of 1739' The 
Works of the Earls of Rochester, Roscomon, 
and Dorset. . . .,' 2 vols. : 
When Lee makes temperate Scipio fret and rave, 
And Hannibal a whining am'rous Slave, 
I laugh, and wish the hot-brain'd Fustian Fool 
In Busby's Hands, to be well lash'd at School. 
Scipio and Hannibal are important char- 
acters in Lee's ' Sophonisba ; or, Hannibal's 
Overthrow ' (4to, 1676), a vehement riming 
tragedy produced with great success by the 
King's Company. This passionate drama 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. i. JAN. s. me. 

owes more of its inspiration to Orrery's 
* Parthenissa ' than to history. Hannibal is 
provided with a mistress named Rosalinda 
(in the romance Izadora), a Roman lady, 
for whom he languishes in true heroic style. 
Mohun was the original Hannibal ; Kynas- 
ton, Scipio ; Mrs. Boutell, Rosalinda. 


THUNDER FAMILY (US. xii. 501). It may 

interest your correspondent to know that 

there is (or was) a Madam Thunder, head of 

the Convent of the Sacred Heart at Aberdeen. 


MONERS (11 S. xii. 501). Jean Drummond, 
widow of James, second Duke of Atholl 
(d. 1764), married (1767) Lord Adam Gordon, 
and died s.p. 1795. 

The Hon. Caroline Agnes Beresford, 
widow of James, fourth Duke of Montrose 
(d. 1874), married (1876) William Stuart 
Stirling Crawfurd of Milton (d. 1883), and 
(1888) Marcus Henry Milner, D.S.O. She 
raced as " Mr. Manton," and died in 1891. 

Lady Emily Montagu, widow of William, 
twelfth Duke of Hamilton (d. 1895), married 
(1897) Robert Carnaby Forster. 


123 Pall Mall, S.W. 

' COMIC ARUNDINES CAMI ' (11 S. xii. 502). 
I recollect that when I was a " lower boy " 
at Eton in 1859 the following lines were 
constantly being quoted by small Etonians: 
Patres conscript! took a boat and went to Philippi. 
Omnes drownderunt qui swimmere nonpotuerunt 
Excipe John Periwig tied on to the tail of a dead 

Trumpeter tinus erat qui scarletum coatum 


I cannot remember the rest, but I never saw 
any book in which these lines occur, and I 
was always under the impression that they 
were schoolboy doggerel. I am very much 
interested to hear that they are from a 
book, and not handed down by tradition. 


I do not remember the title ' Comic 
Arundines Cami.' I have seen the lines 
quoted : 

Omnes drownderunt, &c. 

in a ' Comic Latin Grammar,' which was 
published about 1840. 

When I was at Oxford, 1853-7, I met 
with ' The Art of Pluck,' written, I believe, 
by Edward Caswall, of Brasenose. It con- 
tained a mock examination paper, in which 
were similar dog-Latin lines set to be trans- 
lated and explained. I once saw the poem 

but I cannot remember the title from which 
they were taken. It was attributed to the 
Rev. T. Jackson, of St. Mary Hall, afterwards 
Rector of Stoke Newington and Prebendary 
of St. Paul's. I think that information 
may be got from some Oxford bookseller, 
e.g., the successor of Shrimpton in Broad 
Street. I should be very glad to hear news 
of this poem, and also of ' Uniomachia.' 
This latter describes a contest for the 
Presidency of the Union. It is written in 
Homeric Greek, with a Latin version and 
notes. I believe it was composed by 
Robert Scott, afterwards Master of BallioL 

(Rev.) S. GOLDNEY, M.A. 
Pembroke College. 

The book concerning which your corre- 
spondent DE MINIMIS inquires is ' The Comic 
Latin Grammar,' published, I think, in .1841, 
and illustrated by John Leech. I have a 
copy in my possession, but, being aw r ay from 
home, cannot refer to it at the moment. 

The lines from which he quotes an excerpt 
run as follows : 

Patres conscripti took a boat and went to Philippi ; 
Trumpeter unus erat, qui coatum scarlet habebat. 
Stormum surgebat, et boatum oversetebat ; 
Omnes drownerunt, quia swimaway non potuerunt ; 
Excipe John Periwig, tied up to the tail of a dead 


[T. F. D. and the REV. R. P. HOOPER who- 
mentions that Tilt & Co. were the publishers of 
'The Comic Latin Grammar' also thanked for 

RESERVE FORCES (11 S. xii. 502). (1) Uni- 
versity undergraduates are, of course, allowed 
to hold commissions in the Special Reserve. 
When I was in residence at Oxford many 
undergraduates did so. 

The conditions are, in brief : 

(i.) A candidate must be medically 
examined and must produce two certificates 
of character, one of w T hich must be from the 
head of the school or college most recently 
attended by the applicant. 

(ii.) If the candidate obtains a commission 
as second lieutenant, he is " on probation '* 
for six months, which period must be spent 
with the regular home battalion of the corps 
he joins. If he is in possession of " Certi- 
ficate A " this period is reduced to five 
months, and if he holds " Certificate B " he 
is only required to be attached for three 
months. In the case of a candidate on the 
six months' course of training this may be 
split up into two periods. 

128. I. JAN. 8, 1916.] 



(iii.) If the newly commissioned subaltern 
is not desirous of proceeding later into the 
line he is granted an outfit allowance of 
40/., otherwise he cannot claim it. 

(iv. ) At the end of his course he must pass 
an examination for confirmation of his rank 
and for subsequent promotion to lieutenant. 
If he fails he is required to remain attached, 
unpaid, until he passes. 

As regards (2) and (3) I know nothing of 
the late Militia. 

A booklet dealing with the method of 
obtaining a commission in the Special Reserve 
can be obtained on application to the 
Director of Military Training, War Office. 

The ' Regulations for the Special Reserve 
of Officers and for the Special Reserve ' cover 
the whole ground in detail. 

JOHN C. GOODWIN, Captain, 
3rd Batt. the King's Own Regt., 

(Special Reserve). 

WAR AND MONEY (US. xii. 400, 487). 
The reference given by Buechniann is 
Lodovico Guicciardini's ' L'Hore di Re- 
creatione ' (Venice, 1607), fol. 197. The 
first edition was published in 1565. 

L. L. K. 

xii. 361, 410, 429, 450, 470, 489, 507). As for 
the tree of Eden, it was always thought in 
France to have been an apple tree. See 
Littre, 'Pomme et Pommier,' with many 
quotations, one of which is early fourteenth 
century : " La fame .... Fist Adam no pere 
premier, Mordre la pomme du pommier" 
(J. de Conde, iii. 268). 

But as concerning the Cross the same 
tradition seems there to have long ago 
disappeared, as it did in England. I am 
rather pleased that ST. SWITHIN had never 
heard of it ; nor had I before reading the 
Enigmas of Aldhelm. 

Unfortunately, the one on this subject 
was not quoted by me (xii. 450) in its en- 
tirety ; the title alone, by itself, is quite 
clear : ' De malo arbore vel melario,' the 
latter undoubtedly for melapio, a Latinized 
Greek word, meaning a kind of a pear- 
apple-tree, which is to be found in Pliny. 
Fausta fuit prima mundi nascentis origo, 
Donee prostratus succumberet arte Maligni ; 
Ex me tune priscae processit causa ruinfip, 
Dulcia quae rudibus tradebam mala colonis. 
En iterum mundo testor remeasse salutem, 
Stipite de patulo dum penderet Arbiter orbis, 
Et pcenas lueret Soboles veneranda Tonantis. 

The ' Legende Doree ' adds that Adam 
was buried at the very place where the Cross 
was planted ; and I therefore consider that 

the skull which appears under it in some 
ancient windows (for instance, in a charming 
early fourteenth - century quatref oil repre- 
senting the Holy Trinity in Cheriton Church, 
Kent) is meant for his. Later on it was 
intended to signify the victory of Christ 
over death : " Ubi est, mors, victoria tua, 
ubi est stimulus tuus ? " 

The family of elder is not altogether an 
exemplary one ; a certain member of this 
family had formerly an evil reputation. 
This was the dwarf-elder (Lat. Sambucus ebu- 
lus, Anglo-Sax, wcel-wyrt), mentioned in 
leech-books as very dangerous, and, never- 
theless, as a cure for leprosy and contagious 
diseases in another Enigma by Aldhelm ( ' De 

The Bayle, Folkestone. 

xii. 502). This was the pseudonym of Henry 
Robert Lumley. In addition to the books 
mentioned he published the Christmas story 
' Something like a Nugget ' (1868), which was 
issued as a drama in four acts in the same 
year, and went into a second edition ; a play 
entitled ' Savage ' (also in prose, 1869) ; 
' An Ancient Mariner,' a Christmas story 
(1870) ; and ' As You Like It,' a Christmas 
story illustrative of a great sovereign (1874). 
The author's name does not appear in the 
usual sources, and I am unable to find any- 
thing about him. ARCHIBALD SPARKE. 

xii. 502). They were both sons of John 
Sherreii Brewer, a schoolmaster of Norwich, 
E. C. Brewer being the younger of the two. 

G. F. R, B. 

TIGERS' WHISKERS (US. xii. 481). The 
beliefs regarding the whiskers of the tiger 
go back at least to the time of Niccolao 
Manucci, who landed in India in 1656. In 
his ' Storia do Mogor ' (edited by W. 
Irvine, vol. i. p. 192), speaking of the 
Emperor Shahjahan, he writes : 

" In addition to the huntsmen, there is always 
an official present whose business it is to take 
possession of the tiger's whiskers : and therefore, 
as soon as the tiger is dead, they put on his head 
a leather bag, coming down as far as the neck. 
Having tied the bag, the official attaches to it his 
seal. After this the tiger is carried in front of the 
royal tents, when the official appeal's who has 
charge of the poisons, and removes the whiskers, 
which are employed as a venom." 

Bernier (' Travels in the Mogul Empire,' 
Oxford, 1914, p. 379) says that when a lion 
was killed by the king, the length of the 
teeth and claws w r as recorded, " and so 
on down to the minutest details " ; he does 



[12 S. I. JAN. 8, 1916. 

not mention the whiskers. At the present 
day it is generally believed that the whiskers 
of a tiger, when taken with food, are a slow 
and deadly poison. They are also valued 
as an amulet. The whiskers of a tiger or 
leopard, mixed with nail parings, some 
sacred root or grass, and red lead, are hung 
round the throats of young children im- 
mediately after birth to ward off the Evil 
Eye and the attacks of demons. Hence, 
when a tiger is killed, and made over to 
coolies for transport to camp, the head 
shikari carefully counts the hairs of the 
whiskers and the nails of the animal, lest 
they may be appropriated by the bearers. 


PHILIP DODDRIDGE. D.D. (see sub 'John 
Conder, D.D.,' US. xii. 479). Presumably 
the nineteen pages of manuscript bound up 
with John Conder's lectures are notes 
of a lecture delivered by Dr. Doddridge, 
taken by one of his students. I cannot find 
that the doctor published anything relating 
to the ' Characters of English Writers,' but 
he may have lectured on such a subject. 
Many of his students studied shorthand, and 
might easily have transcribed their notes of 
his lectures afterwards. There are in exis- 
tence (at Northampton, I believe) nine 
manuscript octavo volumes of Dr. Dod- 
dridge' s lectures which were transcribed in 
this way by certain of his students. They 
were acquired by my friend the late Mr. 
John Taylor many years ago, and are fully 
described in his " History of Northampton 
Castle Hill Church, now Doddridge, and its 
Pastorate, 1674-1895, from original docu- 
ments and contemporary record s,"&c. (1896). 


Long Itchington, Warwickshire. 

SONG WANTED (11 S. xii. 503). MB. 
COOLIDGE will find the poem in full in the 
' Book of Poetry about Oxford ' (Macmillan, 
I think, red binding : there is a sister 
Cambridge one). I have the reference at 
chambers, and if no one else does will send 
the exact page, &c., later. H. COHEN. 

THE WATER OF THE NILE (1 1 S. xii. 443, 510 ; 
12 S. i. 18). Having lived for many years 
by a great and muddy river the Irrawaddy 
I may record the universal belief, alike of 
Burmese, Indians, and Europeans, that 
water drawn from the centre of the river, 
or any part where the current is swift, is 
perfectly wholesome, no matter how muddy 
it may be. It is stagnant water that is 
dangerous. I was also informed once by a 
medical officer of my acquaintance that no 

bacteria can live in a strong current, and 
that it was known that two miles of strong 
current were fatal to them. This was in 
answer to an official objection of mine to 
placing a cholera camp on an island. 

H. F.-H. 

MUNICIPAL OFFICERS (11 S. xii. 360, 404, 
430, 470, 511). The following paragraph 
from The Public Advertiser of Saturday, 
Jan. 28, 1769, shows that this custom pre- 
vailed in London during the eighteenth 
century : 

" Yesterday a Wardmote was held at St. Bride's 
Church for an election of an Alderman for the 
Ward of Farringdon Without, and there being no 
candidate to oppose John Wilkes, Esq., that 
Gentleman was declared duly elected to the Office." 

Another paragraph from th? same news- 
paper of Tuesday, May 1, 1770, shows that 
the Aldermen of the period made free use of 
the churches : 

" Mr. Alderman Wilkes yesterday held a, 
Wardmote at St. Bride's Church .... received 
with loudest acclamations, and every part of the 
church was crowded with people. Before busi- 
ness began Mr. Wilkes made a short speech of 

thanks to his constituents " 


482 ; 12 S. i. 12). Some records of this 
gentleman can, I believe, be found at the 
Public Record Office. Doubtless he would 
have been a claimant for compensation of 
losses sustained in the American Revolution. 
A complete index of American Loyalists' 
claims is on the shelves, and among the 
names are those of Thomas and William 
Tarpley, Virginia. The memorials to the 
Commissioners appointed for examining into 
the claims of the Loyalists often disclose 
much information. If Dr. Tarpley held a 
commission in the American Loyalist army,, 
records of himself and family might also be 
found. An index of such officers, giving dates 
of births, marriages, &c., might be consulted 
with advantage. A. H. MACLEAN. 

14 Dean Road, Willesden Green, N.W. 

MOIRA COALS (11 S. xii. 482). These were 
probably coals from the Moira Colliery, near 
Ashby-de-la-Zouch, Leicestershire. 

J. T. T. 

503). " Fandles (Spain), m. Sir Edmund 
Mortimer, d. 1303." Probably " Fiennes " 
(not Fandles). See ' Dictionary of Nat. 
Biog.,' xiii. 1031, and ' N. & Q.,' 4 S. vii. 318, 
437-8. V. D. P. 

12 S.I. JAN. 8, 1916.] 


A Bibliography of Unfinished Books in the English 

Language, icith Annotations. By Albert E. 

Corns and Archibald Sparke. (Quaritch, 10s. 6d. 


COURAGE is a quality much needed at the present 
day, and the two contributors to ' N. & Q. whose 
names figure on the title-page of this volume 
must possess it in abundance, or they would 
never have ventured on the attempt to supply a 
record of all the authors who have set pen to paper 
in English, and failed to finish the works they had 
begun. Were they haunted by no fear lest they 
themselves should but add one more example 
for some bibliographer of a later day ? 

Mr. Sparke contributes a somewhat slight 
but pleasant Introduction, which draws attention 
to the more picturesque or pathetic associations 
connected with some of these unfinished pro- 
ductions. In many cases failure was due to the 
fact that the work had been planned on too vast 
a scale for the physical powers of the author or 
even for the span of working life allotted to man, 
Buckle's ' History of Civilization ' and Macaulay's 
' History of England ' being the outstanding 
examples of this ; in others, such as Thackeray 
with Denis Duval ' and Dickens with ' Edwm 
Drood,' the pen suddenly dropped from the hand 
of a writer who might reasonably have expected 
to " finish that stint." 

The book is arranged as an Author Index, 
works being entered under the name or pseudonym 
of the author or editor. Where the work is 
without any indication of authorship it is placed 
under the first word of the title. Supplementary 
notes have been added under many entries, as, for 
instance, Diderot, E. A. Freeman, and Raleigh. 

We are told concerning Solomon that " he 
spake of trees from the cedar tree that is in 
Lebanon even unto the hyssop that springeth 
out of the wall," and Messrs. Corns and Sparke 
are equally comprehensive in their scheme espe- 
cially as regards the hyssop including every- 
thing from unfinished encyclopasdias or bio- 
graphical dictionaries in several volumes to four- 
page poetical tracts at a penny each, such as 
Thomas Whittle's ' Light in a Dark Lantern.' 

There are, however, some very noticeable 
omissions. Thus, for example, Tyrrell's ' Chris- 
tianity at the Cross-roads ' is not mentioned. 
Among pur English classics Jane Austen does not 
appear in the alphabet ; nor Keats, though he is 
mentioned in the Introduction ; nor Shelley, 
except as the author of the unfinished ' Essay on 
Christianity.' Again, the notice under Byron 
refers not to ' Don Juan,' as might have been 
expected this is not even mentioned but to 
an edition of the poet projected and partly carried 
put by Henley, which should surely have been 
indexed under Henley's name. The same remark 
would apply to Sala's unfinished edition of 
Lamb's letters. It would probably have been a 
good plan to make a separate alphabet of un- 
finished editions and translations. No doubt 
these and other examples we could mention were 
excluded upon some principle, but that principle 
should certainly have been exp lamed, and also, 
we may add, justified. 

The volume before us is printed in good 
clear type, but it is inevitable that in thousands 

of bibliographical descriptions and proper names 
some slips should occur. Thus the references 
under Doyle and Drayton to " 'N. & Q.,' 85, 5, 
p. 95," and "85, 5, p. 96," should be to 8 S. 5, 95 r 
and 8 S. 5, 96. " Berkenhont " on p. 22 should, 
be Berkenhout ; and on p. 25, s.v. ' Bible : Psalms,' 
" Harne " should be Home. In the ' List of 
Authorities Consulted ' Wood's ' Athense Oxoni- 
enses ' is printed " Oxoniensis," and similarly 
under the author's name. ' The Virgin Mary 
misrepresented by the Roman Church ' is on 
p. 176 rightly attributed to Dr. John Patrick,, 
but under ' Virgin Mary ' the reader is referred 
to Simon Patrick. Both brothers were con- 
troversialists. Two entries under Virgil are un- 
fortunate : " The JEnid [sic] of Virgil translated 
into Scottish verse by Garvin [Gawin] Douglas,. 
Bishop of Dunkeld," and " The ^Enid [sic] ? 
in English hexameters, rendered foot for foot,, 
for [by] W. Grist." 

In spite of imperfections the work con- 
tains a very large number of rather obscure 
items, which it would be troublesome to hunt 
up for oneself, and the student who may chance 
to be in need of them may well be grateful to 
the compilers. 

THE Fortnightly Review gives a good deal of 
space to literature, but we confess we found the 
productions in question rather thin. Thus Mr.. 
Walter Sichel's ' Byron as a War Poet ' praises 
without much discernment, neither allowing for 
Byron's rhetorical gift, which makes him apt to 
write brilliantly on any subject not specially 
upon war nor pointing out where he follows the 
fashion of the day which demanded of poetry a 
certain flash and speed, nor comparing him with 
the contemporaries nearest akin to him. Mr; 
W. W. Crotch on ' Dickens and the War ' treats 
an untoward subject with that futility which is 
apt to dog the ways of admirers, and befalls the 
admirers of Dickens more conspicuously than most. 
' Anatple France as Saviour of Society ' is a title 
by which Mr. J. H. Harley does injustice to an 
interesting essay, for his views are better re- 
strained and justified than the reader might 
expect. Mr. Arthur Waugh writes with sympathy 
and good judgment on Stephen Phillips ; and 
Mr. Arthur A. Baumann has a good study of 
Dr. Johnson, the point of it being to show how 
much more thorough a cynic Johnson was than 
most of us remembered. There seems, however, 
a little exaggeration about declaring that the 
worthy doctor's " sane and stimulating cynicism . . . 
will outwear the world, "and hoping it will be "the 
dominant intellectual note of the century which 
lies before us." So much for literature ; the 
articles on the war and on the political and econo- 
mic problems connected with it are what con- 
stitute the real value of the number. 

THE first Nineteenth Century of the new year 
has much to recommend it to readers' attention,, 
though little in the way of curious or literary 
interest. Capt. R. W. Hallows contributes a 
set of letters to and from one A. C. Stanhope, 
cousin of the Lord Chesterfield of the ' Letters,' 
and son of the man who succeeded to the title. 
These, tied up in a packet, fell out of a volume of 
sermons which was about to be thrown away 
with other volumes of the same kind as litter; 
none of them has been printed before. It cannot 
be said that their intrinsic value is very great,. 



[12 S. I. JAN. 8, 1916. 

yet they contribute their quota to one's under- 
standing both of Chesterfield and of the current 
notions of the period. A. C. Stanhope was a 
tolerably unamiable person, with the most extra- 
ordinary ideas about diet and the bringing up of a 
child. Mrs. Randolph writes about Fanny Nisbet 
Nelson's wife. Mr. Moreton Frewen brings- to 
an end his ' Memories of Melton Mowbray,' 
which again include some good stories, and Mr. 
W. H. Mallock begins an analysis of ' Current 
Theories of Democracy,' suggestive, at any rate, 
and comprehensive. The rest of the number 
if we except Dr. R. H. Murray's discussion of 
Hoche's Expedition to Ireland in 1796 deals with 
actualities. We may mention that Mr. S. P. B. 
Mais, in an article which strikes us as the most 
raluable we have yet had from his pen, describes 
' A Public School after Eighteen Months of War ' 
(it is only seventeen as yet, by the way, and could 
hardly have been that when the pages were 
written), and that Lady Wolseley's paper on 
' W T omen's Work on the Land,' and Mr. Percy 
Hurd's ' Impressions of Champagne and Lor- 
raine.' while addressed to present emergencies, 
have both considerable permanent interest. 

THE January Cornhill starts wdth the first two 
chapters of a work by Charles Kingsley, being the 
MS. of a novel entitled ' A Tutor's Story,' left by 
him unfinished, and recently discovered among 
his papers, and now revised and completed by his 
daughter, Lucas Malet. It promises well. There is 
a certain vigour in sheer well-doing about Kingsley's 
characters which has an actual literary value, and 
is" refreshingly different from the two or three 
literary attitudes which have grown conventional 
in Edwardian and Georgian times. The lame youth 
from Cambridge in the year 1829, with a "Radi- 
cal " acquaintance on the one hand and a wicked 
young sprig of nobility to reform on the other 
every one able to talk, and drawn with the centre 
of gravity in the right place, whatever else may be 
wrong, after the straightforward Kingsley fashion 
ought to provide readers of The Cornhill with 
Some good hours. 

Mr. Boyd Cable is good in his war sketch, ' A 
Benevolent Neutral.' Sir Herbert Maxwell's ' An 
Angler's Dilemma,' after a few pleasant pages 
upon angling in general, relates a solitary pisca- 
torial adventure in the River Minnick on 
an April morning some fourteen years ago. 
' A Curious Chapter in Wellington's Life,' by Dr. 
Fitchett, is concerned with the correspondence 
between the Duke and " Miss J." It is, perhaps, 
the most interesting paper in the number, and 
does better justice to both the correspondents 
than has always been done. Sir Henry Lucy 
in 'Across the Walnuts and ths Wine ' tells two or 
three first-rate after-dinner stories, winding up 
with a good description of the immemorial 
challenging of the King's keys at the gate of the 
Bloody Tower. Miss Sellers's ' Montenegro,' 
and Judge Parry's ' Daniel O'Connell Counsellor,' 
must also be mentioned. The latter has an 
abundance of amusing detail. 

ON the south wall of the loggia before the 
church of San Martino at Florence is a neglected 
fresco by a Florentine master of the late fifteenth 
century, representing the Annunciation. This 
was ascribed by Crowe and Cavalcaselle to Filip- 
pino Lippi, but Mr. Herbert P. Home was the 
first to attribute it to the master to whom, from 

the characteristic animation of the figures, it 
rightly belongs, namely, Sandro Botticelli. In 
the January number of The Burlington Magazine 
Mr. Giovanni Poggi confirms this attribution by 
documentary evidence, fixes the date of the 
picture as 1481, and expresses the opinion that its 
condition is not so bad as has been thought, and 
that the retouches might be successfully removed. 
Two reproductions accompany the article. Mr. 
J. D. Beazley gives some photographs of a red 
figured Attic hydria of 480 B.C., which is now 
in the Hermitage at Petrograd, and the paintings 
on which represent the story of Achilles and 
Polyxena. The designs are admirable. Mr. 
Campbell Dodgson describes some rare woodcuts 
of the early Flemish and German schools, belong- 
ing to the ' Genealogy ' of the Emperor Maximilian, 
and now in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. 
Sir Martin Conway notices the first part of the 
publication of Raphael's drawings edited by 
Dr. Oscar Fischel of Berlin a series unfortunately 
cut short by the war. This instalment contains 
early, and therefore very interesting drawings, 
and some beautiful specimens are reproduced. 
Dr. Ananda Coomaraswamy contributes an 
article on ' Buddhist Primitives (Sculpture).' 
Strictly speaking, there are no such things as 
Buddhist primitives, early Buddhism being a 
puritanical creed, and by its logic averse from 
every manifestation of the body, and therefore 
from beauty and art. Among the works repro- 
duced is the beautiful ' Yakshini ' or dryad on 
the gateway of the Sanchi Stupa (early second 
century B.C.). Dr. Squire Sprigge sends the 
first instalment of an article on ' Art and Medicine,' 
in which he points out the almost inevitable 
vagueness of most of the historical accounts of 
disease that have come down to us. The de- 
scription by Thucydides, for example, of the 
plague at Athens, leaves it quite uncertain what 
that plague really was. Such pictures, on the 
other hand, as Rubens's representation of St. 
Ignatius's miracle in casting out a devil from a 

S)ung girl, or the picture in the cloisters of San 
arco at Florence of St. Anthony extending the 
consolations of religion to a plague- stricken 
youth these are most definite and valuable 
records of pathological observation. It is sur- 
prising what a number of representations of disease 
we have in our picture galleries. 

ia.? t0 Ct0rasp0nirnrts, 

STRATFORD-ON- AVON. Forwarded to G. F. R. B. 

L. L. K. (" The ' Gad Whip ' in Lincolnshire "). 
A description of the gad-whip ceremony at Caistor 
will be found at 9 S. viii. 285, and at the end of 
it references to earlier communications. 

L. N. " La belle Corisande " was the name by 
which Diane d'Andouins, Comtesse de Gramont 
(1554-1620), was known. She was for about 8 years 
the mistress of Henry of Navarre, and their corre- 
spondence is extant. Me"lisande suggests Maeter- 
linck's play ' Pelle"as et Me"lisande. It was not 
an uncommon name in the Middle Ages, and was 
borne, for example, by the daughter and heiress of 
Baldwin II., King of Jerusalem, who married Fulk 
of Anjou. 

CORRIGENDUM. Ante, p. 4, heading (6), for 
" Asces " read Axes ( =ague>. 

12 s. i. JAN. is, i9i6.] N OTES AND QUERIES. 



CON TENTS.- No. 3. 

NOTES : An Old Serving-Knife and the " Sire de Dan- 
court," 41 Tavolara: Moresnet : Goust (Llivia?): Alleged 
Small Republics, 42 " Binnacle ": "Tabernacle": "Bar- 
nacles," 44-General John Guise : the Rev. Samuel Guise, 
45 Hampstead Sand Barony of Wharton, 46 " Cen- 
sure ": its Right and Wrong Use " Lampposts" and 
" Fountpens " Clockmakers An Old Street Name-Plate 
-Pialeh Pasha at Chios, 47. 

QUERIES : Warren Hastings on the Persian Gulf British 
Herb : Herb Tobtcco The Bury, Chesham, Bucks Lord 
Milner's Pedigree LeitnerW. M. Fellows Rich, fitz- 
Gerald, 48 Frodsham The Two Ryhopes, co. Durham- 
William Penu's School Stewart Family Memory at the 
Moment of Death Death Warrants Portsmouth : South- 
wick Sixteenth-Century Dutch Print Fryer Pigott of 
Harlow Biographical Information Wanted, 49 Author 
Wanted Wyvill Heraldry " Billycock " Peculiar 
Court of Snaith Papal Insignia Baptism in 1644, 50. 

REPLIES : History of Commerce, 50 Edgar Allan Poe 
J. B. Braithwaite, 51 Cromwell's Alleged League with 
the Devil Baker's Chop-House, 52 Rats et Crapauds 
"Fat, fair, and forty" H. T. Wake-' The Ladies of 
Castellmarch ' " Popii.jay." " Papagei," 53 Robert 
Child, M.P., the Banker Dahdo, the Oyster- Eater The 
Moray Minstrels J. G. Le Maistre Francis Meres and 
John Florio, 54 -"Spinet "Walker Family, Stratford-le- 
Bow, 55 Author of French Song Sir John Schorne 
Gunfire and Rain, 56 Falconer : St. Dunstan-in-the-West 
Haycock Family Duchesses who have married Com- 
moners Mother Huffcap, 57 " All is fair in love and 
war" Ivy Bridge St. Swithin and Eggs Alcester 
Biographical Information Wanted British Army : Mas- 
cots, 58 'Passionate Pilgrim 'Tallest One-Piece Flag- 
staffSong Wanted, 59. 

WOTKS ON BOOKS: 'An American Garland' 'A 
Goliard's Song Book of the Eleventh Century.' 

OBITUARY : Harry Hems. 


Nos. 138-140 in the Wallace Collection 
(section of European armour and arms) are 
three carving- or serving- knives with long, 
"Wide blades, such as the ecuyer tranchant 
wields in the famous miniature of John, 
Duke of Berry, at dinner, in the ' Tres riches 
Heures ' (Chantilly Library). Their handles 
are beautiful examples of the delicate art 
<Ji the enameller in translucent colours. 
Against a diaper or trellis of floral design, 
covering either side of the handle, are de- 
picted two or more coats of arms : 1 38 has 
tfour " great shields " of Burgundy with the 
collar of the. Fleece and the motto "Aultre 
n'aray," adopted by Duke Philip III. upon 
his marriage with Isabella of Portugal 
in 1430. There is nothing armorially re- 
markable here, and the terminal dates are 
obviously that year and the death of Philip 
in 1467. 

ButNos. 139 and 140 are heraldic rariora 
worthy to rank with the arms upon that 

other serving- knife at the British Museum, 
published by Mr. O. M. Dalton (Archcelogia, Ix. 
pt. ii.), which has the dimidiated coats of (a) 
Burgundy modern (France ancient, a bordure 
gobony argent and gules but the bordure 
gobony engrailed), and (b) of Bavaria- 
Holland (Bavaria per fesse with Holland- 
Hainault), exemplifying the marriage, in 
1385, of John the Fearless, Count of Nevers, 
with Margaret, eldest daughter of Albert, 
Count of Holland, Zeeland, and Hainault. 
The peculiar bordure and the absence of 
Burgundy ancient from (a) show that the 
knife was made before the death of Philip II., 
the Audacious, in 1404 (27, iv. ), when Nevers 
succeeded to the coat quarterly of Burgundy 
ancient and modern, to which he added 
the Flemish lion, in pretence. 

Upon Wallace Collection No. 139, Azure, 
three keys, 2 and 1, and a label of three 
points or, we have a variety of the Rolin 
arms deserving of record among the brisures 
of a family which rose from the bourgeoisie 
in the late fourteenth century, and ere the 
mid-sixteenth had produced a Chancellor of 
Burgundy, three Grand-Bailies of Autun, 
ambassadors and chamberlains to Bur- 
gundy and Louis XL, an hereditary Grand- 
Huntsman of Hainault, two Archbishops of 
Autun, one of whom was a cardinal, &c. 
The label or is not known to have been 
borne by the Chancellor (1380-1461), the 
death of whose brother, in 1429, made him 
head of his house ; nor is it among such ar- 
morials as were given by Jules dArbaumont 
in his account of the family in the Revue 
Nobiliaire (N.S., i.) of 1865 ; nor has 
it transpired elsewhere (' Societe de 
Sphragistique de Paris,' iii. 261; De Raadt, 
' Sceaux armories des Pays-Bas,' &c., iii. 
264 ; Fon- tenay, ' Armorial de la Ville 
d Autun '). 

The knife No. 140 has the insignia 
Ermine a barbel in pale gules dimidiating 
Or three (i.e., one and a half) moors' heads 
(2 and l)ppr. bound about the temples azure. 
A prominent feature of this exquisitely 
enamelled achievement is the cloth encircling 
each of the heads, its ample length falling 
to the base of the neck. The arms, ob- 
viously a true dimidiation of separate coats, 
are identified (and the identification goes 
back, no doubt, to the days when the knife 
figured in the collections of M. Louis Carrand 
and Count de Nieuwerkerke) as those of 
" Sire deDancourt, Grand Master of Artillery 
to Philippe le Bon," the date assigned being 
"about 1440." 

Who was this " Sire de Dancourt," whom, 
by the by neither Monstrelet nor Commines 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. i. JAN. is, me. 

mentions, and who may be sought fruit- 
lessly (whether as Dancourt or d'Ancourt) 
in the general index to Pere Anselme, 
in Chevalier's ' Bio- Bibliographic,' in the 
various repertories of seals edited by Douet 
d'Arcq, Demay, J. Roman, and A. Coulon, 
in ' Les chroniqueurs de 1'histoire de France,' 
of Madame de Witt (nee Guizot), or in 
Barante's ' Dues de Bourgogne ? Against 
a silence so remarkable can alone be set 
Rietstap's ' Armorial general,' which gives 
" Dancourt (France). D'hermines a deux 
bars de gu.," and also Bouton's ' Nouveau 
traite des armoiries ' (1887, p. 457). Here, 
no doubt, is the coat represented by the 
dexter half of the arms upon Wallace Collec- 
tion No. 140 ; but, strange to relate, 
Rietstap and his coadjutors, who ransacked 
the numerous French local armorials, were 
not merely unable to cite a province for the 
house which gave Burgundy a " grand- 
maitre d'artillerie," but, apparently, never 
encountered " Dancourt " before their main 
alphabet of coats was set in type. It is, in 
fact, found in the Supplement to Rietstap, 
second edition, ii., published, like Bouton 
(op. cit.\ in 1887. Ere we leave "Dan- 
court " to such further conjecture as it may 
deserve, Moreri's dictionary (1759 ed. ) may 
be cited for a " sieur d'Ancourt " in Florent 
Carton, the comedian-dramatist (d. 1680). 
The possibility here, if possibility it can be 
called, in connexion with the fact that 
Carton de Familleureux (Hainault) bears 
Argent three moors' heads wreathed gules, 
is, however, brought to nought by the article 
in Jal's ' Dictionnaire critique ' (2nd ed., 
p. 466), which proves that Florent Carton's 
family had nothing to do with the Belgian 
house of the name, and that their arms were 
quite dissimilar. 

In contrast to the penury of data concern- 
ing " Dancourt " are the evidences that the 
knife was made for Gaucourt of Picardy, 
with the well-known coat Ermine two 
barbel addorsed gules. Pere Anselme 
gives a pedigree in virtue of Raoul VI., 
Lord of Gaucourt and of Argicourt, " grand- 
maitre d'hotel de France " in 1453, who died 
in 1461-2, having married Jeanne de Preuilly, 
who was dead in 1455. P. Anselme's state- 
ment (3rd ed., viii. 366-7), " son sceau dans 
une quittance du 3 Janvier, 1458....est 
seme d'hermines avec deux poissons adossez,' 
and the seals of 1481, catalogued by Roman 
(' Collection des pieces original es du Cabinel 
des Titres de la Bibliotheque Nationale, 
i. 5072), are important in view of the impale- 
ment by dimidiation of the arms under dis- 
cussion, which are properly those of 

dame de Gaucourt by alliance. The grand- 
master had a son Charles, first of the name,. 
who succeeded as Lord of Gaucourt, Argi- 
jourt, Chateaubrun, Na iliac, &c., was Lieu- 
;enant- General and Governor of Paris, and, 
dying in 1482, was buried in St. Jean en 

reve, in which church there appears to 
remain no vestige of his sepulture (Guil- 
hermy-Lasteyrie, ' Inscriptions de la France, 
Ancien diocese de Paris,' 1883; Lebeuf, 

Histoire de la ville et de tout le diocese de 
Paris,' new ed., i., 1863). 

His wife, in 1454, was Agnes (alias Colette) 
de Vaux, daughter of a certain Jean de 
Vaux by his wife, Anne Le Bouteiller of 
Senlis, heiress to Saintines (near Senlis). 
This Vaux is not easily traced among the 
too numerous families of the name. He 
bore a variant, apparently, of the arms of 
Vaux of Hocquincourt (Aigent three moors r 
heads wreathed of the field), being assigned 
the following in Andre du Chesne's mono- 
graph upon Le Bouteiller (Revue nobili- 
aire, 3 S. iii. 486-7, 1878): d'or a trois tete& 
de more ceintes de diademes d'argent. Du 
Chesne, who calls her Jeanne, dates Anne Le 
Bouteiller's marriage (as does P. Anselme- 
in his Bouteiller pedigree, vi. 260) as late as 
1468, which, however, P. Anselme clearly 
negatives by his statement that Charles IL 
de Gaucourt, son and heir of Charles I. and 
Anne's daughter, Agnes, or Colette, de Vaux, 
was " enfant d'honneur du roi " in 1472. 

If the arms upon Wallace Collection 
No. 140 exemplify, as appears certain, the 
marriage (1454-c. 1471) of Charles I. de 
Gaucourt with Agnes de Vaux, and are such 
as her own signet might have borne, it would 
be extraordinary if yet a second alliance 
were citable duplicating them armorially, 
the detail of the adornment of the moors' 
heads perhaps excepted. As it is, Dan- 
court's connexion with arms notoriously 
those of a Picard house can but have 
originated in a mistranscription of the name 
Gaucourt. A. VAN DE PUT. 




EVERY now and then newspapers or their 
correspondents discover a " republic " which 
is smaller than San Marino or Andorra, or 
than the Principality of Monaco. 

Very possibly my record of these fancied 
discoveries, which have been divulged in. 
the last two decades, is not complete. 

I2S. I. JAN. 15, 1916. J 



In The Standard of June 2, 1896, is a letter 
quoting The Tablet of May 16. The writer 
of the letter had always been " of opinion 
that the miniature Republic of Moresnet 
was the tiniest state in the whole world." 

However, he had learnt from The Tablet 
that there was a smaller republic, viz. 
Tavolara, a little island off the north-east 
coast of Sardinia, not far from the Bay of 
Terranova. He says, quoting The Tablet: 

" It is some three miles long, by about, three 
thousand one hundred and thirty feet in breadth, 
with a population of fifty-five souls. From 1836 
to 1886 Tavolara was a tiny Monarchy, but upon 
the death of Paolo I. (and last), and by express 
desire of that potentate, it became Republican 
in Government, with a President elected for six 
years, the women voting as well as the men. 
Italy, we are told, recognized the microscopic 
Republic in 1887." 

I have found no other trace of this " Re- 
public," said to exist in an island three miles 
long by a little over half a mile broad, or, 
to be as precise as the writer in The Tablet, 
by about four furlongs, one hundred and 
sixty-three yards, and one foot broad. 
If we take five as the average family, the fifty- 
five souls which formed its population should 
comprise eleven men, eleven women, and 
thirty-three children and young persons. 
If one subtracts the President, twenty-one 
adults remain. One would like to know 
whether there is a council over which the 
President presides. 

As to " the miniature Republic of Mores- 
net," I may quote from a short article 
headed ' Gaming Tables in " Neutral Mores- 
net," ' which appeared in The Times of 
Aug. 25, 1903, written by " a correspon- 
dent," concerning the establishment of 
gaming tables in Altenberg, 

"a small community of some 3,500 persons, 
situated in the so-called neutral territory of 
Moresnet, about six miles west of Aix-la-Chapelle. 

.This little country, called 'Neutral Moresnet,' 

while owning allegiance to both Belgium and 
Prussia, is, in fact, an integral portion of neither. 
This State, territory, municipality, or what- 
ever it may be called, is a remainder, a remnant of 
the first French Empire. . . .On the readjustment 
of the Prusso -Dutch frontiers at the Congress of 
Vienna in 1815, the two States concerned, Prussia 
and Holland, did not arrive at a final agreement 
as to the fate of this triangular piece of territory, 
som3 three miles in length, and neither in 1830 
(on Belgium taking the place of Holland) nor 
since has the matter been decided. This debate- 
able territory was accordingly made subject to 
a joint administration, pending a final settlement. 
Thus the description ' Neutral Moresnet ' is not 
in fact quite correct in an international sense, 
for it is in no wise independent. At present, 
under the condominium of Belgium and Prussia, 
it is administered by two permanent commissioners 
appointed by them, and under these by a mayor 

nominated alternately by each country, who is 
assisted by a representative council. . . .The 
inhabitants of this territory are quite satisfied 
with the state of things, . and are comfortable- 
under the twin lordship, participating as they do 
in the advantages each State confers. Most 
welcome is, perhaps, in the case of the indigenous 
sons of the soil, the immunity from military 
service. Originally all the dwellers on the land 
were exempt from * scot and lot,' but since 1848 
and 1854 respectively those owning Belgian and 
Prussian nationality are liable to conscription. 
Only the neutrals proper i.e., the descendants 
of the population established in the country in 
1815 are still free. Of these there are about 
410 persons. Of the remaining 3,000 inhabitants 
Prussia and Belgium claim about one-half each." 

Then follows a paragraph about the legal* 
relations in the community being governed 
by the Code Napoleon. 

In The Pall Mall Gazette of June 5, 1915, 
is a short account of " the smallest Republic* 
in the world," viz. : 

" Goust. on the northern slopes of the Pyrenees, 
which for close on three hundred years has been 
recognized as an independent State by France 
and Spain. The area of Goust is barely one 
square mile, and its inhabitants number about 
150. The Government consists of a council of 
Ancients, who decide all disputes, and have no 
other duties, for the inhabitants pay neither rates 
nor taxes." 

I have sought in vain for Goust in books 
and maps. There is, however, in ' The Times 
Atlas,' 1895, Map of France (South), a small 
town or village called Saillagouse (perhaps 
by abbreviation Gouse), in the department 
of Pyrenees-Orientales. It is about 2 
miles east of a piece of land of irregular 
shape enclosed by a line, and coloured 
yellow amidst the surrounding pink. This 
land is named Llivia. One might easily, on 
glancing at the map, assign it to the name 
Saillagouse. Its area may be reckoned as 
about three square miles. Longitude 2 E. 
almost touches its eastern corner. It appears 
to be some two miles north of Bourg Madame, 
a French town on the frontier of Spain. 

In The Geographical Journal, vol. xiii., 
Jan. to June, 1899, pp. 452, 557, under 
'Geographical Literature of the Month,' 
Llivia, in the short comments on two books, 
is described as a little patch, or a small 
" enclave," of Spanish territory in the French 
department of Pyrenees-Orientales, with a 
neutral road, about a mile in length, con- 
necting it with the main body of Spain. 
This " enclave " is, according to The Times 
map, about 12 miles as the crow flies east of 
Andorra. Of Llivia I have found some 
interesting particulars in ' Au Val d' Andorre,' 
by Sutter-Laumann, 1888. Sutter-Laumann 
spells the name Livia instead of Llivia. He 
writes (pp. 27, 28) that it is a Spanish 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s i. JAN. is, 

commune entirely enclosed by French 
territory, and that it is only a village 
without importance. 

" This Spanish ground,' ' he says, " in our territory 
is the result of a fantastical (bizarre) limitation 
of frontiers made at the time of the famous 
treaty of the Pyrenees of 1659. By one of the 
clauses of this treaty the French communes 
which surround Livia ought, every two years, 
to leave their lands uncultivated, so as to allow 
the passage of the cattle which the people of 
Livia take to the mountain. But this|clause is 
never respected ; our peasants naturally take 
care not to lose one year in two ; and obstinately 
refuse to allow the oxen, goats, and sheep of 
their neighbours to pass into their fields when the 
harvest is a-foot ; whence occur armed conflicts, 
which have to be allayed in any way possible. 
Finally, Livia being joined to Spain by a narrow, 
neutral road, where no soldier, gendarme, or 
custom-house officer of either of the two nations 
is allowed to circulate, this commune is the 
refuge of all the smugglers of the region." 

As to the spelling, Llivia or Livia, perhaps 
the latter is the modern French form. In 
the ' Dictionnaire General des Villes, Bourgs, 
Villages et Hameaux de la France,' &c., 
par X)uclos, 1836, there are seven names 
beginning with LI, all in the department of 
Pyrenees-Orientales. Neither Llivia nor 
Livia is given, I suppose because of its 
being Spanish territory. Saillagouse appears 
as in Pyrenees-Orientales, arrondissement 
Prades, canton Saillagouse, 505 inhabitants. 

Perhaps some other correspondent of 
* N. & Q.' can add to my little list of suppositi- 
tions republics. ROBERT PIERPOINT. 


THE first of these words was originally 
" bittacle," the English form of It. abitacolo, 
Proy. abitade, Fr. habitade, bitacle. Skeat's 
dictionary says it " seems to have been 
originally a sheltered place for the steers- 
man," and assumes that the word was " a 
singular corruption of the older form ' bit- 
tacle,' due to confusion with 'bin,' a chest." 
The ' N.E.D.' ascribes the earlier form to 
Sp. or Pg. bitaculo, and considers " a direct 
adoption of Fr. habitade and shortening to 
bittade in English as phonetically less 
probable. The seventeenth-century biddikil 
appears to be a transitional form." 

There are errors in both these explanations. 
The bittacle was indeed a sheltered place, 
but it was certainly not for the steersman, 
and there is no evidence of any influence 
from "bin." Also Fr. habitade has lost 
its first syllable in seamen's speech, and 
probably lost it very long ago ; while there 

is reason to believe that the change to 
binnacle " may be due to a related word 
used both in French and English ships. 

Fr. habitade, originally a hut or sleeping- 
closet, came to mean a shrine, as in Littre's 
sixteenth-century quotation : " Au Louvre, 
ancien temple et habitade des roys de 
France." In ships it was the shrine of the 
tutelary saint, and its original place was in 
front of the steersman. . On the advent of 
the compass this was probably placed in, 
or close to, the habitade, to have at night 
the benefit of the lamp burning in the shrine. 
In the two ' N.E.D.' quotations from Marryat, 
the first, 1836, gives the usual " binnacle," 
the other, 1839 ('Phantom Ship'), reverts to 
' bittacle," for the good reason that here it 
refers to " the shrine of the saint at the 
bittacle," 'Philip Vanderdecken being then 
in a 300-ton Portuguese ship under the 
protection of St. Antonio. But in the 
ships of non-Catholic countries the saint had 
been turned out, and in Dutch ships the 
shrine had become the kompashuisje, the 
ompass-hut. In Southern ships the shrine 
became displaced by the It. bussola della 
calamita, Fr. boussole du compas, now la 
boussole ; the shrine was moved aside and 
became the bitade, the closet containing the 
ship's clock, the match-tub, Fr. marmotte, 
and other gear. A retired engineer of the 
French navy, for a long time in small ships 
of war, told me that he had often heard 
the officer of the watch, wanting a light for 
his pipe, call to the boy : Vas au bitade me 
diercher la marmotte ; and that the bitade 
was a closet on the after part of the deck, 
near the wheel. When I mentioned to my 
friend the change from " bittacle " to 
" binnacle," he at once connected the latter 
word with tabernade. Why, he could not 
explain, but the w^ord was connected in his 
reminiscences with bitade. This put me 
on a scent which I followed up, and I find 
that there is a relation between the words, 
due perhaps to naval humour. On the 
old galleys of France the habitade was in 
front of the steersman ; and not far from it, 
near the poop, was the tabernade, a broad 
plank five feet long raised rbove the deck, 
on which the captain stood when giving 
orders. Littre gives a quotation for it ; a 
captain is praised for standing calmly on 
the tabernacle through the whole of a violent 
gale. Why it was so named I cannot say ; 
probably from its being near the shrine. I 
may here remark that " plank " is post in 
Provencal, the language of the French 
galleys, and that the captain's post, dignified 
by the name of tabernacle, may have given 

12 s. i. JAN. 15, H)i6 ] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

rise to our " ships of post," that is, of 20 
guns or more, the commanders of which were 
post-captains (cf. " Post," ' N.E.D.'). Re- 
turning to the Pr. tabernacle, originally a 
diminutive of L. taberna, Fr. taberne, taverne, 
thus affording matter for profane humour, 
there is evidence that the first syllable was 
as loosely connected as that of abitacle ; so 
the word came to have at least a third sense, 
as shown in Mistral's ' Tresor ' : (1) the re- 
ligious sense ; (2) the naval sense ; (3) spec- 
tacles. This last meaning could only be 
from the loose attachment of the first 
syllable, enabling bernacle to be jestingly 
confused with bericles, berniques, barniques, 
mod. Fr. besides, spectacles, changed from 
bericles as chaise has been changed from 
chaire. Attention to the different meanings 
of Fr. lunette, also of Du. bril (like bericles 
derived from "beryl"), will support these 
curious relations. 

The influence of " tabernacle " was pro- 
bably not confined to French ships, for the 
' N.E.D.' shows that the tabernacle exists 
in English ships, at least in rivercraft, 
where the mast may have to be lowered : 
" 1886, The mizen-mast must be stepped 
in a tabernacle on a false transom in front 
of the rudder-head," that is, about the 
position of the tabernacle in a French galley. 
Some readers of ' N. & Q.' to whom such 
craft are familiar may be able to trace the 
story of this term in English. 


Les Cycas, Cannes. 


1. THE 'D.N.B.' gives accounts of William 
Guise (1653-83), Fellow of All Souls, and 
Professor of Oriental Languages at Oxford, 
and of General John Guise (1683-1764), 
Colonel of the 6th Foot ("Guise's"), 
but does not mention that they were father 
and son. William Guise was a son 
of John Guise of Ablodes Court, near 
Gloucester. He matriculated at Oriel at 
the age of 16 in 1669, and was elected a 
Fellow of All Souls in 1674 (Foster, 
' Alumni Oxonienses '). He married in 1680 
Frances, daughter of George Southcote, by 
whom he had a son and two daughters 
(Wood, ' Life and Times,' Oxford Historical 
Society, vol. iii. p. 68). Hearne (' Collections,' 
Oxford Historical Society, vol. viii. p. 144) 
gives some account of the work of this 
" great young man," as he calls him, and 
reproduces his epitaph (p. 145). He says, 

"Mr. Guise's son is now living, viz., CoL- 
Guise " (p. 382). Foster ('Alumni Oxoni- 
enses') shows that there were two John 
Guises who were contemporaries at Oxford. 
One is described as John Guise, son of William 
Guise of Oxford (city), and is stated to 
have matriculated at Gloucester Hall .on 
July 6, 1697, aged 14. The other was 
John Guise, son of William Guise of Winter- 
bourne, co. Gloucester, matriculated at 
Merton College, July 12, 1698, aged 15 ; B.A. 
from Christ Church, March 20, 1701/2;. 
student of Middle Temple, 1700. Foster 
says that the first is possibly identical with 
the second. But this is not so. William 
Guise of Winterbourne was not William 
Guise of All Souls. He was a son of Henry 
Guise of the same place, and a brother of 
Christopher Guise, whose daughter Eleanor- 
was Sir Horace Mann's mother (see- 
'Letters of Horace Walpole,' Toynbee^ 
vol. i. p. 25 In.). 

According to the pedigree of the Guise 
family in Burke' s ' Peerage and Baronetage/ 
William Guise of Winterbourne had a som 
named John, who was not the General- 
He may possibly be the John Guise, Esq.,. 
who subscribed to Hearne' s Camden's ' Eliza- 
betha' in 1717 (Hearne's 'Collections,' 
vol. vi. p. 107). 

The ' D.N.B.' mentions General Guise's 
pictures, given to Christ Church ; and his 
interest in art is shown by his connexion, 
with an early enterprise for the reproduction 
of well-known pictures. (See a letter from 
Lord Percival to his brother of Aug. 30, 1721,. 
in Hist. MSS. Com. 7th Report, p. 247.) He 
was Colonel of " Guise's" from Nov. 1, 1738, 
till his death in June, 1765 (' N. & Q.,' 3 S. 
vii. 50). 

2. There was another Guise, a second 
cousin of the General, at Gloucester Hall,, 
about the same time. This was Samuel; 
Guise, son of Thomas Guise of Burcester. 
He also matriculated in 1697. In 1711 he 
was Vicar of Thame, and in 1713 he pro- 
ceeded to the degree of M.A. Hearne states 
that he applied for dispensation for one term,, 
and " only carried it by a small majority, the 
reason for any one's being against him being 
his vile principles, he being great with Lord 
Wharton" (Hearne's 'Collections,' vol. iv. 
p. 208). In 1719 he became chaplain to 
Philip, Duke of Wharton (Foster, 'Alumni 
Oxonienses ' ). 

Samuel Guise was buried at High Wy~ 
combe. His mutilated tablet, taken down 
when the church was restored, has been 
cut down to fill a place in the floor, and there 
remains little more than his name and that 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. i. JAN. is, me. 

<of a son, Henry. Another son, John, was 

-an officer of " Guise's," and during the time 
that the regiment was in Scotland after the 

^45 he married Mary, daughter of Thomas 
Forbes of Thornton, Kincardineshire, and 
died in 1786. His wife died in 1813. His 

-eldest son, Samuel Guise, LL.B., F.A.S. 
(1752-1811), was a surgeon in the Bombay 
Presidency. Another son, Capt. John Guise 
(1760-1828), married a sister of Sir Richard 
Westmacott, P.R.A. His eldest daughter, 
Elizabeth (1754-1798), married Thomas 
Stewart of Montrose ; and his youngest 
daughter, Mary Ann (1769-1840), married 
Thomas Dougal of the same place (see 
Burke's ' Landed Gentry,' Roney-Dougal 
of Raitho, Midlothian). 

University of Queensland, Brisbane. 

HAMPSTEAD SAND. The large deposits 
of fine sand on Hampstead Heath have been 
the subjects of many actions for trespass 
brought by the Lords of the Manor against 
the dealers who for a century and more 
hawked it about the streets of London. 
Abraham's ' Unequal and Partial Assess- 
ments,' 1811, cited by Park, supposed that 
twenty loads of this sand passed through 
Hampstead daily, but in 1813 Park was 
informed that the average quantity was 
:not more than seven or eight loads. I 
believe the West Heath in front of Judges' 
Walk was the principal deposit worked. 
Constable and other artists have depicted 
the scene, showing carts being filled. 

Before me is a broadside (circa 1760) 
issued to oppose the powers sought by the 
Paving Act, 1760. The Commissioners for 
the City of London sought powers to pro- 
hibit the use of sand on the floors of houses, 
&c., as it was swept into the kennel, and 
washed by the rains into the common sewer 
and thence to the river, which from this and 
other deposit had " within these fifty years 
actually been raised by this means two feet.' 

The objections to this are addressed to both 

Houses of Parliament " on behalf of several 

land-owners near the City of London and 

several thousands of Poor People in or near 

the said City." They state : 

" That there are a great number of Land- 
owners and Tenants, in the several Counties near 
the said City, who have great quantities of Land, 
which is so barren, that no other Profit can be 
made thereof, than by selling the sand; whereby a 
considerable advantage hath been made within 
these twenty years last past ; and if this clause 
l>e permitted to stand, the Proprietors and Tenants 
of the said lands will be Losers of several Hun- 
dreds of Pounds per annum. 

" That several thousands of poor People are 
Employ'd in the Carriage of the Sand, by Land 
and Water, to the City and Suburbs, and in 
Carrying it up and down the Streets, and selling 
it ; most of which will be totally deprived of a 
Livelihood, if the use of it be prohibited, &c. 

" 'Tis conceived there is no Necessity for such 
a clause ; because the Sand used in Houses is 
generally put into the Dust-Cart, with the Ashes 
and other Dust. 

"If the Scavengers did their duty in taking 
up the Dirt, and not sweeping it into the Kennels, 
bo be drove into the Common- Sewers, there would 
be no Cause of Complaint." 

Hampstead would have been most affected 
by this legislation, but it is evident the use 
of the sand continued, although its disposal 
after use was remedied. 


BARONY OF WHARTON. (See 9 S. iv. 381.) 
It is worthy of note that the argument as to 
whether this barony had been created by 
writ or by patent was finally set at rest by 
the Report of the Committee for Privileges 
of the House of Lords on Dec. 13, 1915, in 
respect of the petition of Mr. Kemeys- 
Tynte to the Crown to terminate the abey- 
ance in his favour ; and it confirms the judg- 
ment of their predecessors in 1845, that the 
Barony of Wharton was created by writ, 
and not by patent. The following are the 
exact terms of the report : 


" 0. 1 hat on the 28th day of July, 1845, it was 
resolved and adjudged by this House that the 
Barony of Wharton is a Barony created by Writ 
and sitting on the 26th November, 2nd Edward VI. 
in the year 1548, and is descendible to heirs 
general ; that upon the death of Philip James, 
the sixth Lord Wharton, in 1731, without issue, 
the said Barony fell into abeyance between his 
two sisters and co-heirs Lady Jane Coke and Lady 
Lucy Morrice ; that Lady Lucy Morrice died 
without issue in the year '1739 ; that upon the 
death of Lady Jane Coke (who survived her 
sister) without issue in 1761, the said Barony fell 
into abeyance between the descendants of the 
three daughters of Philip, fourth Lord Wharton, 
Elizabeth, Mary, and Philadelphia Wharton ; 
and that the said Barony was then in abeyance 
between Charles Kerne ys Kerne ys-Tynte, Esquire, 
Alexander Dundas Ross Cochrane Wishart Baillie, 
Esquire, Mrs. Matilda Aufrere, the Right Honour- 
able Peter Robert, Lord Willoughby D'Eresby, 
and the Most Honourable George Horatio, Mar- 
quess of Cholmondeley : 

" That the Petitioner, Charles Theodore Hals- 
well Kemeys-Tynte, is one of the co-heirs of the 
said Barony of W T harton as being descended from 
and sole heir of Mary, one of the said daughters 
of Philip, fourth Lord Wharton : 

" That the Right Honourable Gilbert, Earl of 
Ancaster, the Most Honourable Charles Robert, 
Marquess of Lincolnshire, and the Most Honour- 
able George Henry Hugh, Marquess of Cholmon- 
deley, are three others of the co -heirs of the said 

12 S. I. JAN. 15, 1916.] 



Barony of Wharton as being descended from 
Elizabeth, only daughter of the said Philip, 
fourth Lord Wharton, by his first marriage : 

" That the Right Honourable Charles Wallace 
Alexander Napier Ross Cochrane, Baron Laming- 
ton, and George Lockhart Rives, a citizen of the 
United States of America, are two other of the 
co-heirs of the said Barony of Wharton as being 
descended from Philadelphia, the youngest 
daughter of Philip, fourth Lord Wharton : 

" That the said Barony of Wharton is now in 
abeyance between the said Petitioner, Charles 
Theodore Halswell Kemeys-Tynte, and Gilbert, 
Earl of Ancaster, Charles Robert, Marquess of 
Lincolnshire, George Henry Hugh, Marquess of 
Cholmondeley, Charles Wallace Alexander Napier 
IBoss Cochrane, Baron Lamington, and George 
Lockhart Rives : 

" That the said Barony of Wharton is at his 
Majesty's disposal : 

" Read, and agreed to : and resolved and 
adjudged accordingly : and resolution and 
judgment to be laid before his Majesty by the 
Lords with White Staves. 

" Ordered that all deeds, documents, and 
papers produced on behalf of the claimant, by 
his agents, be delivered to the said agents." 


USE. The following verse gathered from 
Juvenal (' Satirae,' liber primus, ii. v. 65), 
originally addressed to the hypocrites of 
ancient Rome, and recently quoted by 
Signor Luigi Luzzati (the veteran eminent 
statesman and political economist) in his 
patriotic speech before the Italian Deputies 
in Rome, but applied to the wrong and right 
use of " Censure " in Italy at the present time, 
may, perhaps, deserve recording : 

Dat veniam corvis, vexat Censura columbas. 


somewhat distressing to note such ungainly 
words as these creeping into our printed 
English. They appeared recently not in 
the columns of that verdant and ardent 
journal which has, in its time, made us 
acquainted with such strange spellings, 
but in a staid and elderly newspaper of 
some distinction. 

Is it too much to hope that ' N. & Q.' 
should enter a protest against the growing 
neglect of the hyphen ? There can be no 
reason why the great demand in modern 
nomenclature for these useful little bars 
which soften linked words should diminish 
the supply required to prevent our printed 
language from looking ugly and uncouth. 

One of your readers much puzzled a 
few years ago as to what manner of thing 
a "boatrace" might be, and what place 
" mineowners " held in the scheme of things 

began to make a collection of such mon- 
strosities a truly awful array and will 
" prent it " as a warning of how the lack 
of a hyphen may mar a line, if ' N. & Q.' 
will take the matter up and make a stand 
for the amenities of the printed word. 

Y. T. 

CLOCKMAKERS. A label in the Bagford 
Collection (5929: 100-101) has the following 
inscription : " D. Campigne Clok & Watch 
Maker at Winton." The date is, I suppose, 
about 1670 or 1680, and this name does not 
appear to be in the reference books I have 
access to. R. A. PEDDIE. 

St. Bride Foundation, Bride Lane, E.C. 

affixed to the wall on the west side of the 
present Gerrard Place, W., and immediately 
facing the stage-door of the Shaftesbury 
Theatre, reads : 




Should not this have been Whetton's 
Building in Nassau Street ? In any case 
it is one of the very few remaining old London 
street name-plates and is worthy of record. 

an article in The English Historical Review 
for July, 1915, makes the following state- 
ments : 

" Piali Pasha, a Hungarian renegade in the 
Turkish service, appeared off Chios with a fleet 
of from 80 to 300 sails on Easter Monday, 15 April, 
1566. The Pasha told the Ghiotes that he would 
not land, as he did not wish to disturb the Easter 
ceremonies. Next day he entered the harbour 
and demanded the tribute." 

No authority is given, and consequently 
one does not feel inclined to reject the 
version hitherto accepted, according to which 
the Pasha was the son of a Croatian cobbler 
(Hammer) and arrived at Chios on Easter 
Day (Knolles). This English author gives 
the date as " the 15th day of April, 1566, 
being then Easter Day," but, as pointed out 
by Hammer, Easter Day fell on April 14 in 
that year. Neither the English nor the 
Austrian historian mentions the Pasha's 
alleged excuse for not landing his troops 
immediately on arrival, but he was more 
likely to disturb the religious ceremonies on 
the Sunday than on the following day. Dr. 
Miller perhaps relies on Giustiniani, the 
historian of Chios, but his book is not in the 
British Museum or any other library to 
which I have access. L. L. K. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 . i. JAN. is, wie. 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

GULF. Could any reader tell me where to 
find a passage in Warren Hast ings' s ' Life ' 
where that statesman dwelt on the strategic 
and political importance of the Persian 
Gulf in its bearing on our Empire in the 
East ? I recollect distinctly that Hastings 
expressed a strong opinion as to how it 
behoved us to guard the sea route and land 
approach to India in those parts. 

Could any reader refer me to the passage 
I am thinking of ? Hastings' remarks were 
singularly prophetic, and would prove most 
interesting at the present time. 

C. E. D. BLACK. 

65 Belsize Park Gardens, N.W. 

minute-book of the Amicable Club of War- 
rington for the years 178997 there is given 
a copy of each half-yearly account presented 
by the landlord of the inn where the club 
met. On several occasions the account 
includes a charge for British Herb, as thus 
".Tobacco, one pound, 3s. 6d. ; Brittish Herb, 
quarter pound, Is. 6d." Less frequently the 
entry is " Herb Tobacco " which is perhaps 
a synonym for British Herb. 

As the cultivation of tobacco in this 
country was forbidden, and the price charged 
for the " herb " is nearly double that for 
tobacco, it would seem that British Herb 
can have been neither British-grown tobacco 
nor a cheaper substitute. Perhaps some 
reader can say what it was. 


A line picture of a large Georgian house, 
extensive stables to the right, in front a 
wide lawn, circular drive, poplar avenue, 
and ornamental water. Underneath is, 
" Bury Hill, Chesham, Bucks, 1770, the 
residence of Coulson Skottowe, Esq ve " At 
the left-hand bottom corner the words " Rock 
& Co., London." Size 7f in., by 6 in. no 
margin, set close to edge in mount. 

No. 2. A companion picture, view of same 
house across the water, a church to the 
left. Three figures in the foreground are in 
the costumes of time of George II. Under- 
neath, " Chesham Church and Bury Hill, 
1770." Left-hand bottom corner, " Rock & 

Co., London." Right-hand bottom corner,. 
" Hepburn, Chesham." Size and mount the 
same as No. 1. 

No. 3. A small engraving of No. 1, size 
7^ in. by 5 in., including wide margin, the 
actual engraving being 4 in. by 3 in. At the 
back is written under date 1894, in the hand 
of my uncle long dead, " This picture of 
Chesham House I procured from an old 
hotel many years ago when I visited Ches- 
ham." It is impressed on thin cardboard,, 
and looks as if it might have come out of 
some old guide-book or topographical work. 

No. 4. Another like No. 3 impressed on 
stiff paper, but with the difference, " Rock 
& Co., Sc., London, No. 256." 

No. 5. A small engraving of No. 2, same- 
size, &c., as No. 4, with the difference,. 
" Rock & Co., Sc., London, No. 255." 

Wanted any information about the- 
pictures. Did they come from a book ? 
What was their date ? Who were " Rock 
& Co." and " Hepburn "? Have they any 
modern representatives ? B. C. S. 

Peerages (Burke, Debrett, Lodge, and so on) 
carry Lord Milner's origin no further back 
than his father, " Charles Milner, M.D." 
The Star, Dec. 21, 1914, took him back to 
his grandfather, Richardson Milner, who 
settled in 1825 at Diisseldorf, and married a 
German lady. Can any reader say where 
Richardson Milner came from, and cite any 
German books of reference which deal with 
his family in Germany ? 


LEITNER. What is known of the family 
of Elizabeth Leitner, who married Charles F. 
Amery of the Indian Forest Department ? 
Was she related to Dr. Leitner, the philo- 
logist ? J . M. BULLOCH. 

W. M. FELLOWS engraved a number of 
the additional plates in Smith's ' Antiquities 
of Westminster.' I should be glad to 
ascertain the date of his death, and to learn 
any information about him. 

G. F. R. B. 

RICH. FITZGERALD. I have an autograph 
letter on the current topics of the day 
addressed : "A Monsieur Mons r Le Cheu 1 " 
Bulstrode, Resident du Roy de la Grande 
Bretagne a Bruxeltes," from Rich, fitz- 
Gerald, Madrid, July 11, 1680. 

An account of Sir Richard Bulstrode is 
given in the ' D.N.B.' I should be very 
grateful for a few details of the life of his 
correspondent. ISRAEL SOLOMONS. 

12 S. I. JAN. 15, 1916.] 



FRODSHAM. In Mrs. Raine Ellis' s edition 
of Frances Burney's Diary in her preface 
to the "Tingmouth Journal " there is an 
obscure reference to a Mrs. Frodsham, ap 
parently a cousin of Mrs. Gast's (Mr. Crisp's 
executrix). Can any one tell me if there are 
any living descendants of the Frodsham 
family ? If so, particulars would be wel- 

According to Surtees, King Athelstan gave 
or restored South Wearmouth to the See of 
Durham about the year 930, and the grant 
included amongst other vills the two Ryhopes. 
Can any reader explain what the grant was 
intended to convey when it mentioned the 
two Ryhopes ? A. E. OTJGHTRED. 

Castle Eden. 

porary states that about 1658-9 JVVilliam 
Penn, the Quaker, " went to a private school 
on Tower Hill." What is known of this 

Devonshire House, Bishopsgate, E.G. 

STEWART FAMILY. Early in the eighteenth 
century the Hon. Oliver Lambart, brother 
of the Earl of Cavan, married Frances 
Stewart. Can any of your readers kindly 
give the names of her parents, and, if possible, 
say to which family of Stewarts they be- 
longed? Mrs. Frances Lambart died Jan. 3, 
1750, aged 67, and was buried at Westminster 
Abbey. Her youngest daughter and co- 
heiress, Sophia, married, in 1745/6, her 
cousin, the sixth Earl of Cavan, but left no 
issue. A. H. MACLEAN. 

14 Dean Road, Willesden Green, N.W. 

1. It is said that in the hour of death, 
especially by drowning, every event of the 
person's past life is usually recalled. Is 
there any authentic evidence about this ? 
Two friends of mine, each of whom has 
been nearly drowned, tell me they had no 
such experience. Neither got so far as being 
unconscious, and one thought this might 
account for his not passing his life in review. 
In what percentage of such cases of escape 
from imminent death as have been recorded 
is the experience noted ? 

2. Is being frozen to death a very painful 
process ? ALFRED S. E. ACKERMANN. 

DEATH WARRANTS. Does the King 
of England still sign " death warrants," 
and if not, when was the practice discon- 

known of the following churches or chapels 
that existed in the Middle Ages in Porte- 
mouth or the Island of Portsea, which are 
practically synonymous : St. Mary Colewort, 
St. Lawrence, St. Andrew, St. Mary Mag- 
dalen, and Little Gatcombe Priory ? 

There is a good deal of history attached 
to the Augustinian Priory of Southwick, 
about seven miles from Portsmouth, founded 
at Porchester 1133, moved to Southwick 
about 1145-53, but is there any picture or 
description of the buildings ? What were 
the books Leland found there and mentioned 
in the * Collectanea ' (? vol. iv. p. 148) ? 


desire to trace a Dutch print I presume 
anonymous of a group of women fighting 
for a pair of breeches. I cannot find it at 
the British Museum, either in the Print 
Room or Library. The only reproduction of 
it I know is in a book by J. Grand-Carteret, 
entitled 'La Femme en Culotte,' which 
appears impossible to procure just now. The 
period is Elizabethan. Perhaps one of your 
many readers can put me in the way of 
finding it. F. M. KELLY. 

FRYER. Can any reader throw light on 
bhe descendants of Mark Fryer and Margaret 
his wife ? He had the following children : 
Robert of Aldermanbury, London ; Ralph 
of Guildhall Yard and Edmonton ; Richard ; 
Sarah, wife of Thomas Umpleby ; Margaret 
and Elizabeth. 

The above Robert Fryer had children, 
Susanna, Sara, and Mark. Richard Fryer 
had a daughter, name unknown, who 

married Deacon. Robert was alive in 


PIGOTT OF HARLOW. Information is re- 
quested as to the issue (if any) of Thomas 
Pigott of Harlow, Essex. He was alive in 
1775 as he occurs in a tithe rental for that 
ear. His children may have been born in 
Condon, as his father was Thomas Pigott 
f St. John the Baptist, London, grocer. 

11 Brussels Road, S.W. 

should be glad of details concerning the life 
and works of the following: (1) Joannes 
Funccius, flor. 1550. (2) J. G. Sparfuenfeld, 
linguist, 1655-1727. (3) Jean Petit, printer 
at Paris, late fifteenth century. Where could 
a list of the books Petit printed be found ? 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. i. JAN. is, me. 

AUTHOR WANTED. In 1860, at Aldershot, 
in a book from Mudie's, I read the following 
in a poem attributed to Cardinal Wiseman. 
Being asked about the duration of the world, 
Time makes answer. 

Then asked I, " What of Rome? Shall she abide? " 
Time stepped aside, 
And in his place Eternity replied. 
Never since have I been able to trace the 
poem. I should feel obliged for a reference. 

V. D. G. 

Burke's ' Landed Gentry,' under ,Wyvill of 
Constable Burton, it is stated that Sir 
Marmaduke Asty W yvill, 7th Baronet, of 
Constable Burton,' who died in 1744, was 
" succeeded in his estates by his brother-in- 
law and cousin Rev. Marmaduke Wyvill, 
Rector of Black Notley, Essex." 

I am anxious to discover how the Rev. 
Marmaduke Wyvill was related to his 
brother-in-law otherwise than by marriage. 

P. D. M. 

HERALDRY. Could any correspondent 
kindly give me the name of the family 1 
bearing the following coat of arms, -viz. : 
Argent, on a fesse sable, between three roses 
proper, a mullet or ? 

It is on a picture of a clergyman which 
appears, from the costume, to have been 
painted in the late seventeenth or early 
eighteenth century. 


Kirkby Lonsdale. 

" BILLYCOCK." Can any reader say what 
sorb of hat this word properly describes ? 
Is it a round, smooth, hard, cloth " pot " hat, 
or a soft cloth hat of the nature of a wide- 
awake or even Australian ? Is there any 
truth in the suggestion that it takes its 
name from a spirited inventor whose Christian 
name was William and surname Cock ? 


[See the authorities cited at 10 S. vi. 40 ; ix. 27, 

LICENCES. Can any reader of ' N. & Q.' tell 
me where marriage licences issued by the 
Peculiar Court of Snaith are to be found 
and consulted, for the years 1810 to 1820 ? 
A selection was published in a book by a 
Canon Robinson, and some more, from 
records at York, in the Yorkshire Archaeo- 
logical Society's Journal; but, I believe, 
nothing of the years I wish to see. 


2/ Cable Street, Lancaster. 

PAPAL INSIGNIA. Can any of your readers 
inform me in what publication or elsewhere 
I can see plates of the insignia used by the 
Popes, particularly the insignia of Pope 
Nicholas V. suitable for reproducing on the 
frame of his portrait ? 


91 West Regent Street, Glasgow. 

BAPTISM, 1644. I should be glad to learn 
the particulars of the ceremony of baptism 
as performed in 1644, and referred to in the 
parish register of Maresfield, Sussex, of that 
year : " Baptized L T rsula Morgan ; the first 
child baptized after the new fashion." 


(US. xii. 442, 507.) 

J'AI jete un coup d'oeil sur les chroniques, et, 
naturellement, trouve pas mal de documents 
sur la question, mais je me suis, ensuite, 
apergu que tous ceux qui presentaient un 
reel interet etaient cites ou par Hallam 
' Middle Ages ' ou par Macpherson, ou par 
Cunningham. Peut-etre votre correspon- 
dant n'aura-t-il pas songe a consulter 
' Feudal England,' ou Ton trouve, p. 467, 
un renseignement sur le commerce des 
peaux de martres entre 1'Irlande et Rouen ; 
' Norman Conquest,' qui fait allusion, v. 864, 
a un marche au vin a Londres, commun aux 
Fran9ais et aux gens de Cologne ; enfin 
Jusserand, ' English Wayfaring Life,' qui 
(p. 235) cite les matieres exportees: laine, 
etain, charbon, beurre, fromage. 

Je me reprocherais d'allonger encore cette 
liste, mais je resumerais volontiers quelques 
passages des chroniques qui ont un rap- 
port avec les circonstances actuelles. Les 
premiers ont trait a des facons de blocus 
tentes au XIII e siecle contre 1'Angleterre ; 
1'autre, que je n'ai pas vu citer, au traitement 
particulier que Ton reservait parfois, vers 
cette epoque, aux marchands etrangers 
devenus indesirables. Voici ce qui se rapporte 
a la premiere question : je traduis et resume. 

A.D. 1263. Plus terribles que Charybde et 
Scylla eux-m ernes, les hommes des Cinq 
Ports ont pille les navires qu'ils rencontraient, 
et assassine leurs equipages. Les represailles 
ne se font pas attendre, et 1'Angleterre, 
jusque la plus fourni^ de marchandises que 
nul autre pays au monde, se yoit tout a 
coup dans la detresse. Les vins, vendus 

128. I. JAN. 15,1916.] 



precedemment 40 sous, trouvent desormais 
preneur a 10 marcs ; le poivre passe de 
f> deniers a 3 sous la livre ; le fer, 1'acier, les 
6toffes, tout manque ; le peuple est reduit 
a la misere, les marchands a la mendicite, 
car 1' exportation des merchandises anglaises 
est rendue de meme impossible. . . .C'est en 
vain que le comte de Leicester essaie de 
persuader aux bonnes gens que 1'Angleterre 
saura facilement se suffire a elle-meme, ce 
qui est faux, et que ses flatteurs ordinaires 
feignent de renoncer avec mepris aux etoffes 
teintes du Continent pour se revetir de laine 
brute tissee sur place. . . . Le dernier trait 
rappellera peut-etre a vos lecteurs une 
difficulte renouvelee recemment, qu'il est, 
paraft-il, question, defmitivement, de 
resoudre (Chron. Thomse Wykes, ' Ann. Mon.,' 
iv. 158). 

Quelques annees plus tard, en 1293 ou 
1294, les m ernes malheurs se reproduisent, 
cette fois a la suite d'un veritable blocus 
voulu par Philippe IV. de France, soit pour 
protester centre les pirateries indiquees plus 
haut (Ann. Dunstapliae, ' Ann. Mon.,' iii. 
389), soit pour venger une defaite que les 
hommes des Cinq Ports auraient infligee a 
ses na vires (Ann. de Oseneia, ' Ann. Mon.,' iv. 
336). Le resultat, dans tous les cas, est 
d^sastreux, surtout, sans doute, pour les 
finances monacales, car la laine des moines 
tombe a rien : a peine si Ton en peut tirer 
4 marcs le sac, alors qu'on en avait le double 
precedemment (et encore etait-ce une 
mauvaise affaire que cette autre vente, 
consentie aux usuriers de Cahors pour 
regler la dette d'un certain Ralph Pirot (* Ann. 
Mon.,' iii. 253). 

L'autre histoire, A.D. 1326, est celle d'un 
marchand de vin, Arnaud d'Espagne, qui 
parait avoir gravement offense les coutumes 
ainsi qu'on le lui fit bien voir. Si j'ai 
compris le texte, il avait vilipende le prix 
de rachat des tonneaux vides en les ramenant 
a deux sous, comme on dit,l'un dans 1'autre. 
II fut, pour cela, bien honorablement puni : 
une exception, me semble-t-il, lui valut 
d'avoir la tete tranchee; apres, toutefois, 
qu'on lui eut fait faire, nu-pieds sous une 
m6chante tunique, le trajet jusqu'au lieu 
du supplice " apud Nonesmanneslonde(?)" 
(Ann. Paulinide temp.Edw. II., ' Ann. Mon.,' 
i. 321). Pour nous permettre d'6tablir un 
contraste, Riley (' Memorials of London,' 
p. 318) cite le cas d'un autre marchand de 
vin, anglais celui-la, John Penrose, qui, 
quarante ans plus tard, fut puni pour un tour 
classique de son metier, un melange de je ne 
sais quel produit avec le vin de Gascogne. 
Le gaillard fut mis au pilori, eut a boire en 

public sa propre drogue, puis, lorsqu'il en 
eut absorbe plus que son soull, se vit encore 
arroser la tete avec le breuvage. II fut, 
d'ailleurs, condamne par surcroit a renoncer, 
pour toujours, a ses pratiques et a son 
commerce. PIERRE TURPIN. 

The Bayle, Folkestone. 

EDGAR ALLAN POE (11 S. xii. 302, 350, 
365, 510). In The Bookman for January, 
1909, appeared an illustrated article on 
' Edgar Poe and Some of his Friends,' by 
John H. Ingram. On p. 168 is an illustra- 
tion " from an old engraving " of " Poe's 
School at Stoke Newington, now demolished." 
I am not aware whether this is the sketch 
in Ingram' s ' Life of Poe ' referred to by 

Long Itchington, Warwickshire. 

In your issue of Dec. 25 MR. R. M. HOGG 

asserts, " The sketch in Ingram' s ' Life of 
Poe ' is also wrong." None of my works 
on E. A. Poe contains any sketch of the 
place referred to. The other assertion, 
that " There appears to be some con- 
fusion amongst Poe's biographers as to 
the site of Dr. Branby's [sic] school at 
Stoke Newington," does not include 

1 Hollingbury Terrace, Preston, Brighton. 

J. B. BRAITHWAITE (US. xii. 463, 508). 
Joseph Bevan Braithwaite (1818-1905) was 
an eminent consulting barrister,* and a 
leading member and well-known minister of 
the Society of Friends. He was for thirty- 
four years a member of the Committee of 
the British and Foreign Bible Society, on 
behalf of which he took long journeys abroad, 
visiting Christian communities in various 
parts of Europe, Syria, Egypt, and Asia 

It was during one of these in 1883 that 
the copy of the Koran must have been given 
to him at Tiflis by Abraham Ameerhanjants. 

Mr. Braithwaite had a long line of Quaker 
ancestry through both father and mother ; 
and through the latter, whose name was 
Lloyd, he claimed descent from Edward I., 
Alfred the Great, and Charlemagne. 

His imposing figure, massive head, clean 
shaven face, and rigid adherence on all 
occasions to the ancient Quaker garb, wera 
suggestive of ecclesiastical dignity. Had he 
left the Church of his fathers, when as a 
young man he was on the point of doing so, 

* Amongst his pupils was the Right Hon. Si" 
Edward Fry, G.C.B. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. i. JAN. is, 

he would jjprobably have en led his ciavs on 
the Episcopal bench. 

No better description of him can be found 
than the following from the pen oi his friend 
the^late Dr. Thomas Hodgkin : 

" An Evangelical and a mystic ; a theologian 
who was turned to Quakerism by the study of 
Hooker's ' Ecclesiastical Polity ' ; a treasure- 
house of Patristic lore reared outside the limits 
of that which is called the Catholic Church ; an 
eloquent preacher with halting tongue ; a learned 
and ingenious lawyer with the heart of a little 
child ; I believe one might add, a Jacobite Tory, 
all whose sympathies for many years were given 
to the Liberal Party in politics : these are some 
of the paradoxes in his mental history which 
made him so intensely interesting a study in 
character to all of his slightly younger contem- 


DEVIL (11 S. xii. 281, 324, 472, 490). At 
the penultimate reference attention is drawn 
to 1 S. iii. 282, where is a reply to a note, 
ibid., 207. In that note the statement is 
made that " Echard says that his highness 
[Oliver Cromwell] sold himself to the devil, 
and that he had seen the solemn compact." 

Laurence Echard, ' History of England,' 
vol. ii., 1718, p. 712, tells the story, but 
makes no positive assertion, and certainly 
says nothing about having seen the compact. 
After a short quotation from the ' History 
of Independency,' he gives 

" a more full Account never yet publish'd, which 
is here inserted as a Thing more wonderful than 
probable, and therefore more for the Diversion 
than Satisfaction of the Reader." 

At the end of the story he says : 

" But how far Lindsey is to be believ'd, and 
how far the Story is to be accounted incredible, 
is left to the Reader's Faith and Judgment, and 
not to any Determination of our own." P. 713. 

So much for B. B.'s statements. To this 
note S. H. H. sent a reply (p. 282), in which 
he gives a somewhat lengthy introduction to 
a copy of a MS. found among the papers of 
" a clergyman of the good old school," re- 
marking that " no date is attached to it 
nor any intimation of its history." This 
clergyman appears to have been born in or 
about 1740, and to have died in or about 

The history of the MS. is not mysterious. 
Though carelessly written, it is a copy, 
almost verbatim, from Echard's ' History,' 
vol. ii. pp. 712, 713, published in 1718. The 

* ' In Memoriam : J. B. Braithwaite, ob. Nov. 15, 
1005.' By Thomas Hodgkin. 

The Friend (London), vol. xlv. No. 47, Nov., 
1005, p. 765. 

last three paragraphs, as given in the copy* 
are not taken from Lindsey 's narrative, and 
the last paragraph is certainly Echard's own 
writing. Evidently the " clergyman of the 
good old school " had taken his copy, not 
quite exactly, from Echard. In the copy of 
the MS. there is a curious mistake or mis- 
print : p. 283, col. 1, below the middle, " the 
other person plorily declared " should be 
" the other peremptorily declar'd." Again, 
1. 8 from foot, " a sort of amaze " should be 
" a sort of a Maze." Again in col. 2, .1. 10, 
" I am sure " should be " I am assured." 
This last error is rather important : Echard 
does not say that he is sure, but that he ha& 
been assured. 

I suppose that very few persons refer to 
Laurence Echard's * History of England r 
now, yet there is much in it which cannpt 
easily be found elsewhere. 

I remember that I asked the late Mr. 
William E. H. Lecky what he thought of 
Echard's ' History.' . From his reply I 
gathered that he knew nothing about it. 

According to Allibone's ' Dictionary of 
English Literature ' : 

" Nothing did more to injure the work [' History 
of England '] than Echard's recital of Lindsey 's 
story of the conference and contract between 
Oliver Cromwell and the Devil on the morning 
of the battle of Worcester. Echard by no means 
endorses the truth of the narration, but he dis- 
misses the subject with a sly innuendo or perhaps 
intended pleasantry : ' How far Lindsey is to be 
believed,' &c." 

May I remark that in MB. WABD'S reply 
at the last reference the meaning of "I 
think it must have been in Walker's book 
that I came upon the story " is not clear 2 
What book of which Walker ? 


BAKEB'S CHOP-HOUSE (11 S. xii. 500). 
Referring to the notes on the above, it may 
be of interest to state that the first circular 
letter addressed to Evangelical ministers of 
the Gospel in and about London was issued 
from Baker's Chop-House, Nov. 4, 1794 or 
1795. It was signed by seven or eight 
ministers representing two or three different 
denominations having a common object, 
viz., to send the Gospel to foreign parts. 
The circular bore fruit, and meetings were 
subsequently held at the Castle and Falcon 
in Aldersgate Street, at one of which it is 
understood the society now known as the 
London Missionary Society had its origin. 
At that date the street was known as " Ex- 
change Alley." 

I have before me a letter, written some 
thirty years ago, from the gentleman who 

12 S. 1. JAN. 15, 1916.] 


at that time was the freeholder. In it h 
states : 

" I am to settle the sale of some property '. 
disposed of some time in the spring. A curiou 
tale for_ me to be the principal actor, and an 
illustration of what we sometimes see in the 
papers ' Value of City Property.' The house 
is situated up a close leading from the main street 
and used as, and known as, ' Baker's Coffee-House, 
an occupation which did not suit any of my 
boys, ^so I tried to sell (about ten years ago), bu 
the highest offer I got was 11,OOOL, my reserve 
being 16,OOOZ. I continued the tenant at 500Z 
a year. My health now induced me to try again 
and the first offer I got was 24,OOOZ.,and the same 
party who offered me the 11,OOOZ. bid me 26,000? 
I closed, and I think foolishly, as 30,OOOZ. migh 
have been got, but I ought to have been satisfied 

"It is a small dark hole, the greater part 
being always lighted with gas, and the frontage is 
only 27 ft. The house is very old, and I observe 
by the former conveyance cost 1,0 10Z. What a 
change in the value of property !" 

J. L. H. 

An interesting article on Baker's Chop- 
House, initialed G. A. H., appeared in The 
Christian World of Dec. 9, from which I 
venture to extract the following paragraph 

" No tablet marks the walls of Baker's to 
show that within its walls was born the London 
Missionary Society. But on November 4, 1794. 
as recorded in the pages of the late Mr. Silvester 
Home's history, eight men met in the little room 
on the second floor to found the great society 
which has done and dared so much. The little 
room is still there, though few of the hurried diners 
have seen it. On the walls hang portraits of 
Spurgeon and Parker, mighty men of a later 
century than Haweis and Bogue." 


Long Itchington, Warwickshire. 

RATS ET CRAPAUDS (US. xii. 482). It is 
not unlikely that rats do detest toads. 
These amphibians, like newts and, if I 
remember rightly, salamanders secrete a 
poisonous fluid in certain glands on their 
upper surface, which fluid they eject when 
molested. A little animal like a rat might 
find it deadly. English country people 
sometimes complain of being " venom ed " 
by toads and newts we have no salamanders 
but probably the fluid does not cause 
trouble unless it penetrates a slight wound. 
It might, however, affect the mucous 
membrane, and the eyes, if it came in 
contact with them. The head of a dog will 
sometimes swell when it has been foolish 
enough to take a toad into its mouth. I 
have been told, also, of a flock of turkeys 
which were blinded for a time by the swelling 
of the delicate skin on their heads, because 
they had pecked a toad. Consult Hans F. 
Gadow's,' Amphibia and Reptiles.' 

T. O. A. D. 

" FAT, FAIR, AND FORTY " (12 S. i. 10). 

I am afraid I cannot quite see what bearing 
the stanza of ' Don Juan ' cited by SIB- 
HARRY POLAND has on the .alliteration of 
" Fat, fair, and forty." 

In the early sixties Sam Co well used to 
sing a song entitled ' The One-Hoss Shay,' 
which described the vicissitudes of an elderly 
couple who " took a trip to Brighton " in 
that conveyance, and had their garments 
"pinched" by some shrimping urchins while 
bathing in an adjacent bay. It commenced :- 

Mistress Bubb was gay and free, 

Fair and fat and forty-three, 

And as blooming as a peony in buxom May, 

The toast she long had been 

Of the Farringdon within, 

And she filled the better half of a one-hoss shay. 


H. T. WAKE (11 S. xi. 397, 501 ; xii. 72, 
511). Mr. Wake must have moved to 
Fritchley, Derby, as early as Dec. 25, 1885,, 
for I have his Monthly Catalogue 110 with 
that address and date. It is printed on one 
side of a double folio sheet, and not an 8vo 
catalogue as are No. 1, New Series, April r 
1887, 1888, 1889, 1890, &c., all printed by 
Bemrose & Sons, Derby. I shall be glad to 
send it for inspection. THOMAS JESSON. 

xii. 260, 407, 487). While thanking your two 
correspondents for correcting my topography,. 
I must still keep to it, as I lived twenty-two 
years quite near Castellmarch. This is on 
Hell's Mouth, Porth Neigwl, or Port Nigel,, 
which are all one and the same, as a glance^ 
at any good map, e.g., Stieler's (Gotha,. 
Perthes, 1911), will at once convince the 
most sceptical. H. H. JOHNSON. 

103 Abbey Road, Torquay. 

" POPINJAY," " PAPAGEI " (11 S. xii. 440,. 
09). Further consideration had led me to 
he same conclusion as D. O. even before his 
etter appeared. It seems probable from a 
!S. of Schlenker's that apal and apampakai 
re not the same species ; it was on the 
upposition of the duplication of name 
or a single species that I suggested the 
erivation of apal from English. Parrots 
enerally seem to be rare, and I have seen 
nly one species. 

It is, of course, improbable, prima facie,. 

hat an animal or bird would get a Euro- 

ean name. But Timne, and probably 

adjacent languages, have shown extra^ 

ordinary powers, compared with other 

negro languages, of incorporating foreign. 



[12 S. I. JAN. 15, 1916. 

words. Some, like amesa, table, go back to 
the Portuguese era ; but the majority are 
English, often quite unrecognizable, like 
yentos, faskera, and kamter. That the im- 
portation was not limited to words for im- 
ported articles is shown by the fact that 
Timne has taken over verbs also ; trai, to 
try, is a conspicuous example, as the com- 
bination tr is not known in Timne. 

Egwoba, Manorgate Road, Norbiton. 

i. 11). In Mr. F. G. H. Price's little 
book, ' Temple Bar ; or, Some Account of 
" Ye Marygold " ' (1875), it is stated (p. 48) 
that this gentleman married Sarah, daughter 
of Paul Jodreil, Esq., but no date is given. 
He succeeded to the estates of his elder 
brother Francis on the death of the latter 
in 1763. He had also a sister, and there is 
still at Osterley Park an excellent group of 
these three when children, painted by 
Dandridge in 1741. He died June 28, 
1782, and a monument to his memory is on 
the south wall of the chancel in Heston 

His father, Samuel Child, was the ninth 
son of Sir Francis Child, Knight, Lord Mayor 
of London 1698, and brother of Sir Francis 
Child, Knight and Lord Mayor in 1731, and 
he married circa 1730, or possibly a little 
earlier, a Miss Agatha Edgar, whose portrait 
is also to be seen at Osterley Park, and who 
died in 1763, her husband having pre- 
deceased her on Oct. 15, 1752. 


Robert Child of Osterley married Sarah, 
daughter of Paul Jodreil, Esq. ; she re- 
married 1791 Lord Ducie. 

For some particulars of the banking firm 
of Child & Co. see Price's ' Handbook of 
London Bankers,' 1890-91. At p. 36 it gives 
the death of Mrs. Agatha Child in 1763, 
probably widow of Samuel who died 1752. 

Mr. Price also compiled ' The Marygold 
by Temple Bar,' giving a history of the firm, 
published by Quaritch. 


He married Oct. 6, 1763, Sarah, daughter 
of Gilbert Jodreil, Esq., by whom he had a 
daughter, Sarah Anne, born 1764, who 
married, May 18, 1782, John, 10th Earl of 
Westmoreland ; vide ' The Marvgold bv 
Temple Bar,' by F. G. Hilton Price, 1902 
p. 92. Robert Child's mother was Miss 
Agatha Edgar ; he died at Kingsgate, near 

400, 444, 483). I have before me a little 
book published by Longmans, 13th ed., 
1837, ' Hints on Etiquette,' &c., by Aywyos. 
Also, uniform with this, ' More Hints on 
Etiquette,' &c., by HouS'aywyos, with 
cuts by George Cruikshank, published by 
Charles Tilt, in 1838. The latter is a sort 
of burlesque on the former ; the " cuts " 
are admirable. Under the head of " Dinner," 
pp. 40-51, are instructions first how to get 
your dinner and then how to eat it. " It 
is a very easy thing to direct people to eat a 
dinner," we are told, "but it is no such easy 
matter to instruct them how to get one. 
The great Dando, to be sure, set a bad and 
daring example in this matter. Dando 
was a hero in his way." Then follow a couple 
of pages in support of this statement, and 
then, " We would, however, recommend 
the sponging system sponging for a dinner 
is much practised in genteel society," &c. 

J. T. F. 
Winterton, Doncaster. 

The ballad called The Life and Death of 
Dando ' I find in ' Fairbairn's Collection of 

More than sixty years ago I heard an 
oyster-seller shouting at a country fair, 
" Fresh Dandy oysters, all alive," and some 
old people spoke of Dando oysters. 


This famous club of amateur glee singers 
used originally to meet at Moray Lodge, 
Regent's Park, the residence of Mr. Arthur 
Lewis. They afterwards gave their delight- 
ful smoking concerts in the picture galleries 
in Suffolk Street and elsewhere. Little 
Johnnie Foster, the well-known Lay Vicar of 
Westminster Abbey, used to conduct, and, 
if I remember rightly, clay pipes, tobacco, 
and drinks were provided for the visitors. 

G. F. R. B. 

J. G. LE MAISTRE (11 S. xii. 480; 12 S. i. 
14). I find that I can now answer my own 
query contained in my reply. J. G. Le 
Maistre died at Cheltenham, aged 71, Nov. 4, 
1840. See Gent. Mag., 1840, pt. ii., p. 672. 

G. F. R. B. 

xii. 359, 458). I regret that MR. G. G. GREEN- 
WOOD should have published in your columns 
private information given by me in a letter, 
without further explanation. He had sent 
a query to this paper, which I did not notice, 
and he wrote me asking me to let him know 

12 S. I. JAN. 15, 1916.] 



what was my authority for saying that 
Meres was brother-in-law to Florio. I told 
him that I was ill, forbidden to use my eyes 
at work, yet nevertheless was cruelly over- 
worked in bringing out a book in a hurry, 
my ' Shakespeare' s Industry,' a Commemora- 
tion volume. Therefore I could not spare 
time and eyesight to go through my old 
notes at present. I had always thought 
that Florio was the brother-in-law of Daniell, 
until I was told otherwise. The reference 
has slipped out of my memory through the 
years, but I remember that I thought the 
;authoritv sufficient at the time I wrote it. 


" SPINET" (11 S. viii. 428). Though the 
4 N.E.D.' does not positively discard the 
hitherto accepted derivation of this word 
.as given by various authorities from Scaliger 
to Skeat, viz. from Ital. spinetta, diminutive 
of spina, a thorn or spine (pointed crow- 
quills being sometimes used in the con- 
struction of the keyboard of the instrument), 
this theory can now, I think, be dismissed 
as conjectural and obsolete. That is the 
Idea one gets, at any rate, from a perusal of 
the article on the spinet in Grove's ' Dic- 
tionary of Music and Musicians.' It is there 
pointed out that in 1876 a musical work 
was discovered in Italy called ' Conclusioni 
nel suono dell' Organo,' by D. Adriano 
Banchieri, published at Bologna in 1608, 
an which the following statement occurs : 

" Spinetto riceve tal nome dall' inventore di tal 
forma longa quadrata, il quale fu un maestro 
'(Tiovanni Spinetti, Venetiano, ed mio di tali stro- 
nienti ho veduto io alle mani di Francesco Stivori, 
organista della magnifica community di Montagnana 
dentrovi questa inscrizione : Joannes Smnetus 
venetus fecit A.D. 1503." 

From this it has been concluded that the 
>clavichord,which had been invented about the 
-end of the fourteenth century, was improved 
upon by Spinetti's addition to it of an oblong 
case, an addition which ultimately led to 
the instrument developing into the square 
piano. As the oblong instead of the earlier 
trapeze form of the case, and the crow-quill 
plectra, are known to have been in use in 
Italy about 1500, and soon afterwards made 
their appearance in Germany and Flanders, 
it is assumed that Spinetti's period of 
activity would fall within the second half 
of the fifteenth century, though until the 
discovery of Banchieri's work no record 
of his existence was known. Two early 
references to the spinet are mentioned 
in Van der Straeten's 'Musique aux Pays 
Bas,' from the years 1522 and 1526, as 
occurring in the household accounts of 

Margaret of Austria, who was Regent of the 
Netherlands from 1507 to 1530 : " Deux 
jeunes enfans ont jouhes sur une espinette," 
and " un instrument dit 1'espinette," which 
facts go far to prove that the instrument in 
question was quite a novelty at that parti- 
cular date. *N. W. HILL. 

S. xii. 481). James Walker, Mrs. Walker, 
three boys, two girls, and 39 slaves were 
entered in the census of the island of Nevis 
in 1677. He became a wealthy sugar- 
planter, and no doubt retired in his old age 
to England. 

Dorothy, his wife, made her will Aug. 7, 
1704, but it was never proved. She had 
three sons and two daus., viz. : I. Thomas 
Walker, eldest s. and h. of Stratford-by-Bow 
in 1725, and of Hatton Garden in 1739, when 
he sold his plantations ; m. Mary, dau. of 
Nicholas and Anne Crisp of Chiswick. 
II. Anthony Walker, made his will Nov. 30, 
1713, and devised his estate to his brother 
Pecock. III. Pecock Walker of Nevis, 
Esq., made his will March 19, 1724, and left 
his estate to his two sisters. IV. Mary 
Walker, m. Richard Lytcott of Springfield, 
co. Essex, and was of Ormond Street, widow, 
in 1734. V. Rechord Walker, m. Henry 
Hatsell of Stratford-by-Bow, gent. 

In 1727 Thomas Walker, the eldest son, 
accepted 1,700Z., and released all claims 
against the plantations of his brothers and 

Richard Lytcott, by Mary Walker, left an 
only s. and h. Richard Lytcott the younger, 
who made his will June 19, 1754, and d. in 
Nevis Dec. 5, 1755, leaving his sister fearah 
his h. at law. She m. Thompson Hicks 
who was of Epsom in 1750, later of Nevis, 
then of London in 1760, when he joined his 
wife in the sale of her moiety of the planta- 

Richard Lytcott Hicks of Nevis who d. 
April, 1786, was no doubt their son. 

Another Richard Lytcott Hicks d. m 
Nevis Jan. 10, 1836, aged 26, mid bis wife 
Georgiana Eliza on Aug. 5, 1835, aged 21, 
M.I. in St. George's. 

The above notes are proved by various 
indentures in Nevis and the Close Rolls, 
also by a lengthy deed in my own posses- 
sion. It does not appear whether Thomas 
Walker by Mary Crisp left issue ; it he die 
not, then the family is extinct in the male 
line. A pedigree of Pecock may be seen m 
Middlesex Pedigrees,' Harl. Soc. Pub., 
p. 52. V. L. OLIVER. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. i. JAN. is, wie. 

i. 11). 'Ah! vous dirai-je, Maman ? ' is 
given in the third volume or part of ' Chants 
et Chansons Populaires de la France,' 
nouvelle edition illustree, 1848, about the 
middle of the volume, which is not paged. 

A preliminary notice by du Mersan, 
author of many of the notices, says that the 
composer of the air is unknown to the pro- 
fessors and to those learned in music ; but 
that from its style (facture) it evidently 
dates from a hundred years ago (i.e., about 
1748). The note adds that the words are 
of the period of the vaudeville shepherds 
(Bergers de Trumeaux}. Perhaps " fancy 
dress shepherds " would be a better transla- 

The title given to the words is ' La Confi- 
dence,' while the heading of the music for 
the voice and piano is ' Ah, vous dirai-je, 
maman.' The song is placed with and 
between ' Philis, plus avare que tendre ' 
(' L'avaricieuse '), and ' L'amour est un 
enfant trornpeur ' (' La curieuse '). Accord- 
ing to du Mersan, ' Philis,' &c., was by 
Charles Riviere Dufresny (1648-1724), appa- 
rently both words and music ; and 
* L'amour,' &c., author apparently unknown, 
belongs to the time of ' Ah ! vous dirai-je, 
Maman ? ' " Who is there," asks du 
Mersan, " who in his or her youth has not 
sung the song ? " ROBERT PIERPOINT. 

I believe that all trace of the writer 
of " Ah ! vous dirai-je, maman ? " is lost. 
It appears anonymously in Louis Montjoie's 
' Chansons Populaires de la France,' as also 
in John Oxenford's ' Book of French Songs,' 
in which occurs the note (p. 41) : 

" What young lady who has taken half-a-dozen 
lessons on the piano is unacquainted with the air of 
' Ah vous flirai-je,' which is by some attributed to 
Rossini ? The words, which are anonymous, are 
less generally known." 


SIR JOHN SCHORNE (12 S. i. 4). The 
correct reading of the eighth and ninth 
versicles of the sequence must surely be as 
follows : 

Aue duum puerorum 
suscitator submersorum 
per tua suffragia. 

Aue tu qui es cunctorum 
consolator miserorum 
qui sunt in tristieia. 

It would seem that the legend of Schorne 
contained a story of the restoration to life 
of two drowned boys. In most handwritings 
of the period the words duum and diuini 
(each consisting of a d followed by seven 

minims) would be indistinguishable. Dn> 
BARCLAY SQUIRE, however, is probably right 
in saying that the Spetchley MS. has clearly 
diuini. The scribe may have been un- 
acquainted with the particular miracle, and 
so have failed to recognize the numeral.. 
Hence, when he had inadvertently written 
the first line of the ninth versicle instead of 
that of the eighth, he saw no reason why 
the displaced line should be inappropriate 
in the ninth versicle. 


I do not know whether Sir John Schorne 
is elsewhere said to have rescued two boys 
from drowning ; but in any case I should 
read, in stanzas 9 (Spetchley) and 8 (Sloane),. 
" Ave duum puerorum," which would give 
a perfectly good sense in both passages ; 
and I should be inclined to read " submer- 
sorum " in Sloane 8, and " subuersorum " 
in Spetchley 8. J. T. F. 

GUNFIRE AND RAIN (12 S. i. 10). The- 
farmers of Galloway, that is Wigtonshire 
and Kirkcudbrightshire, believe that gun- 
fire caused rain, as is shown by their M.P.,. 
Capt. Lord Dalrymple, asking in the House 
if it was not possible for the naval autho- 
rities to postpone the firing of the big guns 
of the warships in the Solway and Irish 
Channel until after the harvest, because it 
was noticeable that after such firing rain 
came down in torrents, and so hindered the- 
gathering of the crops. I think it was in 
July, 1913, that the Captain asked the- 
question. W. MEIKLE. 

Mr. Ackermann in his ' Popular Fallacies," 
published some eight years ago, says : 

"It has been often stated that the noise of 
cannon will produce rain, and it is not unusual in> 
the Austrian Tyrol to hear the church bells ring- 
ing to avert thunder. These are fallacies. The? 
experiments in America, made recently, to test 
whether rain could be produced by exploding a 
large quantity of gunpowder in the air, resulted in. 
nothing except noise and smoke, though the thing 
was well worth trying." 


It may not be amiss to mention an ex- 
perience that seemed to imply a strong 
confirmation of popular belief. Many years 
ago, when volunteering was an interesting 
pastime rather than a serious enterprise,, 
there was a country district in Scotland in 
which big-gun practice regularly occurred 
on the Saturday afternoon. As regularty 
the inhabitants in the long run expected 
that the day would end in rain. The two- 

12 S. I. JAN. 15, 1916.] 



events had frequently happened in such 
notable succession that they came to be 
considered as cause and effect. Observation 
on the spot makes it possible to say now 
that, whether it was coincidence or not, 
the rain came in three cases out of four after 
the reverberations of what were popularly 
called " the Corporal's big guns." 


The hypothesis has been stated thus : 

" When any violent agitation of the air, such 
as the sound waves due to thunder, or cannonad- 
ing, or other explosions, sets the cloud particles in 
motion, they may be driven together until brought 
into contact and united with larger drops." 

However plausible this may be, it must be 
confessed that no one has ever yet observed 
precipitation actually formed by this pro- 
cess. See the articles on meteorology in 
* The Encyclopaedia Britannica,' 1911 ed., 
pp. 289, 290, sub ' Formation of Rain.' 


(11 S. xii. 501). The garden-graveyard in 
Bream's Buildings is only a small portion of 
the burial-ground secured before 1597 for 
the parishioners of St. Dunstan's-in-the- 
West (vide Bell, ' Fleet Street in Seven 
Centuries,' p. 251). Bream's Buildings and 
the school in Graystoke Place cover part of 
its area. 

I have always understood it was identified 
as the " Upper Ground " to distinguish it 
irom the old graveyard, " the Lower Ground," 
adjoining the church on its north side. 
Denham's ' History of St. Dunstan's-in- 
the-West ' provides illustrations and epi- 
taphs of the monuments in the church 
demolished in 1829, but probably many of 
the older monuments were lost and graves 
obliterated when this edifice was enlarged 
and improved ,'n 1701. 


442, 507). Joane, daughter of Richard 
Haycock, married Alexander Woodd of 
Shine Wood, co. Salop (died 1546), son of 
Lawrence Woodd of Holly Hall, co. York, 
"by his wife Jane, daughter of Sir Philip 
Yonge of Caynton, co. Salop. They had a 
daughter Ellen, wife of John Pershouse of 
Sedgeley Hall, co. Salop ; and four sons, 
viz. : 1. Peter Woodd of Shine Wood, 
who was father of Alexander Woodd of 
White Abbey, and six other sons. 2. Wil- 
liam Woodd, who died s.p. 3. John Woodd 
of Shawbury, co. Salop, whose son William 
died 1576, leaving by Catherine his wife 

a son, Rev. Richard Woodd, Vicar of Shaw- 
bury and Cound, who died 1648, leaving 
a son William, of Muckleton, who was 
born about 1597, and married his relative 
Anne Woodd. 4. Rowland Woodd. 

Richard Haycock's residence is not re- 

A branch of this family was settled at 
West Haddon, Northamptonshire, until well 
into the last century, when it became extinct. 
The first entry in the parish registers is the 
birth (not baptism) of Elizabeth, daughter of 
John and Em' Heicock, April 10, 1656. The 
name is variously spelt Heicock, Heicccke, 
Heycocke, Haycocke, Heycock, and Haycock. 

Long Itchington, Warwickshire. 

MONERS (11 S. xii. 501 ; 12 S. i. 36). Mary 
Maria Winifred Francisca (Sherburne), widow 
of Thomas, eighth Duke of Norfolk, married 
Peregrine Widdrington in 1733. 

Frances (Scudamore), divorced wife of 
Henry, third Duke of Beaufort, married in 
or after 1734 Charles Fitzroy, natural son 
of the first Duke of Grafton. 

Anna Maria (Stanhope), widow of Thomas, 
third Duke of Newcastle, married in 1800 
Lieut.-General Sir Charles Crauford, G.C.B. 

Killadoon, Celbridge. 

(11 S. xii. 279, 346, 385, 446, 506). 
What I wished to know was how MR. H. H. 
JOHNSON could prove that Mother Huffcap 
and Mother Damnable, and others unnamed, 
were one and the same person. J. C. Hotten 
gives a whole page to the sign of Mother 
Redcap, presumably included in the others, 
and what he says would lead to another 
conclusion. He tells us that the sign of 
Mother Redcap is ancient and widespread ; 
that at one time the Mother Redcap in 
Kentish Town was kept by an old crone, 
from her amiable temper surnamed Mother 
Damnable ; and adds that this was probably 
the same person elsewhere alluded to .as 
Mother Huff, as in Baker's ' Comedy of 
Hampstead Heath,' Act-.IL, sc. i. : "Well, 
this Hampstead's a charming place, to 
dance all night at the Wells, and be treated 
at Mother Huff's." He does not mention 
Mother Huffcap, from which one may con- 
clude it is a modern sign. In any case 
there seems to be no equation of a person 
who kept a tavern and the original alewife 
personified in its sign. 



[12 S. I. JAN. 15, 1916. 

Nor do I see the " equation " which MB. 
H. H. JOHNSON gives in the matter of the 
drink. Because a man says at one time, 
" The ale is strong, 'tis Hufcap," and at 
another time says, " The ale is of the best, 
'tis frothy," it does not follow that frothy 
ale is Hufcap, any more than it follows that 
frothy ale is strong. The dictionaries all 
agree that Huffcap is strong ale, but do not 
attempt to decide the derivation of the 
name. Dyce's attempt to do so seems very 
far-fetched, particularly if MB. JOHNSON is 
right in asserting that all the " Mothers " 
were one and the same person. For the 
Mother Redcap sign only claimed that the 
ale was good : 

Old Mother Redcap, according to her tale, 
Lived twenty and a hundred years by drinking this 
good ale. 

If indeed it could be shown that Huffcap 
was frothy ale, I think we should be nearer 
the derivation. " Huff " is as near as we 
can get to the sound made when a man 
blows off the froth. And if this kind of ale 
was vulgarly called " huff," and was sold at 
the Mother Redcap, the name huff-cap 
might easily be evolved, and as easily trans- 
ferred to cider e.nd perry in the counties in 
which those drinks prevailed. 

As Hotten has not been referred to, I 
may add that he deals fully with Tom o' 
Bedlam, but does not mention George 
in the Tree. But this is probably King 
Charles in the Oak brought up to date 
in a later reign by a publican more loyal 
than learned. A. T. M. 


xi. 151, 198 ; xii. 380, 446 ; 12 S. i. 13). 
This was Don Quixote's view : 

" Advertid que el amor y laguerra son una misma 
cosa, y asi como en la guerra es cosa licita y 
acostumbrada usar de ardides y extratagemas 
para veneer al enemigo, asi en las contiendas y 
competencias amorosas se tieneii por buerios los 
embustes y maranas que se hacen para conseguir el 
tin que se desea." ' Don Quixote,' Part II. cap. xxi. 

IVY BBIDGE (11 S. xii. 317). Ivy Bridge, 
or Pier, was situated at the bottom of Ivy 
Lane, and was used as the landing-stage of 
the halfpenny steamboats that used to ply 
between the Strand and London Bridge 
up to 1847. Perhaps this is the landing- 

Elace referred to by Pepys (May 10, 16G8). 
trype says the bridge was lately taken 
down. The gardens of Carlisle House 
extended to Ivy Bridge. Ivy Lane was the 
eastern boundary of Durham House, and 
marked the limit of St. Martin's parish ; 

from Ivy Bridge to near Temple Bar was in 
the liberty of the Duchy of Lancaster (' Old 
and New London,' vol. iii. ; ' Adelphi and 
its Sites,' Wheatley, 1885). " Ivie Lane,'" 
Newgate Street, is mentioned by Stow 
(1842 edition, pp. 117 and 128). 

35 Church Avenue, Drumcondra, Dublin. 

ST. SWITHIN AND EGGS (11 S. xii. 480 ? 
12 S. i. 16). It may be as well to say that 
this spelling of the saint's name is by no 
means a modern affectation. In a metrical 
Life of the thirteenth century (Bodleian MS- 
Laud 463, fol. 63), quoted "by Prof. Earle, 
we have " Seint Swithin ]> e confessor "" 
plain enough. I ought to have said in my~ 
reply (ante, p. 16) that the egg miracle is 
not omitted in this MS. The heroine 
appears with " a bagge ful of eyren," is 
roughly treated by a man, and made happy 
by " Seint Swithin," who blessed the " eiren 
that weren to broke," and put them all 
together again (see ' Gloucester Fragments,' 
i. p. 79). ST. SWITHIN. 

ALCESTEB (11 S. xii. 257). The earliest 
known reference to this place is in * Car- 
tularium Saxonicum,' charter 134, where 
it is spelt Alneceaslre, i.e., the castle or fort 
on the river Alne. EDWABD SMITH. 



S. xii. 421 ). (3) Thos. Lisle. Can he be this 
one mentioned in Foster's * Al. Ox ' ? Son of 
Edward of Crux Eston, Hants, arm. Magd. 
Hall matric. Sept. 10, 1725, aged 16 ; demy 
1726-32, B.A. 1729, M.A. 1732, Fellow 
1732-47, B.D. 1740, D.D. 1743. Dean of 
Arts 1740, Bursar 1741, Public Orator 1746-9 ;. 
Rector of Wootton, Isle of Wight, 1737, and 
of Burghclere, Hants; died March 27, 1767, 
I think Magdalen Hall must be a mistake for 
Magdalen Coll. M.A.OxoN_ 

No book appears to have been published 
on the subject of mascots in the British 
Army. The following articles may, there- 
fore, be useful to your correspondent : 

' Pets of the Regiments,' in Danby and 
Field's ' British Army Book,' Blackie, 1914.. 

' Regimental Pets,' in Tucker's ' Romance 
of the King's Army,' Hodder & Stoughton,, 

' Regimental Pets,' by E. W* Low, in, 
The English Illustrated Magazine, vol. xviii.. 
p. 309. 

' Regimental Pets,' by J. P. Groves, int 
The Art Journal, vol. xliii. p. 201 


12 s. i. JAN. is, 1916.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

487). In my query I referred to a copy 
mentioned by Prof. Dowden as being in 
the library of the Duke of Devonshire. 
LIEUT. JAGGARD has supplied the useful 
information that a copy never existed in 
that library. I am not satisfied with his 
reference to the third copy. If such a rare 
bibliographical treasure had turned up, it 
would surely have been chronicled and the 
owner identified. Recently a copy of the 
1612 edition found its way to America, which 
may account for MB. JAGGARD' s third copy 
of the 1599 edition. MAURICE JONAS. 

THE BRITISH EMPIRE (11 S. ix. 7, 94, 254 ; 
xii. 73). The following extract from The 
Daily Telegraph of Dec. 30, 1915, may be 
worth adding to the discussion of this sub- 
ject : 


" The Royal Mail Steam Packet Merionethshire, 
running in the Eastern service of the Royal Mail 
Steam Packet Company, has just arrived in 
London, having amongst its cargo a flagstaff 
measuring 215 ft., and weighing eighteen tons. It 
has been presented by the Government of British 
Columbia to Kew Gardens, to replace the one 
recently taken down, measuring 159 ft. 

" The new flagstaff is one of the largest in the 
world, and is made from the trunk of a Douglas 
fir-tree grown in British Columbia." 


SONG WANTED (11 S. xii. 503 ; 12 S. i. 38). 
What MR. COOLIDGE wants is ' The Scholar 
Navvy : an Anticipation,' by G. K. Menzies, 
in a book of verses about Oxford. I can lend 
him a copy of the poem. H. COHEN. 

3 Elm Court, Temple, E.C. 

An American Garland, being a Collection of Ballads 
relating to America, 1563-1759. Edited with 
Introduction and Notes by C. H. Firth. (Ox- 
ford, Blackwell, 3s. Qd. net.) 

STUDENTS of English literature and history may 
well be grateful to Prof. Firth for this book. 
The attitude of the generations of the street 
towards America and the successive problems 
presented by its conquest and colonization is 
interesting alike for what it includes and for what 
it ignores, and direct evidence of any sort con- 
cerning it is not plentiful. This renders the 
little that we have all the more valuable. As 
Prof. Firth remarks, it is surprising that 
America plays so small a part in the ballad litera- 
ture of the " black-letter period i.e. till about 
1700. What with exploration and fighting the 
Indians, Puritan settlements, kidnapping into 
slavery, and the divers political and social dis- 
turbances in the colonies, one would have supposed 
there was plenty in the early English occupation 

of America to stir the imagination and provoke 
the rough caustic wit of the ballad-monger. 
But for some reason it did not so turn out. Where- 
as the black-letter ballads printed during the- 
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries number 
some four or five thousand, examples relating to 
America are of the greatest rarity. No doubt 
some have perished indeed, so much is certain 
from entries in the registers of the Stationers'^ 
Company ; but, on the other hand, diligent col- 
lectors of ballads came pretty early upon the- 
scene, and if such songs had been popular and 
circulated in a great number of copies, they would 
surely appear as a larger percentage of the sur- 
vivals. One can but suppose that those points 
in the emigrants which might provoke satire 
could be more tellingly illustrated from examples 
at home ; whilst for story- telling and romantic 
purposes generally America was at once too un- 
familiar and too much of hard matter of fact. 

Twenty- five ballads are given us here. The 
sources from which they come are the Roxburghe 
Ballads in the British Museum ; the collections 
of Rawlinson and Douce at the Bodleian ; Pepys's 
collection at Magdalene College, Cambridge, 
and the Suffolk collection at Britwell Court, to 
which must be added examples from Prof.. 
Firth's own collection, some of which had not 
been printed before. 

The first ballad given is that on the ' Adven- 
turous Viage ' of Thomas Stutely, of slender 
interest except for its date. ' Have over the 
Water to Florida ' is one of the few which have 
some touch of literary merit. But of the group 
of earlier ballads the most generally interesting 
is the ' News from Virginia,' relating the voyage 
of Sir George Somers, who reached Virginia in 
1610 after being shipwrecked on one of the 
Bermudas. ' London's Lotterie ' to be referred 
to 1612 is an amusing, and also rather instruc- 
tive, illustration of the kind of inducements held 
out to the people to support the foundation of 
the colony of Virginia. It is remarkable that,, 
when we come to the Puritan emigration, there 
is no ballad favourable to the Puritans. In the 
satirical verses which are included also in * Merry 
Drollery ' the peculiarities of the Roundhead 
are handled with a roughness which has occasional 
gleams of wit and cleverness in it. 

The aspect of America more precisely of 
Virginia as the land to which the irksome or 
undesirable might be transferred by kidnapping,, 
and where they led a piteous and oppressed 
existence as slaves, forms the subject of the best 
of the remaining ballads if we except the half- 
dozen or so at the end which deal with Wolfe.. 
The last in the volume is the frigid and stupid 
song, with its tiresome classical conceits, supposed 
to have been written by Thomas Paine, which 
may be contrasted with that beginning ' Bold 
General Wolfe to his men did say,' a delightful' 
example of a street song. 

This leads us to express a wish that the literary- 
editors of ballads would give more attention than 
they commonly do to the tunes to which the verses 
are to be sung. One can form no just idea of a 
ballad without being able to fit the words to their 
proper melody, for as often as not, the best points 
are made by the tune rather than by the words. 
We do not suppose that a great many of Prof. 
Firth's readers are able off-hand to hum ' The 
Lusty Gallant,' or ' The Townsmen's Cappe,' or 
' A Taylor is a man.' We should like to suggest 

NOTES AND QUERIES. 112 s. i. JAN. is, me. 

that, wherever it is possible, the tune should be 
given as well as named, and of these particular 
songs we should much like to know the tunes 
for ' Have over the Water to Florida ' and ' Bold 
General Wolfe.' 

In conclusion a word must be said hi appre- 
ciation of the agreeable and lucid essay, packed 
full of information, which forms the introduction. 
But at this time of day it is superfluous to draw 
attention to the merits of Prof. Firth's work. 

The Cambridge Songs. A Goliard's Song Book 
of the Eleventh Century. Edited from the 
Unique Manuscript in the University Library 
by Karl Breul, Litt.D. (Cambridge University 
Press, 11. Is. net.) 

DR. BREUL, who is Professor of German in the 
University of Cambridge, has been interested for 
over thirty years in the remarkable collection of 
mediaeval Latin poems known as ' The Cambridge 
:Songs.' His first article on the subject appeared 
iin vol. xxx. of Haupt's Zeitschrift filr deutsches 
Alterthitm. The precious manuscript is supposed 
to have come to Cambridge during the last quarter 
of the seventeenth century. It was not in the 
University Library in 1670, but was purchased 
soon after that date put of Bishop Racket's 
bequest. John Leland, just before the middle of 
,the sixteenth century, saw it at St. Augustine's 
Abbey, Canterbury. 

The Goliard's Songs form only a small, though 
important part of the collection, and in this volume 
Dr. Breul gives a photographic reproduction of 
all of them, a trustworthy transliteration, and 
many valuable elucidations of the text, and com- 
ments on the subject-matter. The handwriting 
shows a mixture of Continental and old English 
characters, and there are other differences which 
suggest more than one scribe : certain numbers 
are extracts from Latin authors, 37 are in Latin, 
and two are in macaronic, a mixture of Latin and 

For nearly two centuries the Cambridge collec- 
tion has attracted the notice of scholars in our 
country, and, naturally, also in Germany (Jacob 
Grimm, Pertz, Uhland, &c.). 

The Songs deal with religious subjects, praises 
of Christ, Mary, patron saints, &c. ; others refer 
to memorable events which occurred during the 
second half of the tenth, and the first half of the 
eleventh century ; while a considerable number 
treat of novelistic and humorous themes. Some 
even tell of spring, love, and music. One is about 
a snow-child ; another gives the legend of a youth 
who, although he made a compact with the devil 
in order to win the hand of the girl he loved, was 
finally rescued from the clutches of the Evil One. 
For humour may be mentioned the account of 
Bishop Heriger's examination of the braggart 
who maintained that he had visited heaven and 
.hell, or the tale of the cunning Swabian arch-liar. 
In two numbers the text is provided with 
neum-accents. And Dr. Breul makes the par- 
ticularly interesting remark that the satiric 
poet Sextus Amarcius, who wrote about the 
middle of the eleventh century, mentions the 
subjects of four poems that were sung by a mime 
before a Rhenish audience, and he adds, " No 
fewer than three of these songs are among those 
of the Cambridge collection." Probably Dr. 
Breul is right ; though the subjects might be the 
.same, yet the poems different. 

Concerning No. 11, c De Heinrico,' Dr. Breul 
has a specially long note. Up to fairly recent 
times it was supposed to refer to one of the several 
reconciliations of the German Emperor Otto I. 
the Great (936-73) with his rebellious brother, 
Henry I., Duke of Bavaria. Unfortunately, how- 
ever, the parchment containing the ending of the 
most important line, apparently in favour of 
Otto's brother, is worn off, probably owing to 
frequent turning of the leaf. The whole of this 
note offers a specimen of the care and critical 
acumen with which the Songs have been treated. 
The excellent photographs, in size exact reproduc- 
tions of the original, were taken by Mr. W. F. 
Dunn, of the University Library. 


AN interesting personality has passed away in the 
death of Mr. Harry Hems of Exeter. Born in 1842 
at Islington, he was sent at an early age to Minasi's 
Educational Academy, and so beneficent was the 
influence of this famous master that the pupil 
always spoke of him as the most wonderful man 
Islington had ever produced. 

Hems began work at Sheffield in the family 
trade of cutler, but his taste for carving showed 
itself early and persistently, and when his father 
left Islington in 1855 he was'apprenticed to a wood- 
carver, and after a visit to Italy commenced 
business in Exeter in 1866 as sculptor and ecclesi- 
astical art worker. Many important works were 
completed by him with the best results. The 
High Altar Screen at St. Albans was one of his 
admirable restorations ; and many memorials 
at Exeter, Tavistock, and other West-Country 
churches give evidence of his skill, taste, and 
wise restraint. His business success was marked 
each year by a banquet given to the poor of 
Exeter, and that city will long retain a regard 
for the memory of this admirable citizen. As 
an antiquary and contributor to these pages, 
MR. HEMS had a vigorous enthusiasm and great 
diversity of interests. A large number of his 
notes appeared in the Ninth and Tenth Series. A 
voluminous correspondent, he wrote me numerous 
letters giving his recollections of Islington, and he 
was always interested in its changes and the pro- 
gress of the excellent Islington Antiquarian and 
Historical Society. A. A. 


ON all communications must be written the name 
and .address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

S. R. C. " An Austrian army awfully arrayed. 
These lines were printed in full at 3 S. iv. 88, and 
were discussed in vol. i. of our Tenth Series at 
pp. 120, 148, 211, 258, 277, 280. Their authorship 
has been the subject of some conjecture. They 
may be found in The Trifler, May 7, 1817, and in 
Bentlcy'ft Miscellany, March, 1838. 

CORRIGENDUM. ' Inscriptions in the Churchyard 
of St. Mary's, Lambeth,' 11 S. xii. 397, No. 144, for 
" Larkson Stanfield " read Clarkson Stanfield. 

12 S. I. JAN. 22, 1916.] 




CONTENTS.- No. 4. 

TfOTES : Contributions to the History of European 
Travel, 61 Two Letters by Thomas Holcroft. 61 Statues 
and Memorials in the British Isles, 65 Folk-Lore at 
Sea. 66-Turning the Cheek for a Kiss An Epigram by 
Julius Cfesar Scaliger Robert Shorton, Dean of 
Stoke, 67" Staig "Dickens and the Fox-under-the- 
Hill, 68. 

QUERIES : 4 Generation c. A.D 1250 Barker, Chaplain 
to Queen Katharine of Aragon. 68 Authors Wanted 
Father Christmas and Christmas Stockings The 
Family of Hackett The Pindar of Wakefield Cruelty 
to Animals Col. John Pigott, 69 Resemblances between 
Semitic and Mexican Languages Tharp Family 
Phillott Will Wanted Brook's 'Ancient War Odes' 
Shrines and Relics of Saints- Old-Style Table to Find 
Easter Mari <. the Jewess Rosicrucians Life of Johnson 
In the 1825 Edition of his Works Strowbridge, School- 
master, 1718 Biographical Information Wanted, 70. 

REPLIES : The Name of the River Trent, 71' The Vicar 
of Bray,' 72 Heart- Burials : Dr. Livingstone's Heart 
Whittington's House, Crutched Friars. 73 Employment 
of Wild Beasts in Warfare John Whitfield, Actor 
Regimental Nicknames, 74 Thomas May, Recorder of 
Chichester " Meddle and muddle " " Murray's Railway 
Reading," 75 The Water of the Nile : the Tigris' A 
Lost Love,' by Ashford Owen Arthur Hughes, the Pre- 
Raphaelite' Comic Arundines Cami,' 76 Skull and Iron 
Nail Col. John Hayes St. Leger The Newspaper Placard 
Clerks in Holy Orders as Combatants Dublin, Topo- 
graphy, 77 Kennett, M.P. ' L'Espion Anglois' Enemies 
of Books 'The Meteor, or Monthly Censor ' Parish 
Registers, 78 Village Pounds Latton Family Cold 
Hands, Warm Heart, 79. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : ' Burke's Peerage and Baronetage ' 
' Manual of Gloucestershire Literature ' ' L'lntermd- 

Notices to Correspondents. 


SINCE the publication of the notes on 
* Seventeenth-Century Travel ' printed in 
'N. & Q.,' 11 S. xii. 42, 63, 81, I have 
been engaged in noting and abstracting 
a number of sixteenth- and seventeenth- 
century travel books and manuscripts. It 
has occurred to me that a few of the more 
interesting and less accessible itineraries 
might be useful to readers of ' N. & Q.' 



In the library of St. Mark at Venice, among 
the dispatches addressed to his government 
by Piero Contarini, Venetian Ambassador 
Extraordinary to the Court of James I., 
1617-18, are a number of letters and 
journals written by the Ambassador's 
chaplain, Horatio Busino. These were 
compiled for the amusement of his patron's 

brothers, and contain such familiar details 
as the Ambassador did not think fit to com- 
municate to the Senate or was too busy to 
transmit to his family. The chaplain was a 
man of shrew r dness and observation, and was 
endowed with high spirits and unbounded 
good humour. His letters are genial and 
well written, and his account of the journey 
of the Ambassador and his train from Venice 
to London is no ordinary traveller's diary, 
but an extremely interesting narrative. 
A translation of the whole of the MS. by the 
late Rawdon Brown is preserved at the 
Record Office, but has not been printed.* 
A resume in which the journey is briefly 
described appeared in The Quarterly Review 
for October, 1857; and Busino 's notes upon 
England, which he called Anglipotrida, have 
recently been translated and printed in the 
C.S.P. (Venetian), 1617-19, and make ex- 
cellent reading. 

The Ambassador left Venice at short 
notice on Sept. 2, 1617, but for the 
first few days his progress was slow. His 
train comprised a courier, a house steward, 
the chaplain, the keeper of the wardrobe, 
the butler, two grooms of the chamber, an 
assistant groom, besides four footmen " in 
number 12, with as many more large coif res 
and other baggage." 

The Ambassador was anxious to avoid 
the territories of Austria and Spain, and 
took the road via Vicenza and Verona 
to Brescia, which was reached on Sept. 7. 
Leaving again, the travellers arrived at 
Bergamo, and proceeded on their journey 
by roads which were little better than half- 
dried water - courses. The bridges were 
built, for the most part, of tottering wood ; 
and at one place the mare carrying his 
Excellency's bed fell on to a ledge of a 
precipice, and but for speedy help would 
have gone to the bottom a fate which 
later befell some of the valises. On Sept. 9 
the travellers, riding through fog and over 
mountains, reached Morbegno, the first 
town of the Grisons. Here they found an 
excellent inn, and consumed some large and 
very good trout and slept the night, depart- 
ing the next day in the direction of Spliigen. 
At Chiavenna the inn was sumptuous beyond 
measure, but the travellers' satisfaction 
was short-lived. The road tending westward 
narrowed into tunnels and passes " down 
which from their pastures came the 
cattle of the country, in number exceeding 

* The narrative of the journey from Venice to 
London is contained in ' Venetian Transcripts,' 

vol. cxlii. pp. 1-46. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. i. JAN. 22, im. 

five or six thousand," molesting the travellers 
with their horns. After this a number of 
packhorses, laden with dairy produce and 
other commodities, passed and hustled 
them ; and later, when they crossed the 
Spliigen Pass, discomfort gave way to terror. 
They were travelling in the midst of the 
most " frightful " mountains. The roads, 
though paved, were so uneven that the 
journey was perilous to a degree ; and all the 
time Busino becomes painfully aware that 
Italy is exchanged for Germany. The 
churches were bare and desolate, and true 
religion gave place to heresy. Miles became 
leagues in weariness as well as length, and 
" cam ere " became " Stuben." They entered 
the village of Spliigen through narrow gorges 
overhung by tall trees, along a road which 
was so difficult that Busino and his com- 
panions seemed to be descending into the 
infernal regions rather than seeking shelter 
in a village. The emotion was deepened 
by the knowledge that they were among 
heretics. In order not to expose himself 
to insult, Busino was forced to enshroud 
himself and his cassock in the buff jerkin 
of a man-at-arms ; and it was not until the 
Catholic canton of Rapperschwyl was reached 
that he could emerge from his disguise. 

Leaving Spliigen on Sept. 12, the travellers 
entered the Via Mala, a road so full of dangers 
that they were altogether frightened out of 
their wits.* The next day they reached 
Coire, where they exchanged the four small 
two-wheeled carts in which the luggage 
was stowed for one wagon containing the 
whole. At Wallenstat they took boat along 
the lake to Wesen, and then entered the 
Lake of Zurich and reached Rapperschwyl, 
where they discovered the inhabitants to 
be all innkeepers. The wooden bridge here 

* Descriptions of Alpine travel in the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries are few, owing possibly 
to the fact that the travellers were so concerned 
for their own safety that they had no time to 
look about them. The following account from 
Hentzner, who crossed the Spliigen in the opposite 
direction in the spring of 1598, is, however, worth 
noting : " In the neighbourhood of Thusis the 
way becomes exceedingly difficult and dangerous 
by reason of the size of the rocks, the narrow 
paths, and the rickety bridges, which are perched 
high up over the waters of the Rhine, and which 
you cross in a state of fear lest they should break 
under you. The traveller, too, is alarmed by the 
roaring of the water which rushes down over 
precipices and between crags .... Although we 
had four guides, who prepared the way with axes 
and shovels, we were in such danger of slipping 
that we took six hours to cross the pass." See 
Hantzsch, ' Deutsche Reisende des sechzehnten 
.Tahrhunderts ' Leipzig, 1899, p. 99. 

across the lake attracted the travellers' 
notice. Bishop Burnet, 70 years later, 
described this bridge (which was half a mite 
long and 12 feet broad) as wanting rails, 
so that in a storm the passenger was in 
danger of being blown into the lake ; but 
Busino, passing beneath it, did not notice 
this defect.* Reaching Zurich by boat on 
Sept. 17, they put up at the Sword Inn over 
the bridge from which his Excellency 
received a salute of musketry. The next 
day they left again for Baden on horseback,, 
crossing the Limmat on one of the large 
carrying rafts in use everywhere at this time 
which are described by so many travellers. 

At Basle the travellers betook themselves 
to the Rhine. At Brisach, a town belonging 
to the Archduke Maximilian, they were 
detained for two nights by the authorities,, 
who affected to misunderstand their in- 
structions ; but on Sept. 22 they reached 
Strassburg without further mishap. Here- 
fresh boatmen had to be engaged, and the 
travellers found themselves the victims of a 
kind of general conspiracy to plunder. First 
of all the water bailiff summoned sundry 
pilots, who threw dice for the job. The 
winner, released from all competition, could 
charge what he pleased. Then followed 
a formal election of the crew ; and later on 
other men came in as judges to decide 
whether the candidates were capable of 
managing a boat, for each of which cere- 
monies exorbitant fees were extorted. The 
only satisfaction the Ambassador could 
obtain w T as the knowledge that by reason 
of his dignity he was regarded as a richer 
prey than usual, and was fleeced with more 
effrontery. After all this it was found 
that the boat was a wretched affair, little 
better than a raft hastily put together, and 
intended no doubt to be broken up and sold 
at the end of the voyage. It was only by 
the help of some door - hangings that his 
Excellency could be provided with a cabir. 
Busino describes the boat as put together 
with spittle rather than nails or pitch ; and 
as he proceeded he found the reflection,. 
" This is all the fence between us and death,' r 
not a little disquieting.. At the first starting 
they were forced back by fog, but the 
travellers were soon floating down the 
stream more securely than they supposed. 

* ' Travels,' 1687, 61. Burnet also notes the 
vile going on the Mala Via. He describes the 
way as cut out of the rock, and states that in. 
several places the steepness of the rock was such 
that no way could be cut, and beams were driven 
into the rock, over \vhich boards and earth were- 
! laid. Id., 87, 88. 

128. 1. JAN, 22, 1916. J 



There was much to occupy them. Above 
Spires they were interested to watch the 
fishermen with their long nets, and the 
fowlers at work with nets and snares, using 
tame ducks as decoys. 'The great river 
thronged with all manner of craft, the vine- 
covered banks, the thickly planted towns 
and villages, and the picturesque castles 
made a great impression on the travellers. 
True, their delight was marred at times by 
the. melancholy spectacle of gibbets and 
wheels set up along the riverside,* but on the 
whole they were in raptures. Here and 
there they were stopped. At some of the 
towns tribute was collected ; at others the 
travellers were graciously dismissed. From 
Mainz a visit was paid to Frankfurt, but 
on the return journey they found one of 
the villages through which they had to pass 
closed for the night. Although they could 
get in, the man with the keys could not be 
found to let them out again, and they were 
obliged to spend the night under the most 
distressing, and indeed " infamous," con- 
ditions. His Excellency did not choose to 
sup, and it would seem as if the whole party 
were obliged to fast, in company with their 
chief, until the next day, when they laid in a 
good supply of victuals and proceeded. 

At Cologne the Ambassador received a 
salute of musketry, and here orders were 
given for a fresh boat to be provided to take 
the place of the " rickety manger " in which 
they had travelled from Strassburg. For a 
commodious covered boat 70 crowns was 
demanded, but finally the figure was reduced 
to 40. This proved to be a long vessel 
covered with raw hides, shaped like a cylinder 
with tapering extremities, and resembling 
the " long oval butter-pats of Venice." 
It was fitted with square sails without reefs, 
with a triangular jib, ancl was handled by 
the sailors so skilfully, that they caused it 
to make headway even in "the eye of the 
wind." Cologne was left on Sept. 30, and 
Busino cannot omit to notice the excellent 
fare at the Inn of the Holy Ghost. Supper 

* Another traveller, Bizoni, who passed down 
the Rhine ten years earlier, noted the corpses 
of malefactors hanging upon gibbets by the 
riverside or stretched upon wheels. Bizoni and 
his fellow-travellers found the Rhine journey 
altogether a less pleasurable affair. The country 
was infested by bands of lawless soldiers, who did 
not always distinguish between friend and foe. 
Suspicious - looking boats were lurking among 
the islands, and the travellers were much relieved 
to be joined by three Flemish gentlemen armed 
with arquebusses. Rodocanachi, ' Aventuresd'un 
grand Seigneur Ttalien a travers 1'Europe.' Paris, 
1809, pp. 90-91. 

included salmon trout and lampreys, and' 
the wines were excellently delicate and rare. 
The hostess was most attentive, and her skilP 
and good management were duly acknow- 
ledged by the Ambassador, who, following 
the usual custom in such cases, presented 
her with his coat of arms before leaving. This 
was no doubt emblazoned upon wood and 
put up outside the inn to commemorate 
the Ambassador's visit. 

The travellers were now on the borders 
of the Netherlands, and after the exac- 
tions of the Rhine Customs officials they 
were relieved to know that they were 
soon to be within the territory of an 
allied state. On the frontier, for the 
first time in their lives, they drank: 
beer. The national beverage indeed' 
was already universal in Germany, but it 
was not equal to the beer of the Netherlands,, 
where it was brewed in large quantities. 
The experiment was not altogether a success,, 
and Busino records that he took it like 
medicine " ore rotundo," without moistening 
his lips. At- Arnhem, where they arrived 
on Oct. 2, they slept at an inn kept by 
an apothecary, " entering the house through 
the shop, which emitted the sweetest possible 
scent." The rooms were paved with hand- 
some tiles covered with white sand ; the 
walls, as was customary throughout the 
country, were hung with curtains, pictures, 
and looking-glasses, and fitted with small 
cabinets surmounted with jars; and stoves 
now gave way to fireplaces. From Arnhem 
his Excellency set out for Amsterdam in 
an open cart drawn by three horses harnessed: 
abreast, in which he reclined upon a bench, 
stuffed with straw. This luckless vehicle 
jolted the Ambassador and his chaplain 
sky-high. The driver, as was usual in 
Holland, stopped every few hours to water 
and bait the horses, and one can almost 
catch a note of envy in Busino's remark 
that the servants and the luggage had 
proceeded by water. At Utrecht they 
gave up the cart, and waiting at the inn for 
the passage boat, which was to carry them 
to Amsterdam, they " found people smoking 
tobacco and making such an intolerable 
stench that his Excellency had not the 
courage to enter." 

This was Busino's first introduction to 
the habit of smoking, but later, on his 
arrival in London, he found tobacco already a 
point of good- fellowship, and gives a detailed 
de cription of the " hollow instrument a span, 
long, called a pipe,"* by means of which. 

* C.S.P. (Venetian), 1617-19, p. 101. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. i. JA. 22, me. 

process of inhalation was effected.^ The 
boat for which they waited turned out to 
be an open barge, and, as sitting or standing 
was alike rendered impracticable by the 
lowness and frequency of the bridges crossing 
the canal, the Ambassador and his suite 
were forced to lie down in the pouring rain 
all night long on the straw at the bottom 
of the barge. 

Once at Amsterdam, however, Busino's 
good temper returns. He explored the 
city, and is eloquent in praise of its neatness, 
cleanness, and convenience. He notes espe- 
cially the bridges of stone and oak over the 
waterways, so constructed that they opened 
in the centre by themselves, on the masts 
of approaching vessels striking certain pro- 
jecting arms, which turned on pivots. Their 
next stage was Rotterdam, whence, by 
order of the States General, a sumptuous 
ship of war carrying six guns conveyed them 
to Flushing. Here they entered the packet 
boat for England, expecting to have it to 
themselves ; but they found it crowded 
with passengers musicians, women, mer- 
chants, Jews, tatterdemalions, and gentle- 
men an d his Excellency's cabin in the 
stern was so low and narrow that it could 
not even contain four persons. The wind 
was high and the sea was rough, and it was a 
sick and weary company that disembarked 
on the English shore 37 days after leaving 
Venice, and 46 days after the Ambassador 
received his commission. They put up at 
the Post at Gravesend, pending arrange- 
ments for their state entry into London ; 
and from this point their adventures 
can be read in the Calendar of State 
Papers above referred to. 



THE following letters are mentioned at 
1 1 S. xi. 245, at the end of my ' Bibliography 
of Holcroft,' as printed in Dunlap's 'Ameri- 
can Theatre.' Their inaccessibility and the 
fact that they are hidden away unindexed 
in that work, on a remote subject, seem to 
afford reason for reprinting in ' N. & Q.' 
The first (see Dunlap's ' Hist, of the Ameri- 
can Theatre,' pp. 180-82) was addressed to 
Thomas Cooper on the occasion of his being 
approached by Wignell with offers of an 
American tour engagment : 

You do not like the word lamontation. You will 
4ess like, the word 1 am going to use. But before 
I use it I will most sincerely assure you I mean 

it kindly. I do not like rhodomontade heroics. 
They are discordant, grating, and degrading. 
They are the very reverse of what you imagine 
them to be. It was not from report, but from 
your letter itself, that I collected my idea of 
lamentation, and compared to your sufferings, I 
repeat, Jeremiah never lamented so loudly : at 
least, such is my opinion, and I hope you do not 
intend, by a hackneyed and coarse quotation, to 
deter me from saying that which I think may 
awaken your attention. If you did , it was ID a 
moment of fprgetfulness ; for you know that a 
man of principle ought not to be so deterred. I 
speak plainly from the very sincere wish, which 
I so long have cherished, of rousing you at once 
to the exertions of genius, and the 'sagacity of 
benevolence and urbanity. It is to exercise 
benevolence and urbanity myself that I am thus 
intent in wiping from your mind all impressions 
of supposed rudeness or rigour in thus addressing 

And now to business : after just reminding you 
that, though you did not wish me to apply for a 
London engagement for you, it would have 
looked quite as friendly had you written to me 
without this personal motive. 

Mr. Wignell, the manager of the theatres of 
Philadelphia and Baltimore, in America, has 
applied to me, offering you four, five, and six 
guineas a week, forty weeks each year, for three 
succeeding years ; and ensuring benefits to the 
amount of a hundred and fifty guineas. I have 
reflected on the subject, and have consulted your 
other true and tried friend, Mr. Godwin ; and 
notwithstanding that this offer is so alluring, 
it is our decided opinion that, were it ten times as 
great, it ought to be rejected. As an actor, you 
would be extinct, and the very season of energy 
and improvement would be for ever passed. I 
speak of men as they are now constituted ; and 
after the manner, as experience tells me, that 
their habits become fixed ; ineradicably fixed. 
Mr. Goawin indeed expresses himself with great 
force, mixed with some little dread, lest money 
be a temptation you could not withstand. How- 
ever, we both knew it to be but right that the 
decision should be entirely your own ; and I 
therefore send you this information. Be kind 
enough to return me your answer; and without 
regarding my or any man's opinion, judge for 
yourself. It is right that Mr. Wignell should not 
be kept in suspense. Yours kindly and sincerely, 

September 3d, 1796. 

The above is a transcript cf a letter which was 
dated August the 26th, and directed to ycu at 
Swansea, where I suppose it is left. Let me request 
an immediate answer. 

A gentleman has just been with me on the part 
of Mr. Daly, who is to be in town in nine or ten 
days, and wishes to engage you for the winter 
season, but this I think as prejudicial, except 
that it is something nearer home, and not so 
durable an engagement as America. Ireland is 
certainly the school of idleness. However, all 
these matters must be left to yourself. 

Dunlap comments as follows : " This was 
directed 'Mr. Cooper, Theater,. Cheltenham,' 
by as true a friend as ever man had, but the 
views of youth are ever widely different from 
those of age. Cooper chose to embark upon 

12 is. I. JAN. 22, 1916. J 



the sea of adventure, and the Atlantic, and 
to try a new scene in a New World." 

The second (ibid., 159 ff.) is addressed to 
William Dunlap himself : 

DEAR SIR, I received your last letters dated 
May and October ; as I had done others some 
months ago, in which you wished me to read your 
manuscripts. Your friend, Mr. Brewer, offered to 
put these manuscripts into my hands ; this I 
declined, and I will state my motives. 

The reading of manuscripts 1 have found to 
be attended with danger. I once read two acts of 
a manuscript play, and was afterwards accused 
of having purloined one of the characters. The 
accusation had some semblance of truth : latent 
ideas floated in my mind, and there were two or 
three traits in the character drawn by me similar 
to the one I had read ; though I was very un- 
conscious of this when I wrote the character. 

A still more potent reason is the improbability 
of good that is to result from reading manuscripts. 
To read carefully, examine conscientiously, and 
detail with perspicuity the errors which the 
judgment of a critic might think deserving of 
amendment, is a laborious task : it devours time 
and fatigues the mind, and but seldom to any 
good purpose. Books of criticism abound, and 
may be consulted by an author who is anxious 
to improve. I grant that the critical remarks 
of a friend may be of great service. If a man 
have attained that elegance of diction, depth of 
penetration, and strength of feeling which con- 
stitute genius, to criticize his works before they 
are presented to the public may be a useful and 
a dignified task. Men acquire these high qualities 
gradually, when compelled by that restless desire 
which is incessant in its endeavours after excellence, 
and for these gradations the books already written 
are, in my opinion, sufficient. Your friend gave 
me ' William Tell ' to read : it proves you have 
made some progress ; but it likewise proves, so 
far as I am a judge, that much remains for you 
to accomplish. Common thoughts, common 
characters, and common sensations have little 
attraction : we must soar beyond them, or be 
contented to walk the earth and join the crowd. 
Far be it from me to discourage these efforts of 
mind in which I delight : but far be it from me to 
deceive. If you would attain the high gifts after 
which you so virtuously aspire, your perseverance 
must be energetic and unremitting. I consider 
America as unfavourable to genius : not from 
any qualities of air, earth, or water : but because 
the efforts of mind are neither so great, nor so 
numerous, or so urgent as in England or France. 

You wish for an independence. That man is 
independent whose mind is prepared to meet all 
fortunes, and be happy under the worst ; who 
is conscious that industry in any country will 
supply the very few real wants of his species ; and 
who, while he can enjoy the delicacies of taste 
as exquisitely as a glutton, can transfer that 
luxury by the activity of his mind and body to the 
simplest viands.. Every other man is a slave, 
though he were more wealthy than Midas. 

I send you my narrative, but am surprised 
that there should be any difficulty in procuring 
it at New- York. To a bookseller, the conveyance 
of such things is familiar and easy ; to an indivi- 
dual it has the inconvenience of calling his atten- 
tion to trifles and disturbing his ordinary progress. 

I am not certain that the man of literature is 
not benefited by these little jolts that awaken 
him, or rather endeavour to awaken : but I 
know from experience he is very unwilling to 
notice them, they therefore easily slip his memory' 
This is the reason I did not send it before as you 

With respect to the stage, it is a question which 
cannot be effectually discussed in a letter : but 
I have no doubt whatever of its high moral 
tendency. Neither, in my opinion, was Rousseau 
right relative to Geneva : for that which is in 
itself essentially good, will, as I suppose, be 
good at all tunes and in all places. 

London, Newman Street, 

December 10th, 1796, 



(See 10 S. xi., xii. ; US. i.-xii., passim.) 



Hastings. Near the church of the Holjr 
Trinity in Robertson Street, the first stone of 
which was laid by the Countess Waldegrave- 
in 1851, a drinking fountain was erected to 
her memory by the inhabitants of Hastings 
in 1861. It is constructed of Portland stone,, 
and beneath a groined canopy over the 
fountain are represented figures of our 
Saviour and the Woman of Samaria. The 
canopy is surmounted by richly carved 
finials, and supported by four marble 
columns. At the corners are figures of the 
Four Evangelists. Over the fountain ia 
the following inscription : 

To Sarah, Countess Waldegrave, in grateful 
commemoration of the constant support by her- 
afforded to the religious and benevolent institu- 
tions of the borough and neighbourhood. 


Birmingham. In the square at the back 
of the Town Hall is a seated figure of Sir 
Josiah Mason. It bears upon it the sculp- 
tor's name, " F. J. Williamson, Esher, 1885." 
The pedestal has the following inscrip- 
tion : 

Sir Josiah Mason 

Founder of the 

Mason College and Mason Orphanage. 
Born 23 February, 1795. 

Died 16 June, 1881. 

On the back of the chair in which the figure- 
is seated are : Arms, a lion rampant ;. 
crest, a mermaid regardant ; motto, " Dunk 
spiro spero." 

(See also US. ix. 323.) 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. i. JAN. 22, me. 

(Dorothy Wyndlow Pattison.) 

Walsall. Sister Dora died at Walsall 
on 24 Dec., 1878, and practically the whole 
population followed her remains to the grave. 
At a cost of 1,0501. they afterwards erected 
her statue in a prominent part of the town. 
It is sculptured in white marble by F. J. 
Williamson, and represents the devoted 
nurse wearing a cap and apron, and in the 
act of unrolling a bandage. Just below her 
feet on the marble are carved the words : 

Sister Dora. 
'This is the only inscription. 

The statue is placed on a tall square 
pedestal of Peterhead granite. Each of the 
iour sides contain panels in relief illustrative 
of incidents in Sister Dora's life. They are 
as follows : 

1. Scene after explosion at Birchill's 
Iron Works, 15 Oct., 1875. 

2. Sister Dora conversing with the Chair- 
man of the Ho&pital while nursing an infant 
and rocking a cradle. 

3. Sister Dora and Dr. Maclachlan watch- 
ing by a dying patient in the adult ward of 
the hospital. 

4. Scene after the colliery accident at 
Pelsall, 14 Nov., 1872. 

This was the first statue erected to a 
woman (uncrowned) in England. 


Nottingham. Over the front door of 
12 Nolintone Place is a tablet inscribed as 
follows : 

In this house was born, on the 10th April, 
1829, William Booth, Founder and General of 
^the Salvation Army. 

In 1913 a bronze memorial tablet was 
placed in Wesley Chapel, Broad Street, 
where General Booth first preached. 

London. On 9 July, 1910, a stone slab was 
laid in the ground in the gardens of The 
Waste bordering the Mile End Road, on 
the spot where General Booth started his 
mission in 1865. It is thus inscribed : 


William Booth 
commenced the work of the Salvation Army 

July 1865. 

Walsall. On 8 March, 1913, Lady Holden 
unveiled a tablet placed by the Walsall 
Evangelical Free Church Council on a house 
in Hatherton Street to commemorate the 
fact that William Booth and his wife 
Catherine Booth, with their son William 
Bramwell Booth, lived there in the year 
1863 whilst conducting religious services 
in the town. 


Manchester. Two years after Mr. Hey- 
wood's death a marble statue was erected 
to his memory in Albert Square. It is the 
work of Mr. Albert Bruce Joy, R.A., and 
stands upon a base and pedestal of Aberdeen 
granite. It is thus inscribed : 

Oliver Heywood 


Erected by the Citizens of Manchester to com- 
memorate a life devoted to the public good. 

Liverpool. This statue is erected in 
St. John's Gardens, overlooking the old 
Haymarket. The pedestal bears the 
following inscription : 

Alexander Balfour 

Merchant and Ship Owner 

Born 2 n * Sept., 1824. 

Died 16 r - h April, 1886. 

His life was devoted to God in munificent efforts 
for the benefit of Sailors, the education of the 
people, and the promotion of good works. This 
statue, erected by public subscription, was un- 
veiled on the 15th day of November, 1889. 


Liverpool. On 21 May, 1909, the Lord 
Mayor of Liverpool (Mr. H. Chaloner 
Dowdall) unveiled a massive granite obelisk 
erected to the memory of the Right Hon. 
Samuel Smith. It stands near the Lodge 
Lane entrance to Sefton Park. The cost 
(1,815Z.) was all subscribed before the 
memorial was unveiled. JOHN T- PAGE. 

Long Itchington, Warwickshire. 
(To be continued.) 

FOLK-LORE AT SEA. A short time since 
a small naval vessel was accidentally burnt 
to the water's edge, and when her officers 
(not her crew, be it observed) met again after 
losing all their possessions, they agreed on 
three curious facts which, they said, ought to 
have warned them of impending ill-luck. 
First, when the Admiralty took over the 
ship, and the crew were assembled on the 
poop to hear the articles of war read, the 
newly hoisted ensign was suddenly carried 
away. Second, the ship's black cat had 
mysteriously disappeared a day or two 
before the disaster. Third, some newly 
joined subs had talked at mess of how many 
rabbits they had shot the last day they were 
out. On hearing of this conversation, a 
lieutenant observed that, had he been there 
to hear it, he would rather have taken his 
baggage off the ship and gone ashore than 
let the sportsmen tempt fate by uttering the 
word " rabbit." 

12 S. I. JAN. 22, 1916.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


The first two omens are quite ordinary 
{we all remember how the launching mis- 
chance made many of us fear that ill-luck 
would befall the Titanic) ; but can any 
reader give another instance of rabbits in 
folk-lore ? In Western Ireland a fisherman 
who meets a hare turns back, and no man 
dare name one at sea any more than he may 
stick his knife in wood, heedlessly hand any- 
thing through a ladder, or mention a clergy- 
man. But, unless rabbit is substituted for 
hare in a confused memory of ancient 
"" freits," this piece of folk-lore is new to 
me. Can ST. SWITHIN enlighten us ? 

Y. T. 


was considered to be an affront. I have 
noted three examples : 

Bef. 1613. Is't for a grace, or is't for some disleeke, 
Where others kisse with lip, you give 

the cheeke ? 

Sir J. Harrington's ' Epigrams,' iii. 3 (1618). 
r 1630. Would haue me 

Turne my cheeke to 'em, as proud ladies vse 
To their inferiors ? 

Massinger, ' The Pictvre,' M 4. 
1637. "And as I would not be thought clawing, 
so not uncivill, especially in religious Ceremonies, 
in this holy one of the Kisse : which I shall desire 
you to entertaine fairely and cheerefully, with an 
ven Brow ; and not like the coy Dames of our 
Age, turne the Cheeke for the Lippe, and so 
lowre [sic] a Kisse into a Scorne." Humphrey 
Sydenham, Dedication of his ' Osculum Charitatis ' 
sermon, preached on Christmas Day, 1635. 


In a short notice of E. C. Hills and J. D. M. 
Ford's ' Practical Spanish Grammar ' in 
The Athenaeum for Aug. 12, 1905, the re- 
viewer remarked : 

" Is it, by the way, a fact that ' even in the 
days of ancient Rome a Latin wit said that for 
the Spaniards vivere was the same as bibere ' ? 
If so, we have a case of unconscious reminiscence 
in Scaliger's epigram : 

Haud temere antiquas mutat Vasconia voces 
Cui nihil est aliud vivere quam bibere." 
In the ' Literary Gossip ' columns of the 
next week's number a correspondent is 
quoted who writes : " Surely this epigram, 
* Haud temere antiquas,' &c., is by Martial, 
and he is the Latin wit meant." 

Martial, of course, as the correspondent 
might easily have ascertained, is not the 
author, but the confident assertion that he 
was does not appear to have provoked any 
statement of the evidence for Scaliger's 
claim. The lines may be seen in more than 
one collection, e.g. in Carolus a S. Antonio 
Patavino, Anconitanus, ' De Arte Epigram- 

matica,' Cologne, 1650, where they are 
assigned to J. C. Scaliger, and in Nicolaus 
Mercerius, .' De Conscribendo Epigrammate,' 
Paris, 1653, where the author is given as 
" Scaliger." They will, however, I think, 
be looked for in vain in J. C. Scaliger's own 
volumes of Latin verse. At least they are 
not included in his ' Novorum Epigram- 
matum Liber Unicus,' Paris, 1533, nor in 
the same reprinted in his ' Poematia,' Lyon, 
1546, nor in the collected editions of his 
' Poemata,' 1574 and 1600. But they are 
referred to in his ' De CausisLinguseLatinse,' 
Lyon, 1540, p. 17, lib. i. cap. x. : 

" Vasconibus quoque hoc est uitium peculiare, 
ut eo modo pronuncient B, quo et Grsecos 
dicimus. Itaque lusimus in eos epigrammate, 
ut eorum Vivere, Bibere, sit." 

Finally, Scaliger gives the epigram in 
his posthumously published ' Poetice,' 1561, 
lib. iii. cap. cxxvi. : 

" yerum ut res aliae ex a His suboriuntur, 
hilariora fiunt omnia ubi literse syllabaBve 
mutantur, quemadmodum nos : 

Non temere antiquas mutat Vasconia voces : 

Cui nihil est aliud viuere quam bibere." 


University College, Aberystwyth. 

The parentage of Robert Shorten, the first 
Master of St. John's College, Cambridge, 
and afterwards Dean of the College of Stoke- 
by-Clare, co. Suffolk, has never been ascer- 
tained. Baker, in his ' History of St. John's 
College,' assumes him to be of Yorkshire 
origin, but the ' D.N.B.' is silent on the point. 
An abstract of an official copy of Shorten' s 
will from the original in P.C.C., though it 
throws but little light on his own family, 
may, however, be of some interest, and is 
here subjoined : 

Will dated Oct. 8, 1535 ; proved Nov. 8, 1535. 
Robert Shorton, clerk. Dedication clause, &c. 
To be buried in the choir of the College of Stoke. 
100 1. to be distributed amongst twenty towns so 
that the following sums and towns be of this 
amount and number 47. to poor parishioners of 
Segefeld (Sedgefield); 3L to Newport; 21. to 
Stoke ; 21. to poor tenants at Welles ; to 
Lowthe (Louth) a like sum. " To Maister 
Secretory to the Kinge's Highness now being an 
Arras of Imagery in number containing five pieces." 
" To Maister Doctour Legh a gilt salt with a 
cover antykc." " To Maister Thomas Burbage 
and his wife a basyn and an ewer of silver bought 
by mine executors of Sir John Mundy of London, 
Knyght and Alderman." " To said Thomas 
Burbage and his wife two of my best feather beddes 
at W T yndesore (Windsor) with their appurten- 
ances and one hanging of a Chamber.' " To 
said Thomas Burbage and his wife an obligation 
of 10Z. wherein Robert Collyns of London, Skynner, 
standeth bound to Sir John Mundy, Knyght." 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 H.L JAN. 22,1916. 

" To said Sir John Mundy, Knyght, and my lady 
his wife and his children two like obligations of 
10?." " To George Colt, Esquire, a like obliga- 
tion of 10Z." "To be equally divided between 
my uncle Rauf Warke, my aunt Barrows, and 
George Warke of Awsforth (Horsforth) a like 
obligation of 6Z." 40Z. to be bestowed upon the 
highways in Essex and Suffolk. Residue in 
deeds of charity. Executors, George Colt, 
Esquire, Robert Swymborne, Thomas Howker 
and Thomas Thomlynson, Clerks. Witnesses, 
Maister Thomas Hersley, Canon John Dalamero, 
Clerk, Sir Willm. Dykers, Maister Willm. Lowell, 
Nicolas Sampson and John Sutton, Clerks. 

That testator was a bachelor is evident. 
There are references in ' N. & Q.,' 7 S. v. 151, 
218, which tend to prove he was of kin to 
that branch of the Browne family which 
gave three Mayors to London at the begin- 
ning of the sixteenth century. Sir W illiam 
Browne, whose daughter Juliane Sir John 
Mundy married as his second wife, appointed 
Shorten as assistant to the executors of his 
will. His uncle Ralph W arke, or W erke, is 
also mentioned in the will of Sir John Browne. 
Some little importance seems to have 
attached to the gift of tapestry. Thomas 
Legh, writing to Cromwell, said : 

" Since I wrote to you last I am certified that 
the Dean of Stoke is dead. According to promise 
he made me ; he has bequeathed you live pieces of 

George Colt also sent from Cavendish, in 
Suffolk, a letter to Cromwell relating to it 
(S. P. Dom. Hen. VIII. 1535-6). Robert 
Shorten died at Stoke Oct. 17, 1535. These 
arms are attributed to him in the ' Athenae 
Cantab.' : Vert, a fesse wavy argent between 
three caltraps or. It is not improbable that 
the John Shorton who was a member of 
the " Company of Skynners," London, in 
1537, was of his family. 



" STAIG." (See ante, p. 19.) Aberdeen- 
shire, like Strathearn,knows the word " staig " 
solely as a synonym for " stallion," and not 
as for a young horse, as your reviewer of 
Sir James Wilson's book says. I once heard 
of an Aberdeenshire schoolboy who, on being 
questioned in class on what he would like 
to do in life, replied that he would like to 
" traivel a staig " which was regarded as 
the very zero of ambition. 


123, Pall Mall, S.W. 

This humble beerhouse of immortal 
fame was probably revisited by Dickens 
in the year 1848, when for a short time it 
had an attraction which it is surprising he 

has not alluded to. A post 8vo oblong 
yellow handbill before me announces : 

" Have yo.u seen the Whale ? Recently 
Captured and Fresh as when caught, measuring 
50 feet in length, and now exhibiting at the Fox 
under the Hill opposite the Adelphi Theatre,, 
Strand. The Halfpenny Steam Boat Pier. 
Persons desirous of seeing this mighty monster 
of the deep, must be early as it can be exhibited 
only a few days. Admission Threepence." 


WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries,, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

FINES, co. DEVON). On the 1st of July* 
1250, Mark, the Prior of Montacute; in 
Somerset, by John de Wylton, his monk, 
granted to Richard, son of John, tenant, 
one and a half ferling of land in Moneke . 
Culum (in Cullompton parish, Devon), to 
have and to hold to the said Richard and 
Isabella his wife during the lives of the 
prior and his successors and his church the 
said land, and the whole of that land which 
is called La More, at a quitrent of 10s. a 
year, payable quarterly. And likewise the 
prior undertook for himself and his suc- 
cessors and his church that should John, 
the eldest son of the aforesaid Richard,, 
survive Richard and Isabella, the whole of 
the said land should remain to the said 
John, &c. 

Would it have been possible for 
John, the father of Richard, Richard 
himself, and John his son, to have been 
born within the fifty years preceding the 
year 1250, or would it have been more 
probable that John, the grandfather, wa& 
born between the years 1189 and 1199 ? 
Perhaps some correspondent will kindly 
favour me with an opinion on this point. 



or ARAGON, was imprisoned Dec. 19, 1533, 
and sent to the Tower of London on the 
following Dec. 27. He was removed to 
Newgate before Easter, 1537 (Camm, ' Lives 
of the English Martyrs,' i. pp. 465, 473), 
where, according to the late Major Hume 
(' Chronicle of King Henry VIII. of England/ 
p. 42, n.), he died. What was his Christian 
name ? what ecclesiastical preferments did 
he hold, if any ? and when precisely did he 

12 S. I. JAN. 22, 1916. NOTES AND QUERIES. 


AUTHORS WANTED. Who wrote the 
following ? 

1. O name of God ineffable, 

Undreamt of yet by me, 
Let my soul listen till it hear 

That far-off melody, 
And in the music of that word 

Rise, rise eternally. 

2. Too quick a sense of constant infelicity. 


Who is the author of a book called 

Serio-ludicro, Tragico-comico 


Written by 

In two volumes. 

London : 
Printed by JLarvV and Gilbert, St. John's Square^ 


and Sold by Sherwood, Neely and Jones, 

20 Paternoster Row ; 

Hat chard, Piccadilly ; 

and Aspern, Cornhill. 


Are any criticisms of it known, or anything 
of its history ? I have an impression on 
my mind that it may have been written by 
Stevens, whose ' Lectures on Heads ' once 
had some vogue. L. A. W. 


[The book is by Edward Nares, D.D. See the 
notice in the 'D.N.B.'] 

STOCKINGS. On pp. 117, 118, of ' Memories 
of a Spectator,' Mr. J. S. Fletcher writes, 
concerning his early years : 

" I am glad to say that in those days people 
knew nothing (at any rate they knew nothing in 
our part of England) about such German things 
as 'Christmas Trees,' or such German saints as 
' Santa Glaus.' Our Christmas presents were 
found in stockings, and put there by Father 
Christmas ; others^were hung on the good old 
English Mistletoe Bough, made and decorated 
after the English fashion. I have no patience 
with English people who bring their children up 
to German customs and neglect their own." 

I am as John Bullish as may be, but I do 
not remember finding any gifts in my 
youthful socks or stockings, and have an 
impression that my first introduction to the 
contemplation of such cornucopias was in 
the pages of an American story-book. I 
also have a suspicion that Father Christmas 
is not very old among us. Was he not the 
result of an attempt to naturalize Santa 
Glaus, whose name sounds Italian rather 
than German ? ST. SWITHIN. 

[Santa Claus is St. Nicholas, patron of children 
and sailors, whose day falls on Dec. 6.] 

to Mr. Montrose J. Moses's ' Famous Actor- 
Families in America' (1906), Mr. James K. 
Hackett, the well-known American actor, 
is descended from a Norman knight, Baron 
Hackett, whose descendants went to Ireland 
during the reign of Henry II. " Several 
members of the family sat in the House, of 
Parliament" (p. 143); and the actor's great- 
grandfather, Edmund Hackett, lived at 
Amsterdam and married a daughter of 
Baron de Massau. Was he by any chance 
related to Col. Halkett of the Scots Brigade 
in Holland ? I may add that Mr. Moses's 
book, which is very little known in this 
country, gives tables of nine other actor- 
families besides the Hacketts the Booths, 
Boucicaults (with some alliances not noted 
in our ' Who's Who in the Theatre '), Daven- 
ports, Drews and Barrymores, Hollands, 
Jeffersons, Powers, Sotherns, and Wallacks. 
In each case, except the Davenports, the 
founder is traced to our own shores. 


123 Pall Mall.S.W. 

any reader of ' N. & Q.' know of any sur- 
viving example of this old tavern sign ? 


CRUELTY TO ANIMALS. It is stated in 
* The Law relating to the Prevention of 
Cruelty to Animals,' by Burton and Scott, 
that before the passing of Martin's Act in 
1822 the law took no cognizance of acts of 
cruelty (regarded merely as such) inflicted 
upon animals. 

Yet I find in ' A Picture of England,' by 
W. de Archenholtz (published in 1797), that 
the author speaks of fines of five shillings or 
more being imposed by magistrates upon 
those guilty of cruelty to animals ; and he 
emphasizes the fact that " hence it happens 
that in England animals are treated with 
almost as much humanity as if they were 
rational beings." 

I should be glad if any of your readers 
could throw some light on this apparent 
contradiction. H. S. S. 

COL. JOHN PIGOTT, D. 1763. Can any 
Irish correspondent of ' N. & Q.' give me 
particulars of the parentage of Col. John 
Pigott, member of Parliament for the 
borough of Banagher, King's County, from 
1759 to his death in 1763 ? 

He married first on Jan. 22, 1730, Con- 
stantia Maria, only daughter of Sir Roger 
Burgoyne, Bart, of Sutton Park, Beds; 
secondly, in 1740, Catherine, daughter of 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. i. j^aa, me. 

the Rev. John Johnston, Rector of Clondeva~ 
dock, co. Donegal, and widow of William 
Babington of Urney, same county; and 
thirdly, June 30, 1759, Mary, only daughter 
of Sir Christopher Musgrave, Bart, of Eden 
Hall, co. Cumberland, widow of Capt. Hugh 
Lumley alias Raincock of Ballymaloe, co. 

Manor House, Dundrum, co. Down. 

MEXICAN LANGUAGES. It has been said by 
Dr. le Plongeon in his book ' Queen Moo ' 
(Kegan Paul) that the words " Eli, Eli. 
lama sabachthani," are phonetically identi- 
cal in the Maya language of Yucatan with 
" Hele, hele lamah zabac tani," the meaning 
of the latter being, " Now, now, I am fainting, 
darkness covers my face " ; also that this 
Maya language is similar to the ancient 
Egyptian Semitic script, and that the 
writing on the wall, " Mene, mene," &c., 
has in Maya exactly the same meaning 
as is given in our Bible. Can these statements 
be verified ? W. L. KING. 

Paddock Wood, Kent. 

THARP FAMILY. Wanted some particulars 
as to pedigree and place of residence before 
1650 ; also date when first entitled to bear 
arms. C. P. 

I find the will of a Joseph Phillott who died 
in Bath in 1729 ? It is not in Somerset 
House. D. C. PHILLOTT, Lieut. -Col. 

if any readers of ' N. & Q.' can tell me any- 
thing about a work with this title. I have 
an eight-paged pamphlet or, say, a prospectus 
headed : 

" Extract from Ancient Irish War Odes. 

" The Genius of the Island, singing an Exhorta- 
tion to one of her gallant Sons at the Battle of 
Talavera, July 27th and 28th, 1809." 

On the back of the first page is a dedication 
which runs, " Inscribed to Lieut. -General 
the Right Honourable Sir Arthur Wellesley, 
by Captain R. Ousell, Aug. 18, 1809," As 
the pamphlet is in a much-worn condition 
I cannot say more about it, but the contents 
are extracts from the book apposite to the 
battle, in which the great general is told to 

Obey the Bard- 
Stop stop Napoleon ! Check his pride 
And rush resistless on the inveterate foe ! 
The imprint on the title-page is, " Isle of 
Wight ; printed by Musson and Taylor 
Newport, 1809." THOS. RATCLIFFE. 


some reader give information concerning 
local shrines or relics which were held in 
repute for the cure of specific diseases and 
infirmities, such as the shrine of St. Hilde- 
ferth at Swanscombe, which was resorted 
to by persons mentally afflicted ; the shrine 
of Sir John Schorne, by persons afflicted by 
the ague ; and the tomb of Bishop Byttbn 
(the ISaint) in Wells Cathedral, by those 
suffering from the toothache ? C. 

I have a Book of Common Prayer bearing 
the date of 1738 which contains an Old-Style 
table " to find Easter for ever." I am 
anxious to know the authorship of this 
table, having an idea that the celebrated 
Dr. John Pell was concerned in it. I shall 
feel greatly obliged if any reader can give me 
some information in regard to it. 

Pell was associated with Bishop Cosin in 
the revision of 1662. S. W. 

MARIA THE JEWESS. She is credited 
with the discovery of hydrochloric acid. 
Who was she ? M. L. R. BRESLAR. 

ROSICRUCIANS. Information desired con- 
cerning the Societas Rosicruciana, of which 
Dr. W. R. Woodman was the Supreme 
Magus from 1878 to 1891, as recorded on 
his tombstone in Willesden Churchyard. 


author of this ? He was a contemporary 
of Johnson, for he speaks (p. Ixvii) of his 
" long acquaintance " with Johnson. 

J. F. R. 

One of this name received boarders in 
London in 1718. Was he a master at one 
of the great London schools ? I am unable 
to refer to any of the printed Registers. 

A. T. M. 

I should be glad of further information con- 
cerning the careers of the following persons : 

(1) Edward Holt, who graduated M.A. at 
Oxford from Pembroke, Feb. 19, 1638/9; 

(2) John Holt, who was admitted a scholar 
of Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1669; 

(3) John Holt, who was admitted to West- 
minster School in 1749 ; (4) Robert Holt, 
who was admitted to the same school in 
1776 ; (5) T. Holt, who was at the school 
in 1 795 ; (6) Arthur Home, who was admitted 
to the school in 1821 ; (7) Joseph Hooke, 
who was admitted to the school in 1751; 

12S. I. JAN. 22, 1916.] 



and (8) William Hook, who matriculated 
at Oxford from Brasenose, June 12, 1800, 
and became an Ensign in the Bedfordshire 
Militia in 1803. G. F. R. B. 

(11 S. xii. 502; 12 S. i. 35.) 

CORNELIUS TACITUS published his ' Annales ' 
soon after A.D. 114. In his Book XII. 
cap. xxxi. he speaks of the plans made by 
Publius Ostorius in A.D. 50 to regulate the 
affairs of the newly conquered districts in 
Britannia. The passage in mind ought to 
have been valuable both historically and 
geographically. But, owing to an un- 
fortunate scribal mistake, the meaning and 
the references are obscured. No real solution 
of the difficulty was attained to until April 28, 
1883, when Dr. Henry Bradley emended 
the passage in a letter to The Academy. 
Dr. Bradley' s emendation is acclaimed by 
MB. H. KBEBS (ante, p. 35), and I am of the 
opinion that it should have been accepted 
and adopted by all scholars. 

In 1885 Prof. Mommsen's ' Roman 
History ' was published, and in the fifth 
volume the Roman provinces are described. 
In 1909 the translation of Mommsen's ' The 
Provinces of the Roman Empire from 
Caesar to Diocletian,' made by Dr. William 
P. Dickson, appeared " with the author's 
sanction and additions." In vol. i. p. 178, 
note, the difficult passage in the ' Annales ' 
is considered. Mommsen there quotes, in- 
terpolates, and comments as follows : 

(P. Ostorius) cuncta castris ad ...ntonam 
[MSS. read castris antonam] et Sabrinam fluvios 
cohibere parat.' So the passage is to be restored, 
only that the name of the Tern not elsewhere given 
in tradition cannot be supplied." 

It would be less incorrect to say that 
the passage is shattered. It is certainly not 
"restored." Mommsen not only inter- 
polated " ad " in order to secure the regimen 
required by the river-names and by 
"fluvios," but also imported the suggestion 
that "... ntona," if we could but expand it, 
would yield the British name of the Tern. 
This is unsupported guesswork. In view 
of these considerations it is difficult to 
understand why Prof. Mommsen did 
not avail himself of Dr. Bradley' s palmary 
emendation of castris antonam into cis 
trisantonam. I admit that Dr. Bradley' s 
emendation falls short of perfection in one 
particular a phonological one ; but that 
is riot material to the real issue. 

The shortcoming I refer to is this: Dr. 
Bradley did not reduce the scribal meta- 
thesis "castris" correctly. Both syllables 
should be emended. This turns "castris" 
into cistras, and for those who can accept 
this transmutation the cause of the scribal 
error and the full meaning of the phrase 
immediately become quite clear. I would 
read Tacitus thus : P. Ostorius cuncta 
cis Trasantonam et Sabrinam fluvios cohibere 

Some commentators have believed that 
" cuncta " authorizes the statement that 
the two rivers were linked together by 
camps. But " cuncta " means everything 
connected with the Roman acquisitions 
between the two rivers and the eastern and 
southern seas. Dr. Bradley' s emendation 
has made that quite certain, and the little 
point I am raising, apart from its phono- 
logical value, does not, in my estimation, 
detract in the least from the value of his 

If I am right, the Old British first-century 
name of the Trent was Trasanton-. How 
did that become " Trent " ? 

The Cambro-Briton Nennius was writing 
in A.D. 837, and he accords the eagre (I am 
copying Dryden's spelling) of the river 
" Trahannon " the second place among 
the marvels enumerated in his tract ' De 
Mirabilibus Britanniss.' The scribe of the 
Harleian recension of Nennius bungled the 
name, and in the eleventh- and twelfth- 
century MSS. H. and K. trans hannon is the 
river-name. No other MS. yields trans, 
and the Durham MS. (scr. c. 1150) has 
trahannon. The explanation is quite simple : 
the Welsh tra, when it is a vocable, means 
trans, and the scribe applied his knowledge 
of that fact to his text and obscured it. The 
true syllabic division is Tras-ant-on-, and in 
Old Welsh earlier British s, when flanked 
by vowels, was lost ; cp. ' Lectures on Welsh 
Philology,' by John Rhys, M.A., 1879, 
Lecture II. p. 50. This rule postulates a 
form *trahanton, instead of trasanton, and 
from that have sprung both the O.W. 
Trahannon" and the Middle and Modern 
English "Trent." 

First of all we will take the Welsh objection 
to intervocalic nt. A tooth is " dant," but 
" toothed " is dannheddog ; teilwng is 
"worthy," but "unworthy" is annheilwng. 
Similarly "ynNhywyn" means " at Towyn." 
In O.W. nh was not used in this way ; cp. 
fontanay O.W. finnauny Mid. W. ffynhaun 
> Mod. W. ffynnon. In a similar way 
Constantin-us became Custennin and, 
later, Cystennhin. Hence O.W. Trahannon 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. i. JAN. 22, me. 

regularly represents the name of Trent as 
Dr. Bradley divined, although he and Prof. 
Rhys wrongly read "Trisanton"; cp. 
' Celtic Britain,' 1904, p. 80. 

We now turn to O.E. In that Germanic 
dialect exotic a regularly became ce ; cp. 
^Ebbercurnig, Kselcacsestir, Caent, Ssefern, 
&c. This postulates *Traes8ent-on or *Trse- 
hcent-on. I assume that British s had 
become h before the North and South 
Mercians seated themselves upon the Trent ; 
cp. Bede, ' H.E.,' III. xxiv. (p. 180). Now 
intervocalic h, and medial h preceding a 
vowel, disappeared from O.E. words at an 
early date ; cp. Sievers-Cook, ' Grammar 
of O.E.,' 1887, p. 118, and Prof. Wright, 
' O.E. Grammar,' 1908, 329, 4. A few 
instances survive in the Epinal Glosses, 
written early in the eighth century. This 
failure postulates *Trse8ent- with a or e for 
the final syllable -on. This form does not 
appear, but in Mercian and in Kentish there 
was an irregular treatment of ^ which 
reduced it to e. This was independent of 
^-infection, and yielded such forms as deg, 
feder, fet, where we expect to find the normal 
and West Saxon dceg, feeder, feet ; cp. Wright, 
u.s., 54, note 1. For this reason we may 
look for Treenta, and that we actually find 
in the passage in the ' Historia ' (II. xvi. 
p. 117) in which Bede quotes Deda, abbot 
of Partney in Lincolnshire, as the ecclesiastic 
who told him what he knew about the 
baptism of the Mercians, in 627, by Paulinus, 
" in fluuio Treenta." Here, I take it, Bede 
was copying his informant's dialect. In two 
other places Bede wrote " Treanta," and 
that may well be Northumbrian ; cp. III. 
xxiv. p. 180, and IV. xxi. p. 249. The West 
Saxon form was " Treonta " ; cp. Saxon 
Chronicle (Winchester MS.) at annal 924. 
This annal was written by a contemporary 
scribe. In the Peterborough Chronicle 
(scr. c. 1120) we find " Trenta " on each of 
the three occasions when the river is named. 
This East Midland form eventually prevailed. 

The suggestion that there is a verbal 
connexion between the Welsh " Annwn " 
and the scribal Hannon is quite uncritical. 

In a paper on ' English Place-Names ' 
contributed to Essays and Studies by 
Members of the English Association,' 1910, 
p. 24, Dr. Bradley speaks of the names of 
rivers mentioned by Roman writers, and 
warns us that their meaning and etymology 
are very obscure, because they " belong to 
too early a stage of the (Welsh) language to 
be interpreted at present with any certainty." 
30 Albany Road, Stroud Green, N. 

<THE VICAR OF BRAY ' (11 S. xii. 453; 
12 S. i. 12). In my note at the first refer- 
ence I asked for proof that there was a CoL 
Fuller's regiment in the reign of George I.,. 
in view of the assertion that the song was 
written by an officer of a regiment bearing 
that name in that reign. 

Undoubtedly there was one 7 ' Francis 
Fuller who was Colonel of the 29th Regi- 
ment, date of commission Aug. 28, 1739, 
as given by COL. FYNMORE (ante, p. 12) ; 
but the date of that commission is in the 
thirteenth year of George II. 

In ' George the First's Army, 1 714-2 7/ 
by Charles Dalton, 1910, 1912, only two 
Fullers appear in the indexes, viz., Francis 
Fuller, captain 1st Regiment of Foot Guards, 
March 30, 1710/11 (sic), and John Fuller* 
ensign 4th Foot, June 11, 1720. It is 
possible that the former was the Fuller who 
became Colonel of the 29th Foot in 1739. 
According to old Army Lists, e.g., that of 
1777, there were two colonels of the 29th 
Regiment in the reign of George I., viz.,. 
Lord Mark Kerr and H. Desney. They 
were followed in the reign of George II.. 
by the Earl of Albemarle, G. Read, Francis 
Fuller, &c. 

There is a good deal about ' The Vicar of 
Bray ' in 6 S. xi. 167, 255, much of which is 
incorrect. Several of the correspondents 
have trusted Chappell's version of what 
Nichols wrote. In J. Nichols's ' Select 
Collection of Poems,' 1780-82, vol. viii. 
p. 234, is a note concerning the mention 
of the song ' The Vicar of Bray ' in a poem 

' To H Y M N, Esq. on his refusing 

a Christmass dinner,' &c. In this note 
Nichols says : 

" This [' The Vicar of Bray '] is said to have 
been written by an officer in Colonel Fuller's 
regiment in the reign of K. George the First." 

Chappell writes : 

" Nichols in his ' Select Poems ' says that the 
song of the Vicar of Bray ' was written by a 
soldier in Colonel Fuller's troop of Dragoons, in 
the reign of George I." ' Old English Popular 
Music,' by William Chappell, a new edition, 
revised by H. Ellis Wooldridge, 1893, vol. ii. p. 

Thus Chappell, using inverted commas for 
a very incorrect quotation, makes Nichols 
state as a fact what he mentions as merely 
a report or tradition, and changes " an 
officer in Colonel Fuller's regiment " into " a 
soldier in Colonel Fuller's troop of Dragoons." 
More or less consequently this alleged author 
of ' The Vicar of Bray ' appears in ' N. & Q.' 
as " an officer in Col. Fuller's regiment " 
(so described by Nichols) ; "a soldier in 

12 S. I.JAN. 22, 1916. 



Col. Fullers troop of Dragoons" (as mis 
quoted by Chappell); "a trooper of the 
Guards " ; " Col. Fuller or an officer in 
Fuller's regiment " (quoted from Brewer's 
'Reader's Handbook'); and p. 12 of the 
current volume, " an officer of Guards." 

Seeing that there was, apparently, no 
Col. Fuller's Regiment in the reign of 
George I., I am inclined to believe that the 
unnamed officer, who is said to have written 
the song, is a myth. The only correspondent 
in 6 S. xi. who went to the original source of 
the story about the officer, viz., Nichols, 
was Cuthbert Bede. Nichols cites no autho- 
rity ; he simply gives something which " 
said." He adds that the song of ' The 
Vicar of Bray ' " is founded on an historical 
fact," of which he gives no particulars ; he 
gives no reference. 

As to who was the Vicar indicated by 
the song, I think that the search has been, 
and always will be, vain. None of the dates 
of Simon Aleyn, Alleyn, Allen, or Dillin ; 
of Francis Carswell ; of Simon Simons, or 
Simonds; or of Pendleton, fit in with a 
vicar alleged to have lived temp. Charles II.- 
George I. 

It is, I think, not improbable, as I sug- 
gested at the first reference, that the song 
was founded on ' The Turn-Coat ' and ' The 
Tale of the Cobler and the Vicar of Bray.' 
The former contains the idea and some of 
the words ("I. preferment"). The 
latter is a story, possibly true, possibly un- 
true, of a Vicar of Bray of very low repute. 

I venture to suggest that Col. Fuller's 
Regiment in the reign of George I., the 
officer in that regiment, and the Vicar 
described in the song are all myths. 


I larnt the song of the Vicar of Bray at 
Harrow in the seventies, in the days of 
Butler, Bowen, and Farmer. We boys were 
then told that the Bray in question was in 
Ireland, and that the song expressed the 
difficulties which all Irish clergymen had 
to solve during that period. The Vicar's 
adaptability reminds me of some of Canon 

Hannay's creations, 
the Irish view ? 

Can any one confirm 
B. C. S. 

HEART (11 S. x. 35, 77, 111, 431, with refer- 
ences there given). The subject of heart- 
burials, started by me in your columns, 
led to a great mass of facts on the subject 
being recorded. Let me add another in- 
stance of an interesting character. Mrs. 

Livingstone Wilson, only surviving child of .,- . _. _ p ^ - 

Dr. David Livingstone, gave a lecture on thus indicated " Sharrington House. 

Jan. 4, 1916, at the Parochial Hall, Forest 
Gate, on the subject of her recent journey 
to Old Chitambo where her father's heart 
is buried. At Old Chitambo an old chief 
called Chitend claimed that it was in his 
mother's hut that the great explorer died. 
Then (I quote from The Times of Jan. 5,. 

" the old men declared that they remembered 
his followers building a stockade round the hut 
while they embalmed the body hi salt and brandy,, 
burying the heart under a great tree, at the other 
side of which old Chitambo, the chief of the village^, 
who had had a great respect for the explorer, was 
afterwards buried. The explorer's body, as is 
well known, [was borne a thousand miles through 
the forest to be sent to England by his faithful 
native followers. Jacob Wainwright, the best 
known of these, had asked the old chief to keep 
the grass always burned close around the tree 
at Chitambo, so that it might escape the dangers 
of forest fires. Afterwards the tree was struck 
by lightning, and the present memorial, in sloping 
brick with a cross at the summit the slope being 
made to prevent elephants brushing their trunks 
against it was erected in the bush with an avenue 
cleared in front of it. Here was placed a book 
on which big-game hunters and explorers who 
penetrated thus far might note their names ; this 
book was stolen, however, and Mrs. Wilson, as 
she said in a recent letter hi The Times, is anxious 
jhat anyone who has signed it should communi- 
cate with her." 

Oxford and Cambridge Club, S.W. 

11 S. xii. 478). The following very circum- 
stantial reference to this house occurs in 
Allen's 'History of London' (1828), iii. 
751 : 

" At the end of a court on the south side of 
Hart-street was, until 1801, a magnificent mansion 

f the latter part of the reign of Henry the Eighth.. 

This house,' says Mr. Smith, (' Ancienjb Topo- 
graphy of London,' p. 44 ) ' was let out in tenements 
,o persons of different callings, the greater part 

eing occupied by Mr. Smith, a carpenter, who 

eld to himself the use of the whole yard, in the 
north part of which a saw-pit had been sunk.' 
The exterior of this building was entirely covered 
with grotesque carvings ; the basement supported 
pannels in which were shields of arms, all carved 
in oak. The interior was in a similar style to 
Sir Paul Pindar's house in Bishopsgate-street. 
Some persons conceived this to have been the 
residence of Whittington, but Mr. Smith was 
assured by the late Dr. Owen, vicar of this parish, 
that it was formerly the residence of Sir William 
Sharington, Who lived in St. Olave's parish in 
the latter part of the reign of Henry the Eighth." 

Pennant (' Some Account of London,' 
3rd ed., 1793, p. 287) states that it was 
" built by Sir William Sharrington, a chief 
officer of the Mint, in the reign of Ed- 
ward VI." In the margin the paragraph is 



[12 S. I. JAN. 22, 1916. 

Presuming this is the same house as the 
one referred to by MB. ABBAHAMS as de- 
molished in 1841, it is strange that it should 
be regarded in the past tense by Allen, whose 
preface is dated 1827. Were there in reality 
two houses involved in these conflicting 
-accounts ? JOHN T. PAGE. 

Long Itchington, W arwickshire. 

TABE (US. xii. 140, 186, 209, 463). It was 
suggested at the second reference that' Drake 
or one of the buccaneers made use of wild 
cattle in an expedition on the Spanish Main. 
In place of vague recollection a definite 
instance can now be given. Wild cattle 
were employed by the Spaniards against 
Morgan's buccaneers in the battle that 
preceded the sack of the city of Panama 
in the year 1670 : 

" The Governour of Panama put his Forces in 
Order, consisting of 2 Squadrons, 4 Regiments 
of Foot, and a huge number of wild Bulls, which 
were driven by a great number of Indians, with 
some Negro's, and others, to help them." 
Exquemelin, ' Bucaniers of America, '_ London, 
1684, part iii. chap. v. p. 48. 

" They [the Spaniards] attempted to drive the 
Bulls against them at their Backs, and by this 
means put them into Disorder. But the greatest 
part of that wild Cattel ran away, being frighted 
with the noise of the Battel. And some feAy that 
broke through the English Companies, did no 
other harm than to tear the Colours in pieces 
[presumably because they were red] ; whereas the 
Bucaniers shooting them dead, left not one to 
trouble them thereabouts." P. 50. 

According to a Spanish captain who was 
taken prisoner and very strictly examined, 

" Their whole Strength did consist in 400 
Horse, 24 Companies of Foot, each being of 
100 Men compleat, 60 Indians [they are 600 in the 
original Dutch ' Zeeroovers '], and some Negro's, 
who were to drive 2,000 wild Bulls, and cause 
them to run over the English Camp, and thus by 
breaking their Files, put them into a total Dis- 
order and Confusion." P. 51. 

See also John Masefield, ' On the Spanish 
Main' (1906), chap, xii., 'The Sack of 
Panama.' The bulls are not forgotten in 
the pictures of the battle in the Dutch and 
English Exquemelin ; that in the English 
version is reproduced in Mr. Masefield' s 

In a> chapter on ' The Pirate's 
Paradise ' in ' Excursions in Libraria,' by 
Mr. G. H. Powell (" quern honoris causa 
nomino "), the statement is made, in a 
ioot-note on p. 142, that " Four hundred 
wild bulls had been tried on Drake at San 
Domingo (1585)." The authority given for 
this appears to be " Colliber, p. 72." I have 
not found the incident mentioned in Samuel 
Colliber's ' Critical History of English Sea 

Affairs,' nor in ' A summarie and true 
discourse of Sir Francis Drake's West Indian 
voyage, begun in the year 1585,' in Hakluyt's 
' Voyages.' The landing near S. Domingo 
took place on New Year's Day, 1586. 

University College, Aberystwyth. 

This actor made his first appearance Sept. 26, 
1774, at Covent Garden Theatre, as Truman 
in ' George Barnwell,' and his wife (Mary) 
appeared there four nights later as Harriet in 
The Miser.' She died Dec. 19, 1795, and 
was buried at St. Paul's, Covent Garden. 

Whitfield's cast of characters was mostly 
serious, and included Claudio, ' Much Ado 
about Nothing '; Pylades, ' Distrest Mother '; 
Garcia, ' Mourning Bride ' ; Dauphin, 
' Henry V.' ; Altamont, ' Fair Penitent ' ; 
Orsino, ' Twelfth Night,' 

About 1788 he went over to Drury Lane, 
where he continued several years. 


125 Helix Road, Brixton Hill. 

' The Thespian Dictionary,' 1802, has, 
respecting the above : 

" He made his theatrical essay in the country, 
and, having acquired some reputation at Norwich, 
was engaged at Covent Garden, where he came 
out in Trueman (' George Barnwell ') about the 
year 1776.... Mr. Whitfteld's wife was formerly 
an actress at Covent Garden, and performed for 
several seasons at the summer theatre." 

W. B. H. 

There is a book entitled ' Nicknames in the 
British Army,' but I have not a copy by 
me. From a glance through some lists I 
find that nicknames in the Army change with 
the times, but the following have been fairly 
common during the past five years : 


Grenadier Guards. Grannies, Tow Rows. 
Scots Guards. Kiddies. 
Royal Scots. Pilate's Body Guard. 
East Kent. Nutcrackers, Resurrections. 
Royal Lancasters. The Lions. 
Warwicks. Saucy Sixth. 
Norfolks. Holy Boys. 
Lincolns. Springers. 
Devons. Bloody Eleventh. 
West Yorkshires. Calvert's Entire. 
Bedfords. Peacemakers. 
Leicesters. Bengal Tigers, Green Cats. 
Lancashire Fusiliers. Two Tens, Muideii Boys. 
Cheshires. The Two Twos. 
Welsh Fusiliers. Nanny Goats. 
Gloucesters. Slashers. 
Worcesters. Vein-Openers. 
West Ridings. Immortals, Havercake Lads. 
Sussex. Orange Lilies. 

South Staff ordshires. Pump and Tortoise, 
Staffordshire Knots. 

128. I. JAN. 22, 1916.1 NOTES AND QUEIM KP. 


Dorsets. Green Linnets, Flamers. 
'South Lancashires. Excellers (X. L.). 

Welsh Regiment. Old Agamemnons. 

Oxford Light Infantry. Light Bobs. 
JNptts and Derbyshires. Old Stubborns. 

North Lancashires. Cauliflowers, Wolves. 

Northamptons. Steelbacks. 

West Kents. Celestials. 

Yorkshire Light Infantry. Brickdusts. 

Manchesters. Bloodsuckers. 

Irish Rifles. Irish Giants. 

Connaught Rangers. Devil's Own. 

5th Northumberland Fusiliers. Fighting Fifth. 

9th Royal Scots. Dandy Ninth. 
Camerons. Jocks. 

K.F.A. Blazers. 

R.A.M.C. Linseed Lancers. 

There is a long list in Lieut. -Col. C. Cooper 
King's ' Story of the British Army,' 1897, 
but many of these are now out of use. Some 
phrases are being made up from the initial 
letters of the names of corps, e.g., R.A.M.C., 
'" Rob all my comrades," and " Run away, 
mammy's coming " ; and A.S.C., " Ally 
Sloper's Cavalry." ARCHIBALD SPABKE. 

I believe that barrack-room slang has 
dubbed the 1st and 2nd Life Guards the 
" Bangers " and the " Gallopers " respec- 
tively,, while " The Blues " are known as the 
*< Old People." HORACE BLEACKLEY.. 

19 Cornwall Terrace, N.W. 

1683 (12 S. i. 28). Considerable obscurity 
exists as to the precise identity of several 
of the seventeenth-century members of this 
otherwise well-known Sussex family. MR. 
WILLIAMS is however, I think, undoubtedly 
right in his surmise that the M.P. for Chiches- 
ter in the three Parliaments of 1689-90, 
1690-95, and 1701 was one and the same 
man, viz., Thomas May of Rawmere, who 
received knighthood March 9, 1696/7. He 
was son of John May of Rawmere (died 1677) 
by, according to one authority, Hester, 
daughter of John Tralcott, but others saj^ 

by Constance, daughter of Panton. 

He married Anne, daughter of Richard 
Aldworth of Stanlake, Reading, and died in 
Nov., 1718, without surviving issue. At 
one time I had thought him to be the same 
Thomas who was Recorder of Chichester in 
1683, but the following item from Luttrell's 
' Diary ' casts doubt upon that identity : 
" 11 May, 1697. We hear that Mr. Itfay, 
Recorder of Chichester in the late reign (who 
was bail in 800Z. for Combs, committed for counter- 
feiting stamp paper), but Combs absconding, Mr. 
May is ordered to pay the said 8007." 
The ex-Recorder would hardly be styled 
' Mr. May " in May, 1697, when he had been 
knighted two months before. 

W. D. PINK. 

" MEDDLE AND MUDDLE " (11 S. xii. 422, 
. It may be convenient to state that 
these words were used by Lord Derby in 
his speech in the House of Lords on the 
Address on Feb. 4, 1864 (see Hans aid's 
' Parliamentary Debates,' Third Seriep, 
vol. clxxiii. p. 28). He said : 

" The foreign policy of the noble earl [Russell], 
as far as the principle of non-intervention is con- 
cerned, may be summed up in two short, homely, 
but expressive words, ' meddle and muddle.' " 

Inner Temp'e. 

i. 27). As your correspondent W. B. H. 
has called attention to the above series 
produced by my father, I send you a com- 
plete list of the volumes contained in it : 

Nimrod's ' Chace,' Is., 1851. 

Nimrod's ' Turf,' Is. Qd., 1851. 

Nimrod's ' Road,' Is., 1851. 

' Music and Dress,' Is., 1852. 

' Theodore Hook,' Is., 1852. 

' The Flower Garden,' Is., 1852. 

' The Honey Bee,' Is., 1852. 

' The Art of Dining,' Is. Qd., 1852. 

Ellesmere's ' Wellington,' Qd., 1852. 

Hallam's ' Essays,' 2s., 1852. 

Mahon's ' Joan of Arc,' Is., 1853. 

Milman's ' Fall of Jerusalem,' Is., 1853. 

Mahon's ' Forty-Five,' 3s., 1851. 

La yard's ' Nineveh,' 5s., 1852. 

' ^Esop's Fables,' 2s. Qd., 1853. 

Oliphant's ' Nepaul,' 2s. Qd., 1852. 

Head's ' The Emigrant,' 2s. Qd., 1853. 

Maurel's ' Wellington,' Is. Qd., 1853. 

Campbell's ' Lord Bacon,' 2s. Qd., 1853. 

Hollway's ' Norway,' 2s. Qd., 1853. 

Lockhart's ' Spanish Ballads,' 2s. Qd., 1853. 

Lucas's ' History as Condition of Social Progress,' 

Qd., 1853. 

Groker's ' History of the Guillotine,' Is., 1853. 
' The Beauties of Byron,' 3s., 1853. 
Taylor's ' Notes from Life,' 2s., 1854. 
' Rejected Addresses,' Is., 1854. 
Penn's ' Angling,' ' Chess,' &c., Is., 1855. 
' Life of Sir F. Buxton,' 2s., 1859. 
Byron's ' Childe Harold,' Is., 1859. 
' Essays from The Times,' 2 vols., 4s. each, 1852. 
Giffard's ' Deeds of Naval Daring,' 2 vols., 2s. Qd. 

each, 1854. 
Stanhope's ' Science,' Is., 1856. 
Washington's ' Life,' 2s. Qd., 1855. 

50 Albemarle Street, W. 

I possess the first and second series of 
Essays from The Times ' collected for this 
" Railway Reading " Library. The first is 
dated 1851, and on the back outside cover 
is a list of twenty-seven books " already 
published." The second series is dated 
1854, but has, unfortunately, been rebound, 
and contains no further list, 

Lon? Itchington, Warwickshire. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. i. JAN. 22, me. 

(US. xii. 443, 510 ; 12 S. i. 18, 38). Another 
great and turbid river is the Tigris. At 
times the current is swift, and it seems to 
churn up the soil of the river-bed until one 
can almost believe that he hears it hiss. 
But the water is quite potable and innocuous. 
I have navigated the river from very near 
its source in the Kurdish mountains to its 
mouth in the Persian Gulf, and I have 
drunk gallons of it ; indeed, I had no other. 
Among the Arabs of the Jezireh it is very 
highly esteemed, whether, for medicinal 
properties I know not ; but it is (perhaps 
humorously) said that a dweller by the 
Tigris travelling to a distance from it will 
carry with him some Tigris soil to mix with 
the strange water he will have to put up 
with. H. D. ELLIS. 

Dans la methode rapportee par le bon 
Joinville, il semble que 1' interpretation soit 
assez aisee. La masse des graines ecrasees, 
melangee intimement a 1'eau impure, qui 
est d'une densite differente, doit former, 
en descendant vers le fond du vase, un fin 
reseau mobile qui se comporte exactement 
comme un filtre, avec cette difference, que 
c'est la liquide, ici, qui ne bouge pas, le 
tamis qui se meut d'un mouvement in- 

Les graines fraiches contiennent, en outre, 
soit une huile essentielle, soit un mucilage 
qui pourraient bien agir comme les clarifiants 
connus des marchands de vin et des bras- 
seurs francais. Mais 1' action mecanique des 
eaux courantes " se mefier, dit-on, de Feau 
qui dort " et surtout celle des fleches 
sacrees du soleil sont, comme l'a signale MR. 
ALFRED S. E. ACKERMANN, les moj^ens les plus 
efficaces de purification pour 1'eau des fleuves. 

Un dernier effet des amandes pilees 
serait de donner a 1'eau un leger aromate, 
fort agreable. Or.bien souvent les voyageurs, 
resignes ou contrainis a boire ces eaux de 
rencontre, paraissent demander, philoso- 
phiquement, qu'elles aient au moins une 
saveur qui les lour rende potables. Mes 
amis, au cours de leurs campagnes au 
Soudan ou en Cochinchine, employaient 
pour cela, m'ont ils raconte jadis, 1'absinthe, 
la celebre absinthe, qu' ils additionnaient ainsi, 
parfois, a des eaux bien extraordinaires ! 
C'etait aussi, d'apres eux, la panacee uni- 
verselle contre la dyssenterie, le cholera, la 
typhoide. . . .mais voila bien la seule 
occasion ou j'ai du entendre, sans protester, 
Feloge de la sinistre drogue, enfin proscrite 
en France et, j'espere, pour toujours. 

The Bayle, Folkestone. P ' TuRPIN - 

(ANNIE OGLE) (12 S. i. 28). This work may 
be seen at the British Museum, where, I find,, 
there are two editions of it as : Owen 
( Ashford), pseud, [i.e., Anna C. Ogle], ' A Lost 
Love,' London, 1855, 8vo ; and new edition,. 
London, 1862, 8vo. E. E. BARKER. 

(12 S. i. 29). Arthur Hughes, whose death 
has just recently taken place, was born in- 
London in 1832. An excellent criticism of 
his work appeared in The Athenaeum for 
July 14, 1900, p. 64. E. E. BARKER. 

The John E-ylands Library, Manchester. 

[Our correspondent has been good enough to 
supply a list of the painter's principal works.] 

' COMIC ARUNDINES CAMI ' (11 S. xii. 502 ;. 
12 S. i. 36). Possibly the book DE MINIMIS 
has in mind is ' Facetiae Cantabrigienses,* 
a collection of anecdotes, smart sayings., 
satirics, retorts, &c., by or relating to 
celebrated Cantabs, published by Charles 
Mason of Wine Office Court, Fleet Street, in. 
1836 ; it does not, however, contain the 
doggerel about the ' Patres Conscript!,' 
though in other respects it answers the- 
description DE MINIMIS gives of the book 
about which he inquires. 

It is obvious, however, that the lines did 
not originate in Percival Leigh's ' Comic 
Latin Grammar" published in 1840 (which 
was largely made up of dog-Latin facetiae 
already well known at that time), for in 
alluding to the ' Patres Conscript i ' lines,, 
cited ipsissimis verbis by MR. PALMER and 
illustrated by a capital sketch by John 
Leech, he says : 

" The following familiar piece of poetry would 
not have been admitted into the ' Comic Latin 
Grammar,' but that there being many various 
readings of it, we wished to transmit the right one 
to posterity." 

The ' Art of Pluck ' was first published in 
1835, the author adopting the pseudonym 
of " Scriblerus Redivivus" ; but some eight 
years later his identity was disclosed as the 
Rev. Edward Caswell (not Caswall) in a 
letter addressed to his friend the Rev. 
Henry Formby, which he put in as a sort of 
apologia for having treated certain papers 
on divinity with unbecoming levity in the 
earlier editions, and before he had taken 
holy orders. One of the ' Critical Questions ' 
in a facetious examination paper is as 
follows : 
"Tres patres Ca3li navigabaiit roundabout Ely? 

Omnes drownderunt qui swimmaway non 


Show the false quantities in these lines. Who- 
are the ires patres supposed to have been ? How 

12 S. I. JAN. 22, 191 6.] 



many were drowned according to the last line ? 
At what era of Cambridge did this important 
event occur ? And what poet is supposed to 
have written the lines ? Give Heyne's reading 
of the fourth word in the second line, and show 
on what ground Person objects to it." 

I am afraid that this lucubration leaves 
the concrete question raised by DE MINIMIS 
unsolved. But it may be remarked paren- 
thetically that whoever is responsible for the 
poem of the ' Patres Conscripti ' fell into 
the common error of treating them as a body 
corporate instead of, as they were, two 
entirely separate and distinct entities, as 
was lucidly explained in ' N. & Q.' of 
Dec. 17, 1870 (4 S. vi. 528). 


Let me add that in my copy of the ' Comic 
Latin Grammar ' (1840) the lines 

Patres conscripti, &c., 
are prefaced by a N.B. as follows : 

" The following familiar piece of poetry would 
aiot have been admitted into the ' Comic Latin 
Grammar,' but that there being many various 
readings of it, we wished to transmit the right to 

So that in 1840 it was familiar " Unde et 
quo ?" 

MR. PALMER'S quotation is correct accord- 
ing to my copy. I would lend MR. GWYTHER, 
as an old Etonian, my copy if 

1. He won't lend it. 

2. Will return it. Hie ET UBIQUE. 

SKULL AND IRON NAIL (US. xii. 181, 306, 
389, 409, 490). With all due deference to 
M.D.,I beg to submit that the subject has to 
be considered rather from a mechanical than 
a surgical point of view. The problem is to 
drive with a hand hammer and without any 
special appliances, such as the slaughter 
mask used in French abattoirs, a wooden 
nail about eight or nine inches long through 
the two temporal bones into the ground. 
Without some such special appliance to 
guide the nail and prevent it from breaking, 
a pretty stout peg would have to be used, 
requiring heavy blows with a sledgehammer 
to drive it home. At the same time the 
point would have to be and remain sharp 
enough to pierce both the bones. 

L. L. K. 

COL. JOHN HAYES ST. LEGER (12 S. i. 26). 
The following is in " The Prince of Wales' s 

Lodge, No. 259, List of Members with 

notes, compiled by Thomas Fenn, 1890 " : 

" On May 18, 1789, joined Lieut.-Col. John 
Hayes St. Leger, afterwards major-general. 
Commonly called ' Handsome Jack St. Leger," 
the friend and associate of the Prince of Wales 
And the Duke of York. He was cousin to the 

famous Lady Freemason, the Hon. Miss Elizabeth 
St. Leger, only daughter of the first Viscount 

Accompanying it is a portrait of Col. St. Leger, 
from a print by Dupont after Gainsborough. 
The colonel is included in the list of members 
of the Je Ne Sais Quo! Club given in The 
Attic Miscellany, vol. ii. 313-14 (1790), the 
club being described as having then been 
formed three or four years. Its perpetual 
chairman was H.R.H. the Prince of 
Wales, who proposed whom he thought 
proper. The club met at the Star and 
Garter Tavern, Pall Mall. W. B. H. 

483; 12 S. i. 13). This, as a broadside or 
sheet making known the contents or special 
interest of a newspaper or periodical, probably 
originated with the Napoleonic wars. I 
am writing this far from my collections on 
the History of the Press, which I am confident 
includes handbills or small broadsides an- 
nouncing some special issues of The Bristol 
Mercury circa 1812. Possibly the news- 
paper placard was a development of book- 
sellers' announcements of impending pub- 
lications, or the contents of works issued 
in parts. Printsellers' broadsides or placards 
announcing the publication of some print 
of public interest also had their origin at 
this date. ALECK ABRAHAMS. 

(11 S. xii. 10, 56, 73, 87, 110,130, 148, 168, 
184, 228, 284, 368). It is, perhaps, worth 
while to remind readers who are interested in 
this topic of " my Lord John of Voisey," 
priest of the good Sieur de Joinville, who, 
single-handed, ran upon eight Saracens 
with his spear and put them all to flight. 
They had been shooting from behind an 
entrenchment volley after volley into the 
Crusaders' camp, where Joinville and many 
of his knights were lying wounded after hard 
fighting. From that time forward Join- 
ville says that his priest was very well 
known in the host, and pointed out by one 
to the other as the priest who discomfited 
the eight Saracens. E. R. 

DUBLIN TOPOGRAPHY c. 1700 (12 S. i. 
28). The earliest plan of Dublin is dated 
1610. It appears in the corner of the map 
of the Province of Leinster in John Speed's 
' Prospect of the World.' A contemporary 
copy occurs in Braun and Hogenberg's 
' Geography.' Speed's map was reissued in 
1676 with no printing on the back. T. 
Phillipps's map came in 1685. L. R. Strange- 
way published ' An Attempt to Identify 
the Streets as depicted by T. Phillip ps, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. i. JAN. 22, ma. 

1685,' in 1904. Collins' s map, 1686, of the 
Bay of Dublin, gives an interesting plan 
of the city. Mills' s map came in 1714 ; 
Brooking's in 1728. John Rocque issued a 
map about 1754. Maps have been issued 
with the Dublin Directories from 1773 

Charles Brooking's map of Dublin, pub- 
lished in the year 1728, will probably give 
F. DE H. L. the information he requires. 
All the parishes are marked on the map and 
their boundaries coloured. 

The present Royal Barracks are described 
on the map simply as " barracks." I have 
heard (or read) that these barracks were the 
first built in the British Islands, and were 
built in Dublin by the order of the great 
Duke of Marlborough. The English dislike 
to a standing army prevented the erection 
of barracks in England, soldiers being there 
accommodated in camps or billeted at inns. 

No doubt Brooking's map is to be found 
in the British Museum. L. A. W. 


KENNETT, M.P. (11 S. xii. 481 ; 12 S. i. 34). 
The Kents were an old Tilehurst family. 
Part of their property was sold to the 
Wild -rs in the fifteenth century. 

E. E. COPE. 

'L'ESPION ANGLOIS' (12 S. i. 29). The 
London Library has this book under the 
entry of ' L'Espion Anglois, ou Correspond - 
ance secrete entre Milord All' Eye et Milord 
All'Ear ' (the first four vols. by P. M. F. 
Pidansat de Mairobert originally published 
under the title ' L'Observateur Anglois'), 
11. ed. corr. and augm. 10 tomes s. 8vo. 
Londres, 1784-5. 

In Dunlop's ' History of Prose Fiction,' 
edited by H. Wilson, 1888, the name of 
the same author is given with the date 


Wa'tham Abbey, Essex. 

'L'Espion Anglois, ou Correspondance 
secrete entre Milord All' Eye et Milord All'- 
Ear,' is now very generally attributed to 
Pidansat de Mairobert, but M. Guillaume 
Apollinaire, the celebrated bibliographer, 
warns us that, " en realite, on ne salt trop a 
qui en faire supporter la pat emit e." 

The famous ' Parapilla,' from which long 
extracts nearly the whole poem are given 
in ' L'Espion Anglois,' vol. iii., was claimed 
by Mirabeau. The original is Italian, " une 
bouffonner'e i Itramontaine." 


ENEMIES OF BOOKS (11 S. xii. 480 ; 12 S. i. 
32). The following extract from a report 
upon the condition of the Bodleian Library,, 
drawn up in November, 1697, by Humfrey 
Wanley, who was then an assistant librarian- 
there (and afterwards librarian to Lord 
Harley), is given by Mr. G. F. Barwick in a 
paper contributed to The Library (Series 2 r 
iii. 243-55) : 

" The way of scrawling the title of the book 
upon the back of it is but a very scurvy one ? x 
many times there is not room for one-eighth of 
the contents, and the birds pick off that which is 
there, if it- be not rubbed off when the book is used.*' 
Mr. Barwick observes that the reason for the 
birds picking off the scrawled title does not 
seem apparent until the use of the pounce- 
box and the powdered cuttlefish bone, or 
silver sand, which birds seek so eagerly, are- 
remembered. ROLAND AUSTIN. 


i. 29). This periodical, enriched by George 
Cruikshank, ran from 1813 to 1816, and 
apparently continued to fulfil the scope of 
that described next. The valuation of 
100Z. mentioned, if meant as an average, is 
rather misleading, in view of the sum usually 

Its forerunner, a similar work, called The 
Satirist, or Monthly Meteor, was edited by 
George Manners, and illustrated by G. 
Cruikshank and T. Rowlandson. This ran 
from 1807 to 1814. 

A score or two of sets of the two journals 
are scheduled in my ' Indexes to " B. P. C." 
1901-09,' to be seen at the British Museumv 
WM. JAGGARD, Lieut.. 

PARISH REGISTERS (12 S. i. 29). So 
far as Cambridgeshire is concerned, your 
correspondent may be glad to know that a 
General Index to the Marriage Registers 
of the thirty-two Cambridgeshire parishes 
printed in the six vols. of Phillimore's Series 
is now in the press, and will be issued shortly.. 
It comprises some 50,000 names. 


124 Chancery Lane, W.C. 

The parish register of St. Michael (1538 
1837) may be found in the Proceedings of 
the Cambridge Antiquarian Society, vol. xxv. 
1891, the Secretary of which is F. J. Allen, 
M.D., 8 Halifax Road, Cambridge ; while 
that of St. Clement (marriages only), 1559- 
1812, may be found in the 'Cambridgeshire 
Parish Registers,' vol. i., 1907. The parish 
registers of Oxfordshire and the town of 
Eton do not appear to have been published- 

12 S. I. JAN. 22, 1916.] 1 NOTES AND QUERIES. 

VILLAGE POUNDS ( 12 S. i. 29). The 
Pound at West Haddon, Northampton- 
shire, was sold by auction and abolished on 
Oct. 1, 1875. The site, of only a few yards 
in extent, was bought by Mr. H. Newcombe 
for mi. , being at the rate of about 4,0002. 
per acre. According to a vestry minute 
(April 27, 1875), the Lord of the Manor, 
Mr. H. Atterbury, was empowered to act as 
vendor, and after the sale the proceeds were 
equally divided between himself and the 
parish authorities. 

(See 7 S. v. 85, 297 ; vi. 408 ; vii. 31, 158.) 

The following village pounds yet remain, 
or portions of them : Darby Green, Yateley, 
Hants ; Waltham St. Lawrence, Berks ; 
Pound Green, Lower Sulhamstead, Berks. 
There are many others in Berks. 

E. E. COPE. 


LATTON FAMILY (11 S. xii. 400, 450)'. 
There are six gentlemen of this name in 
Foster's ' Al. Ox.' M.A.OxoN. 

480). The French say : " Froides mains, 
chaudes amours." ST. S WITHIN. 


BurJce's Peerage and Baronetage, 1916. (Harrison 

& Sons, 27. 2s. net.) 

WE welcome the 78th edition of this valuable 
and hardy annual. The publishers point out 
that all successions and extinctions of title are 
dealt with during the Whole of the past year, 
and we think this correct as we find , incorporated 
in the text, the death of the Earl of Cranbrook 
on Dec. 23 last, and the lineage of Sir John 
French, although the letters patent of his 
Viscounty have not yet been signed. We also find 
in the lineage of the Royal Family that H.R.H. 
Prince Albert, Midshipman R.N., served with the 
Grand Fleet in the European War, 1914. The 
lineage of the Lords Wharton is included, but 
this seems slightly premature as, under the deci- 
cision of the Committee of Privileges of the House 
of Lords on Dec. 15 last, it was decided that 
this Barony was in abeyance, and was at His 
Majesty's disposal. However, it may be hoped 
that Mr. Ashworth Burke's prophecy may be 
correct, and that it may be called out of abeyance 
in favour of Mr. Kerne ys-Tynte (see ante, p. 46). 

There is no doubt that the compilation of this 
work since the commencement of the War must 
have entailed a great addition of labour, owing 
to the constant addition of distinctions to those 
serving the country at the front, to the lists of 
casualties, and to the naval and military pro- 
motions almost daily forthcoming. The editor 
points out that his task has been made more 
difficult by the withdrawal from circulation of 
the usual official lists, more particularlv the 
Army List and the Navy List. 

From the record of the Peerage in 1915 it 
appears that five new Peers (including Sir John 
French) have been created, viz., Lord W T renbury,_ 
Lord Buckmaster, Lord Mackenzie, and Lord 
Bertie ; and that nine additional Baronets were 
created. On the debit side of the account 
thirty-seven Peers and fifty-five Baronets died, 
seven of the former and eight of the latter on 
active service at the front. Owing to death, nine 
Peerages became extinct, but if Peerages merged 
in higher dignities are counted, three more must 
be added to the number. It is not often that 
the extinction of Peerages outnumbers the new 
creations, as it does during the year under 

On looking casually through the volume, we note 
that Edward VII. is the only monarch who died 
" universally lamented " ; we do not know why 
this phrase should not be applicable to Queen 
Victoria and perhaps to " Harry the King." 

W 7 e observe that the editor still chronicles 
Lord Donoughmore's eldest son with the courtesy 
title of Lord Suirdale, though he has not yet 
informed us when and by whom this title was 

It appears that in- many instances the Peerage 
have reverted to the wholesome custom of 
having large families. Two Countesses have lately 
given birth to an eighth child. The, Queen has 
six children, and so has Lady Bate ; the Duchess 
of Devonshire and Lady Hill seven each ; Lady 
Dundonald and the Duchess of Abercorn five 
each ; and the Duchess of Buccleuch eight. This 
show's that large families are by no means out of 
fashion in the Peerage, and long may the fashion 

Manual of Gloucestershire Literature. BiograpMca 
Supplement. Part I. By F. A. Hyett and 
Roland Austin. (Printed for the Subscribers 
by John Bellows, Gloucester.) 
BIBLIOGRAPHERS should certainly make a note 
of this Work. It is one of the best examples of 
its kind that we have come across, and the matters 
thus carefully and ably dealt with are, in them- 
selves, of no slight interest ; for Gloucestershire 
if it has not quite the claim on an Englishman's 
pious regard that Warwickshire or the Lakes or 
Middlesex can make has, nevertheless, a fine 
show of worthies in many walks of life to boast 
of, as well as a long tale of writings about them. 

This first part of the Biographical Supplement 
to the ' Manual of Gloucestershire Literature ' 
takes us as far as Lysons, and we may say at 
once that, so far as the personages to be dealt with 

go, we have found no omissions. The compilers 
ave been as generous as they have been from 
the standpoint of utility wise in admitting a 
large number of names which have never been 
known beyond the locality to which they belonged,, 
nor there much beyond their own generation. 
Such, when details concerning them are wanted, 
are apt to be difficult to trace, and their very un- 
importance aggravates the irksomeness of a search. 
Great, in proportion, should be the gratitude of 
the writer who requires such detail, and finds the 
whereabouts of it here to his hand. 

Among the most interesting of the articles are 
those on the Atkynses, on the poet Beddoes, on 
Sir Thomas Lawrence, on the Berkeleys, on William 
Cartwright, Richard Graves, 'the Lysonses this is 
to mention but a few out of many. Careful note 
is made of the material collected in our own. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. 112 s. i. JAN. 22, ww. 

columns and in the ' D.N.B.,' and where it has 
"been found possible to make addition to the infor- 
mation given in the latter this has been indicated. 
Works and periodicals of all kinds, from notices in 
local papers to important biographies, have been 
brought under contribution, and we observe also 
numerous references to passages in histories or 
other books not solely devoted to the topic 
immediately in question. 

An outline of the principal groups of characters 
with which this Supplement deals is supplied in a 
capable and interesting Introduction, and the 
plan followed as to exclusion or inclusion is set 
forth in a separate preface. The edition of which 
a copy lies before us is limited to 110 copies ; 
there is also a large -paper edition, limited to 75 
copies, which is illustrated. 

It is hardly necessary to say that in its copious- 
ness, the strict and minute care of its handling, its 
clear arrangement, and the evidence at every 
turn of the trouble that has been taken to collect 
the facts, this work bears the unmistakable marks 
of having been a labour of love, and we con- 
gratulate Mr. Hyett and Mr. Austin on its ac- 
complishment. We really do not see how it 
-could have been better done. 


THE following: interesting: paragraphs appeared in 
Ulntermed iaire of Dec. 10, 1915 : 

Lr. bntit du canon (Ixxii., 2, 109, 226, 274, 
324). L'article de M. Houlleyigue, le physicien 
distingue qui re"dige les Causeries scientifiques du 
Temps, vaut mieux, ce me semble, qu'une mention 
en passant. C'est la seule etude venue a ma 
connaissance, avec celles de M. de Varigny dans le 
Journal des Debats, qui e"mane d'un homme du 
metier et fournisse le r^sultat d'observations 
dues a des spe"cialistes. 

M. Houllevigue rappelait d'abord qu'en 1870, 
sur le Sal eve, a cot6 de Geneve, on a entendu les 
grosses pieces allemandes qui, a 175 kilometres de 
la, bombardaient Belfort. 

Quant a la guerre pr^sente, en Hollande, a 
ftrecht, le professeur Van Everdinghem et le 
personnel de 1'observatoire m4t6orplogique ont 
entendu distinctement, a 200 kilometres, le 
canon tir en Belgique ; le bombardement d' Anvers 
a e"te entendu a Groningue, c'est-a-dire a 270 
kilometres, et memo un peu au-dela. II faut que 
les circonstancesatmosphe"riques soientfavorables, 
car des brumes en suspension dans 1'air re"fle"chissent 
les ondes sonores vers les regions superieures, 
comme 1'a etabli a Guernesey la direction des 
signaux acoustiques. 

D'autre part, il y a une dizaine d'anne"es, 1'illustre 
physicien anglais Lord Rayleigh, en cherchant 
quelle est la plus petite amplitude des ondes 
sonores perceptibles, est arnv a tablir des 
donn^es qui permettent de calculer la ported 
-maxima d'un son dont la production consomme 
une 4nergie de"termine. 

Ainsi la grande sirene de Trinity House, a 
Londres, qui absorbe une puissance de 60 chevaux, 
doit, th^oriquement, se faire entendre a 2.700 
kilometres. Mais les ondes sonores s'usent en 
traversant 1'espace, et par suite les faits re"els, 
comme il arrive d 'habitude, different quelque peu 
des provisions the\3riques. Enfin le professeur 
Van Everdinghem a communique^ a une revue 
americaine des constatations qui permettent de 

concilier des observations en apparence con- 
tradictoires. Le bruit cesse d'etre entendu a 
partir d'une certaine distance ; plus loin il re- 
commence a 1'e'tre. 

Pendant le siege d'Anvers, la zone de silence, 
ou " Ombre acoustique," commencait a 85 kilo- 
metres de la place, et s'e"tendait sur une largeur 
de 60 kilometres environ ; au-dela, le bruit e"tait 
de nouveau percu. L'explication de ce fait 
echappe encore aux gens du metier. 

Pour revenir aux observations individuelles, 
je noterai qu'un naturaliste Eminent m'a dit avoir, 
par vent du Nord, entendu, ainsi que plusieurs de 
ses voisins, sur les collines de la region de Sceaux, 
les canonnades de 1'Artois, de facon a connaitre 
les batailles avant qu'elles eussent etc" annonc^es 
dans les communiques. Des observations analogues 
se sont produites bien plus anciennement, et en un 
temps ou le fracas de 1'artillerie n'etait sans doute 
pas comparable a ce qu'il est maintenant. Car 
dans les " Souvenirs d'enfance " de Louis, due 
d' Orleans, fils du Regent, qu'a publics le l er no- 
vembre dernier la Revue des Deux-Mondes, j'ai 
releve cette phrase, relative aux operations de 
1712 : 

On entendoit, aux environs de Versailles, le 
canon du Quesnoy et de Landrecies. 

WE have received the following from Mr. Frank 
J. Taylor, Acting Librarian of the Free Public 
Library, Barnsley : " The Barnsley Public 
Library Committee are going to issue at an early 
date a ' Bibliography of Barnsley Literature,' 
and they are desirous of the publications being 
as complete as possible. May I through your 
paper appeal for gifts or loans of any printed 
books, pamphlets, maps or MSS., or works bearing 
upon the history of the town ? Any gifts will be 
duly acknowledged, or loans preserved and returned 
as soon as possible. An Exhibition of Local 
Literature is arranged for Feb. 14-19, to celebrate 
twenty-five years of library service." 

BOOKSELLERS' CATALOGUES this month have been 
conspicuous by their absence. We hope to have 
the requisite material for a notice in the course of 

to (E0msp0ntonts. 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

To secure insertion of communications corre. 
epondents must observe the following rules. Let 
each note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and 
such address as he wishes to appear. When answer- 
ing queries, or making notes with regard to previous 
entries in the paper, contributors are requested to 
put in parentheses, immediately after the exact 
heading, the series, volume, and pago or pages tc 
which they refer. Correspondents who repeat 
queries are requested to head the second com- 
mumcation " Duplicate." 


CORRIGENDUM. Ante. p. 31, col. 2, 1. 5 from 
bottom, for " (Add. 2781 ff.) " read " (Add. 27,811-7)." 

12 S. I. JAN. 29, 1916.] 





S: 'The Spanish Moor's Tragedy' or 'Lust's 
Dominion,' 81 Allen and Ferrers, 84 Huntingdonshire 
Civil War Tracts, 86 The Gordon Riots: shot Marks- 
Christopher Oarleill and Sir Francis Walsingham, 87 
"Betty" in 1756: William Toldervy Babbi Hirsch and 
Prussian Tyranny, 88. 

QUERIES : Descendants of the Rev. John Cameron, 
1653-1719, 88 "The vicious circle" George Inn, 
Borough Rebellion at Eton Author of Quotation 
Wanted Richard Wilson 'Observations on the Defence 
of Great Britain' Australian Flowers and Birds, 90 
"Colly my cow !" James Gordon, Keeper of the Middle 
Temple Library Btth Corporation (Seal : Du Barry's 
Rapier Queen Anne's Three Realms Marquess of Car- 
narvona Coffin-shaped Garden Bed, 91. 

REPLIES : The Effect of Opening a Coffin, 91 Hebrew 
Dietetics Parish Register?, 93 Bi -graphical Informa- 
tion Wanted : Thomas Li.sle- Free Folk-Lore : the Elder 
Employment of Wild Beasts in Warfare British Army : 
Mascots, 94 Baptism, 1644 Baron Westbury : Mock 
Epitaph Oil-Painting William Letheuilier, 95-Perse 
vere ye. &c. Moira Coals Lord Milner's Pedigree 
Nelson Memorial Rings Gunfire and Rain Duchesses 
who have married Commoners, 96 Clockmakers : Cam- 
pigne Memory at the Moment of Death The Bury, 
Ches-ham, Bucks "Fat, fair, and forty," 97 - Dr. Johnson 
on Fishing Archbishop Bancroft Arthur Hughes, 
Painter The Two Ryhopes co. Durham Sixteenth- 
Century Dutch Print Col. John Hayes St. Leger, 98. 

NOTES ON BOOKS :' Disguise Plots in Elizabethan 
Drama' 'Cathay and the Way Thither' Vol. I. 
' Archaeological Excavation ' ' The Edinburgh Review ' 
'The Quarterly Review.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 


HENSLOWE'S diary records in February, 
1599/1600, a payment to Thomas Dekker, 
William. Haughton, and John Day in respect 
of a book called ' The Spaneshe Mores 
Tragedie.' No play of that name has come 
down to ois. There is, however, an extant 
tragedy of which a Spanish Moor is the 
central figure, published in 1657 under the 
title of ' Lust's Dominion, or the Lascivious 
Queen,'* and attributed on the title-page 
to " Cristofer Marloe, Gent." This play is 
certainly not Marlowe's. Is it ' The Spanish 
Moor's Tragedy ' of Dekker, Haughton, and 
Day, as Collier suggests ? 

* Reprinted in Hazlitt's * Dodsley,' vol. xiv. 
References are to this edition. 

So far there has been no definite evidence 
either way. Fleay (an untrustworthy guide 
in these matters) and Swinburne accept 
Collier's identification; Sir Adolphus Ward 
and Mr. A. H. Bullen on the other hand reject 
it. The two latter are followed by Miss 
Mary L. Hunt, Dekker' s most recent bio- 
grapher, who, in her excellent monograph 
on the dramatist ('Thomas Dekker,' Co- 
lumbia University Press, 1911, p. 63), con- 
fidently expresses her disbelief in Dekker' s 
collaboration in the extant play. 

"It is [she says] not only wholly unlike the 
known work of Dekker, but it is also for the most 
part unlike that of his collaborators. . . .The Queen 
and Eleazar were conceived by a more ' robust ' 
mind than that of Dekker, who never drew 
either a convincing villain or a bad woman of 
imposing presence, or told in his plays a story of 
successful lust. Nor can I see any evidence in 
characterization or in phrasing that he retouched 
this drama, least of all the opening scene, which 
Swinburne so positively claims for him." 

Nevertheless Miss Hunt is wrong and 
Swinburne is right. Although 'Lust's 
Dominion' is unlike most of Dekker's work, 
a comparison of it with his early ventures 
in the domain of tragedy, and especially 
with ' Old Fortunatus,' will at once place 
its identity with ' The Spanish Moor's 
Tragedy ' beyond a doubt. That of all 
Dekker's plays it should be * Old Fortuna- 
tus ' that, in its style and diction, is most 
closely connected with 'Lust's Dominion' 
is natural, since the latter play (taking it 
to be 'The Spanish Moor's Tragedy') was 
written immediately after Dekker had 
finished working on ' Old Fortunatus.' 
This " pleasant comedy " as it now stands 
is Dekker's recast of an older drama. His 
revision, begun and completed in November, 
1599, must have been of the most extensive 
nature, for he was paid 61. for it, as much 
as was often paid for a new play ; and in the 
following month he received another 31. 
for still further alterations and additions, t 
The revised version was entered in the 
Stationers' Register (as ' Old Fortunatus 
in his newe lyverie') on Feb. 20, 1600, 
just seven days after the payment to 
Dekker and his collaborators on account 
of 'The Spanish Moor's Tragedy' recorded 
by Henslowe. 

The first act, clearly written by one hand, 
is wholly Dekker' s. Before I had read a dozen 
lines of the first scene I became convinced 
that they were his. I suspect that the 
passage that convinced me, convinced 
Swinburne, for it bears the unmistakable 

t See Dr. W. W. Greg's edition of ' Henslowe's 
Diary, 'Part II., 179. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. i. JAN. 29, 1916. 

stamp of Dekker. It was the Queen- 
Mother's exhortation to the musicians : 
Chime out your softest strains of harmony, 
And on delicious music's silken wings 
Send ravishing delight to my love's ears, 
That he may be enamour'd of your tunes. 

Let the reader compare this passage with 
these from Dekker' s acknowledged works : 
Music, talk louder, that thy silver voice 
May reach my sovereign's ears. 

' Satiromastix,' II. i. 

Go, let music 

Charm with her excellent voice an awful silence 
Through all the building, that her sphery soul 
May, on the wings of air, in thousand forms 
Invisibly fly, yet be enjoy'd. 

' Westward Hoe,' IV. ii. 
.... take instruments, 
And let the raptures of choice harmony 
Thorough the hollow windings of his ear 
Carry their sacred sounds, and wake each sense 
To stand amazed at our bright eminence. 

' Old Fortunatus,' I. i. 

. . . .and secretly 

Commanded music with her silver tongue 
To chime soft lullabies into her soul. 

Ibid., III. ii. 

Not only had Dekker, as these passages 
show, a keen appreciation of music, but he 
had (as we shall see later) a great idea of its 
power to excite amorous desire, and it is 
to rouse passion in Eleazar that the Queen- 
Mother invokes the aid of her musicians. 
Immediately following the lines above 
quoted she begs a kiss from him, but he 
repels her with impatience : 

Eleazar. Away, away ! 

Queen- Mother. No, no, says ay ; and twice 
away says stay. 

So in 'The Shoemaker's Holiday,' when 
Jane rejects Hammon's advances with 
" I love not you," he replies : 

All this, I hope, is but a woman's fray 

That means : come to me, when she cries: away! 

In this same scene Eleazar has a speech : 

I cannot ride through the Castilian streets 

But thousand eyes, through windows and through 


Throw killing looks at me, and every slave 
At Eleazar darts a finger out, 
And every hissing tongue cries " There's the Moor !'' 

closely resembling one of Galloway's speeches 
in Act III. sc. i. of ' Old Fortunatus ' : 

. . . see, from the windows 
Of every eye derision thrusts out cheeks, 
Wrinkled with idiot laughter ; every finger 
Is like a dart shot from the hand of scorn. 

In Act I. sc. ii. Alvero announces to 
Eleazar that the King is at the point of 
death : 
Death's frozen hand holds royal Philip's heart ; 

while in ' Old Fortunatus' (V. ii.) Ampedo, 
with his last breath, exclaims : 

Death's frozen hand 
Congeals life's little river in my breast. 

The next passage to be noted is in the first 
speech of the dying King Philip in I. iii- 
The Queen-Mother, thanking Heaven that 
she finds him still alive, expresses the hope- 
that he may yet live 

to see 
Unnumber'd years to guide this empery. 

The King replies : 

The number of my years ends in one day : 

Ere this sun's down, all a king's glory sets. 

It is interesting to compare the sentiments 
of the speeches put into the mouths of 
dying men by contemporary dramatists. 
The last thoughts of Dekker' s characters 
are not of their physical sensations, nor 
of their sins nor the world to come, but of 
the transitoriness of life, which in one day 
or minute is brought to a close. Thus in 
' Old Fortunatus,' V. ii., Andelocia assures 
the dying Ampedo that Fortune's "next 
morn's eye " shall " overshine the sun in 
majesty." Ampedo replies: 
But this sad night shall make an end of me. 

The sentiment will be found twice again in 
the same play: in the first scene, where 
Fortunatus hesitates in his choice between 
the gifts offered him by Fortune : 
The greatest strength expires in loss of breath, 
The mightiest in one minute stoop to death ; 

and in II. ii. where death comes to Fortunatus 
himself, and he exclaims : 

No hand can conquer fate ; 
This instant is the last of my life's date. 

To return to our play, we see Dekker r s 
hand again a few lines further on : 

When a few dribbling minutes have run out, 
Mine hour is ended. 

Compare : 

.... those short-lived minutes 
That dribble out your life. 

' Old Fortunatus,' II. ii. 

In Act I. sc. iv. w r e have : 

Alvero. . . . awake thy soul, 

And on thy resolution fasten wings 
W T hose golden feathers may outstrip their hate, 

Eleazar. I'll tie no golden feathers to my wings. 

Reference to the pages of ' Old Fortunatus ' 
will show how constantly " wings " figure in 
Dekker' s metaphor at this time, and in one 
of the scenes he contributed to ' The Roaring 
Girl' (IV. ii.) we get : 

Husband, I plucked, 

W T hen he had tempted me to think well of him,. 

Gilt feathers from thy wings, to make him fly 

More lofty. 

12 S. I. JAN. 29, 1916. J 


In Act III. sc. ii. the King (Fernando) 
endeavours to debauch the chaste Maria. 
This scene is typical of Dekker. The foiling 
of a royal or noble profligate's designs upon 
a virtuous woman was at this time his stock 
tragic motif. He uses it again in ' Satiro- 
mastix ' and in ' Westward Hoe.' Not only 
so, but the King in ' Satiromastix * and the 
Earl in ' Westward Hoe ' employ the same 
machinations to compass their evil designs. 
In both these plays, as in ' Lust's Dominion,' 
music and a banquet are provided to add 
to the allurements of speech absurdly 
enough in the present play, since Maria has 
been roused from her bed in the dead of 
night. Note also that it is by means of a 
soporific drug that Maria foils the King. 
This is a favourite device of Dekker' s, 
appearing again not only in the kindred 
scenes of ' Satiromastix ' and ' Westward 
Hoe,' but in 'Old Fortunatus ' (III. ii.) 
and the First Part of ' The Honest Whore ' 
(I. iii.). In 'Lust's Dominion' Maria ad- 
ministers the draught to the King ; in 
' Satiromastix ' and ' Westward Hoe ' it is 
the woman who takes the " somniferous 
potion," the sight of her supposed dead 
body inspiring the royal or noble lover with 
shame and remorse. 

If this scene (excluding the few lines 
introducing Oberon and the fairies at the 
close) is carefully compared with ' Satiro- 
mastix,' V. ii. (Belles Lettres edition), and 
' Westward Hoe,' IV. ii., its authorship will 
at once become apparent. 

Two parallels with other works of Dekker 
are worth noting : 
Maria's speech : 

here you look on me with sunset eyes, 

For by beholding you my glory dies. 
and ' Old Fortunatus,' HI. i. : 

Dead is my love, I am buried in her scorn, 
That is my sunset. 
The drugged King exclaims : 

. . . the cold hand of sleep 
Hath thrust his icy fingers in my breast, 
in words echoing those of Shakespeare in 
' King John ' : 

And none of you will bid the winter come 
To thrust his icy fingers in my maw. 

Act V. sc. vii. 

a parallel noted by Hazlitt. What is more 
interesting for our purpose is that Dekker 
uses the same metaphor again in ' The 
Gull's Horn-book,' chap. iii. : 
If the morning. . . .waxing cold, thrust his frosty 
fingers into thy bosom ; 

and 'The Seven Deadly Sins of London' 
(Camb. Univ. Press reprint, p. 81) : 
. /. .he into whose bosom threescore winters have 
thrust their frozen fingers. 

When we come to the next scene (III. iii.) 
the unmistakable rhythm of Dekker may 
be detected in Maria's dying utterance : 
Heaven, ope your windows, that my spotless soul,. 
Riding upon the wings of innocence, 
May enter Paradise. 

This should be compared with the invoca- 
tions of music already quoted, and with the 
dying Susan' s speech in ' The Witch of 
Edmonton,' III. iii. : 

my soul's purity 

Shall with bold wings ascend the doors of Mercy ; ; 

and also with the lines in Act I. sc. i. of 
' Old Fortunatus ' : 

Thy Heaven-inspired soul, on Wisdom's wings, 
Shall fly up to the Parliament of Jove. 

When the King wakes and discovers that 
Maria is dead, he exclaims : 

O my dear love ! 
Yet heavens can witness thou wert never mine, . 

in words that recall the opening lines "of 
Hammon's speech ('The Shoemaker's Holi- 
day,' IV. i.) as he watches Jane at work : 
there my fair love sits ; 

She's fair and lovely, but she is not mine. 

In Act V. sc. v. the reference to ratsbane : 

these dignities, 

Like poison, make men swell; this ratsbane 


O, 'tis so sweet ! they'll lick it till all burst, 
is Dekker' s. Compare ' The Whore of 
Babylon ' (Pearson, ii. 210) : 
If the sweet bane 
I lay be swallowed, oh ! a kingdom bursts. 

Finally, in Eleazar's last speech in the 
play (V. vi.) we have one of Dekker' s numer- 
ous metaphorical allusions to the raising up 
of spirits within a magic circle from which 
they cannot stray : 
May'st thou, lascivious queen, whose damned 


Bewitch'd me to the circle of thy arms, 
Unpitied die; 

with which we may compare ' Old For- 
tunatus,' III. i. : 

If by the sovereign magic of thine eye 
Thou canst enchant his looks to keep the circle 
Of thy fair cheeks, be bold to try their charms. 

Apart from these passages, Dekker' s hand 
is evidenced by certain peculiarities of 
style and the use of some of his favourite 
words and expressions. One of his most 
noticeable mannerisms is his habit of itera- 
ting words and phrases, often three or four - 
times over. He indulges in this trick to a 
far greater extent than any of his con- 
temporaries, who, as a rule, affect triple or 
fourfold repetitions only as a conventional 
means of indicating mental distraction or 
madness. There are several of these charac- 
teristic repetitions in this play- e.g. "away^. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 B. i. JAN. 29.1910. 

*away ! " " begone, begone ! " " O, he's dead, 
lie's dead " (I. i.) ; " But that he has an eye, 
an eye, an eye" (II. ii.) ; " So, gone, gone, 
gone" (IT. iv.) ; "Heart, heart, heart, 
heart!" (IV. v.); "See, see, see, see!" 
'" play that amain, amain, amain " (V. v.). 

" Hellhound " is one of his most fre- 
quently used, and most distinctive, terms 
of abuse. We find it twice in this play : 
I'll fight thee, damned hellhound. V. i. 
Hear me then, hellhound. V. v. 

Another is "damnation," here twice applied 
to Eleazar : 

Damnation, vanish from me ! V. iii. 
Worse than damnation ! fiend, monster of men ! 

V. v. 

For this last exclamation compare Part II. 
of ' The Honest Whore,' III. i. : 
Worse than damnation ! a wild kerne, a frog, 
A dog whom I'll scarce spurn. 

It does not follow that all the scenes 
showing traces of Dekker' s work are entirely 
his. It is clear that many of them are not. 
The part of the play written by Dekker 
alone is the whole of Act I., Act II. i. ii., 
Act III. ii. (to the entry of the fairies), 
iii., and iv., Act V. v. and vi. The brief 
vision of Oberon and the fairies at the end 
of III. ii. is certainly Day's. Even the 
-critics who doubt or deny Dekker' s colla- 
boration admit that it may be Day's, and it- 
is in the same riming lines of four measures 
as the Oberon scenes at the end of ' The 
Parliament of Bees.' The differentiation of 
Day's and Haughton's work in the remain- 
ing scenes is a more speculative matter. A 
comparison of the riming octosyllabic lines 
in the Crab and Cole scenes (II. iii. and iv.) 
with Shorthose's similar riming speeches 
in ' Grim, the Collier of Croydon,' and of 
the prose in III. v. with the prose of the 
same play, seems to justify the attribution 
of these scenes to Haughton. Dekker' s 
was evidently the controlling hand through- 
out, for there are many touches suggestive 
of his revision of his collaborators' work. 
Subject to this reservation, I would allot 
Act II. iii.-vi., III. v. and vi. to Haughton; 
Act III. i., end of ii., and Act IV. to Day. 
Act V. i.-iv. contains, I think, mixed work 
of Day and Dekker. 

It cannot be said that Dekker' s literary 
reputation is likely to gain anything by the 
establishment of his substantial responsi- 
bility for 'Lust's Dominion.' But the 
proof of its identity with ' The Spanish 
Moor's Tragedy ' is interesting as revealing 
his only extant contribution to the full- 
blooded Marlovian type of tragedy. 


A FEW weeks ago I came across a curious 
little suggestion in family history which 
may be of interest to those of your readers 
who are genealogists. In a MS. in the 
Heralds' College quoted by Maddison (' Lines 
Pedigrees,' i. 9) occurs the following " note " 
attached to a pedigree of the family of 
Alleyne of Grantham and Skillington, Lines: 

" This Richard Allen [ob. Sept. 6, 1559] declared 
on his death-bed to George Allen his brother and 
Henry Allen his nephew [his son John having 
predeceased him, 1557] that their ancestors were 
lords of Chartley Park, for that one of their 
ancestors did kill his Barbar by chance medley 
and did thereupon flee to Ireland, whereby 1 e 
escaped the attainture and punishment, and there 
lived unknown many yeares ; so lost the same 
lands which the Lord Ferrers lately fcad rnd 
enjoyed ; and this Richard was the first that lived 
in Grantham and revealed the same as he had 
understood from his Father and Grandfather, 
with tears, bewailing y e chance. Of this, I, 
Yorke Herald, was credibly informed this 
29 January, 1578." 

Contrary to what one might expect, York 
Herald (William Dethick) on bearing this 
narrative was to a certain extent impressed 
by it. At the same time, after the manner 
of his age, an attempt at verification would 
probably seem to him useless or unnecessary. 

The tale itself seems just one of those 
vague legends of past greatness and riches 
(" if every one had his rights") which, &s 
much to-day as ever, serve to impress, 
embarrass, or amuse, as the case may be, 
those to whom they are confided. Now 
for the related facts. 

According to the Visitation pedigree, the 
first of the Alleyne line is " George Allen of 
Chartley, Staffs." He therefore apparently 
is the fugitive of York Herald's note. He 
is represented as the father of Richard Allen, 
" the first that lived in Grantham "; and this 
Richard had, according to the pedigree, 
two wives, viz., 1. . . ., a daughter of John 
Sheldon of Bewley ; 2, Isabel, daughter cf 
who survived her husband, he 
dying Sept. 6, 1559. 

It would, one supposes, be either John 
or Richard " Allen," grandsons of the above, 
who supplied York Herald with the in- 
formation which he has thought proper to 
hand down to posterity. John, the elder 
son of a (i.) John, son of the above Richard 
(which John i. died in the latter' s lifetime, 
1557), was Alderman of Grantham in 1594 ; 
Richard's will was proved in 1616, being 
dated May 28 of that year ; so that both were 
alive in January, 1578, at which time the 
Herald was " credibly informed " of the 
family tradition. 

12 8. I. JAN. 29, 1916.] 


The above statements may now be com- 
pared with the following : 

In the Visitation of Warwickshire, 1619, 
by Camden (Harl. Soc., xii. 3), and Dugdale's 
' Warwickshire ' (ii. 973), there are pedigrees 
of the Ferrers family, and in particular of 
the Groby branch, which began with that 
William (second son of William Ferrers, Earl 
of Derby 1248-54) who married Joan le 
Despencer. and, having inherited Groby 
from his mother Margaret de Quinci, his 
father's second wife, was himself father of 
William, first Lord Ferrers of Groby (1270- 
1324), as may be seen in the various Peerage 
pedigrees. William, the fifth Lord of Groby, 
had a younger son Thomas, who, having 
married the heiress of Baldwin Freville, 
became possessed in her right of Tamworth, 
and the progenitor of the Ferrers of Tam- 
worth. Thomas and Elizabeth above had 
(with Thomas, who succeeded to Tamworth) 
a younger son, Henry, of Hambleton, 
Rutland, who married a Kentish lady, 
Margaret, daughter and coheir of William 
Hextall of East Peckham, and widow of 
William Whetenhall, to whose son by her 
and heir, William Whetenhall, her East 
Peckham property passed at her death, 
away from her second husband, who in virtue 
of being its holder during her lifetime had 
been High Sheriff of Kent 3 Hen. VI. and 
9 Ed. IV. This Henry and Margaret 
were parents of Edward Ferrers, who " by 
marriage with Constance, daughter and heir 
of Sir Nicholas Brome, obtained Baddesley 
Clinton, which has remained a family pos- 
session.* Sir Edward Ferrers left beside 
his eldest son and heir Henry, who died 
1526, younger sons Edward, George, and 

Of these George is recorded as having 
married Mary, daughter of Richard Sheldon 
of Beoley or Bewley (now Bewdley), Worces- 
tershire. According to Camden's 1619 
Visitation, her mother was a Rudings heiress. 
Two Ralf Sheldons, father and son, are 
mentioned by Nash, i. 64, of whom the first 
married a daughter and heiress of Rudings, 
and the second Philippe, daughter and 
heiress of Baldwin Heath of Ford Hall in 
Wotton-Wawen. If these were really two 
and not one and the same person (their dates 
are not given), the second had a son " John," 
described as "of London." 

* It had been bought by John Brome, Nicholas's 
grandfather, from John Catesby. This John 
Brome was Burgess for Warwick part of 8 Hen. IV., 
and seems to have been of Brome Hall or Place 
in Lapworth, which Dugdale thinks was the 
original family seat. 

I have so far obtained no further informa- 
tion as to this George Ferrers. 

It is interesting to note the existence of a 
George Ferrers contemporary with George 
" Allen." The one seems (as far as I have 
been able to trace the matter) to drop out 
of the pedigree and disappear not in itself, 
of course, a very remarkable thing in the 
case of a younger son and the other emerges 
from obscurity to head a pedigree. He 
leaves a son who hands down " on his death- 
bed " a story, probably enough confused and 
ill-remembered as told by a dying man, and 
by the time it has reached his great-grandsons 
(one or both of whom were probably the 
Herald's informants) likely to be a little 
more confused and variant from the original. 
Those accustomed to genealogical work 
will, I am sure, agree that it is a common 
thing for the wives of a father and son to 
be wrongly attributed, so that it is stretching 
no point to suggest that the " daughter of 
John Sheldon " given vaguely as the first 
wife of Richard might quite possibly have 
been the wife of his father George. As for 
the variant " John " and " Ralf " Sheldon, 
the father of Ralf (or Ralf i. if there were 
two) is " John " according to Nash, and 
Ralf (Ralf ii.) has a brother " John " also;, 
so that, as things go in pedigrees such as. 
these, which have never undergone very 
critical examination, the one name is likely 
enough to be substituted for the other. 

I think it is not saying too much to suggest 
an element of unlikelihood in the alleged 
marriage of a purely local man like Richard 
Allen of Grantham with the daughter of so- 
far away a family also quite 'local" in 
prestige and position, but much higher, pre- 
sumably, in both than would be the son of 
an unknown man himself a new-comer. 

It is, of course, quite possible, momen- 
tarily taking the family story as true, that 
George Ferrers or Allen may have married 
Mary, daughter of Ralf Sheldon ; and his son, 
Richard, through this connexion, a daughter 
of that Ralf's son John, his own cousin. 
The wife and child, in such a case, might well 
take refuge in the paternal home during the 
husband's exile and wanderings. The im- 
plication or assumption that much property 
and great position have been lost, when all 
the while the case is that of a younger son. 
who probably had not much to lose, is just 
what one would expect in such a case,, 
especially when the tale is told by one of a 
fourth generation ; and, to my thinking,, 
helps to give a certain air of verisimilitude^ 
to the whole allegation. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. i. JAN. 29, wie. 


'ONE of the most interesting groups of tracts 
in a local collection is that connected with 
the Civil War. These fragile and badly 
printed little quartos always appeal to one's 
love of history. The very handling of them 
has a special attraction ; they seem to allure 
one on, recalling as they so vividly do the past. 
They are also valuable contemporary records. 

Some of our local writers, as Gorham, 
-Kingston, and others, have made use of 
them in their works. The tracts have lately 
enlisted more interest, and deeper study 
has been the result. Perhaps this has been 
since the publication of the catalogue of 
Thomason Tracts of the British Museum. 

Not long ago I had the opportunity of 
-adding some very scarce ones from Lord 
Polwarth's library to my Huntingdon- 
shire collection, and these additions make 
it now a fairly good one. As I have not 
seen a list specially devoted to this county, 
I venture to subjoin one, hoping it may be 

The very many tracts referring to or 
written about any of the many Huntingdon- 
shire families connected with this period I 
have omitted, as the list might be too lengthy 
for dear old ' N. & Q.' There were Edward 
Montague of Hinchingbrooke, the Earl of 
Manchester of Kimbolton Castle, the Lord 
Kimbolton, Stephen Marshall of Godman- 
chester, Philip Nye of Kimbolton, Col. 
Valentine Walton of Great Staughton, 
Henry Lawrence of St. Ives, and a host of 
others, besides the Cromwell family and 
their connexions. All tracts referring to 
these I have considered as biographical 
rather than topographical, and have ex- 
cluded them. 

On looking over the tracts I notice 
several interesting features. Some have 
borders to the title-pages, and others have 
them not. Nos. 10, 12, and 13 have narrow 
fancy borders, while Nos. 22, 23, and 26 
have only two thin lines, and Nos. 6 and 11 
a single line. It may be borders were used 
from stock and also put to other pamphlets. 
Two of them, Nos. 22 and 23, have woodcuts 
on the last pages : the first a figure, and the 
second ships. The tracts are of the usual 
character and size, and the imprints are, I 
believe, very well known. I should be glad 
to hear of any additions to the list. 
16-11 [March 15]. 

1. The | SEVEBALL 
of | Both Houses I of 

Votes and Resolutions | 
PARLIAMENT, | Concern- 

ing the Kings last Message, sent | from Huntington 

to both Houses, on Wed- | nesday the 16. of 
March, 1641. | With his Majestie's Message before 
to | both Houses of Parliament, | March 15, 1641. 

Printed at London for Rich. Harper and I. G. | 

Dated from " Huntington 15 Martii, 1641." 

4 11. A 2, A 3. 

[1641 March 17]. 

AFFAYRES and | Matters of Consequence betwixt 
the j King and both Houses of Parliament. | 
March, 16th, 1641. | TOUCHING THE PRESENT 
E- j state of these two Kingdomes, En- \ g^and and 
Ireland. \ With the Votes and Resolutions of both 

Houses of Parliament, Concerning the Kings 
last message from Huntington, March 17, 1641. 

[Woodcut device.] 

London, Printed for John Thomas, 1641. 
4 11. 8 pp. ' 

1641 [Aug. 27]. 

3. The | Remonstrance | and | Petition | of the 
| County of Huntington, the Knights, j Gentle- 
men, Clergy, Freeholders and | Inhabitants. 
To the Right Honourable the Lords and 
Commons assembled in Parliament, for the 
Continuance of the Church-government, and 
Matth. 21. Vers. 13. | My house shall be called 
the house of prayer. 

Printed in the Year. 1641. 
B.M. 117 f. 26. 


4. The | Arminian | Nynnery : | or, | A Briefe 
description | and Relation of the late erected Mo- 

| nasticall Place, called the Arminian | Nvnnery 
at little Gidding in | Hvntington-shire. Humbly 
recommended to the wise Consideration \ of this 
present Parliament. 

The Foundation is by a Company of Farrars | 
at Giddding. 


Printed for Thomas Underbill MDCXLI. 
6 11. 10 pp. 

1642 [Jan.]. 

5. The Fovre | PETITIONS | of | HUNTING- 
loyntly concerning the libertie of the Subiects, 
to the Ho | nourable Assembly of the High Court 
of | Parliament. | Vnanimously concurring to the 
rooting out of Papists, | and their Religion from 
our Kingdome ; and the re- | moving the Popish 
Lords, and Bishops from their | Votes in the 
House of Peeres : and that there | may be a 
Speedy Reformation of Re- | ligion in our Church, 
according | to the Word of God. 

The Petition of Huntington-shire. particularly 
con- | tabling the behalf e of the Lord Kimbolton. 
[Small woodblock.] 


Printed for lohn Hammond, 1642. 
4 11. 7 pp. 

The Huntingdonshire portion of this, tract is 
reprinted in ' Fenland N. & Q.,' art. 167. 

[1642, lanuary 17.] 

6. Two | ORDINANCES | of the | LORDS arid 
COMMONS | Assembled in Parliament, | For the 
Assessing afll men of ability, | within the 
Counties of Northampton, Leicester, \ Derby, Rut- 

12 S. I.JAN. 29, 1916.] 



land, Nottingham, Huntingdon, Bedford, and , 
Buckingham, that have not Contributed upon the 

| Propositions of both Houses of Parliament 
and they to be | voted and assessed in like sort as 
was the 400,OOOZ. | by an Act of this present 
Parliament. | As also, for the Association of the 
severall | Counties aforesaid, for the mutua 
defence one of | another. With the names o: 
the Committees in the said | Counties, for th< 
same purpose. 

Die Lunae, 16 Ian. 1642. 

It is this day ordered by tJie Commons House Oj 
Parliament, ] that the Ordinance for levying oj 
moneys, within the \ Counties of Northampton 
Bedford, cfec. be printed \ together with the 
Ordinance for Association of the afore- \ said 

Hen. Elsynge Cler. Parl. D. Com. 


Printed for John Wright in the Old-baily 
January 17, 1642. * 

4 11. 8 pp. 

1642 [March 18]. 

7. The | ANSWER | Of both Houses of Parlia- 
ment | to the | KINGS MESSAGE. | sent to his 
most excellent Majesty, the 16th | of March. 

Therein nominating divers parti- | cular per - 
sons, which have lately past into | Ireland by the 
Kings speciall Warrants, and there I ioyned them- 
selves to the Rebels. 

Together with His Majestic 's Message, sent I 
from Huntington to both Houses of Parliament, 
upon his removall to the City of Yorke, \ March 15. 

Also the severall votes of both Houses of Parlia- 
ment | upon the aforesaid Message. | Whereunto 
w added, \ The resolutions of the Parliament, for 
securing the ] Kingdome of England and Dominion 
of Wales. 

Printed by order of both Houses. 
London : 

Printed by E. G. for I. Wright, 1642. 

4 11. A 2, A 3. Black-letter. 

1642 [March 16]. 

8. A NEW | DECLARATION | of both Houses 
of Parliamer t : | Sent to the Kings most Excel- 
lent | Majesty, the sixteenth of March | Upon 
his removall from Huntington to York. 

Also his Majesties Message to both Houses | of 

Parliament, upon his removall | to the City of 

Yorke : \ Together with the Votes and resolutions 

of both | Houses, Concerning the said Message, I 

the 16 of March 1641. 

[Woodcut device.] 


Printed for lohn Fanke, and are to be sold at 
his I shop next doore to the Kings head in I 
Fleeistrcet, 1642. 
4 11. 6 pp. 

1642 [Dec. 8]. 

Obtained by the Volluntiers of Buck- \ ingham, 
Bedford, Hartford, Cambridge, Hun- | linglon, 
and Northamptonshire, being almost I seven 
thousand of able souldiers. 

Against the Lord Wentworth, Sonne to | the 
Larle of Straff ord, with 8000. Horse | and Foot, 
nerefAlesbury, and Wickham, in I Buckingham- 
shire, \December 6, 1642 | Declaring the manner 
of the^Bataile, which | lasted five houres, and the 

number that was slain \ on both sides, being the 
greatest Victory that \ hath beene obtained since the 
beginning of | these Warres. 

[Two small devices.] 


Printed for I. H. and J. Wright, December 8, 

4 11. A 2, A 3. 


(To be concluded.} 

10 S. viii. 455.) The following note occurs 
among some MS. memoranda on the Gordon 
Riots collected by a Mr. Richard Hincker- 
man : 

" Mr. Hay told the writer about thirty years 
ago that one day he saw in Charlotte Row (in 
which is the west side of the Mansion House) an 
old man gazing earnestly at the front of the house 
built against the tower of St. Stephen's Church, 
and opened a conversation with him. The 
stranger, a Scotchman, stated he was a sergeant 
in the army, and was on the spot with his regiment 
during Lord George Gordon's Riots, When the 
mob was fired over ; and that he visited the place 
on every anniversary of the occurrence to view 
the shot marks on the house. 

" Mr. Dawson, at one time proprietor of the 
Bank Coffee-House (demolished to obtain part of 
the site of the present Royal Exchange), once 
stated that on the same occasion he and many 
other volunteers assembled one evening in that 
former Royal Exchange, and when in marching 
order, the colonel said to them : ' Now, gentlemen, 
be firm ! ' and led them out at the north gate. 
They marched along Bartholomew Lane, Loth- 
bury, Cateaton Street, Milk Street, Bread Street, 
Upper Thames Street, Dow gate Hill, and Wall- 
brook, and then into the Royal Exchange, where 
they were regaled with an abundance of cold beef, 
bread, cheese, and beer. Feb. 10, 1845." 


WALSINGHAM. The ' Dictionary of National 
Biography ' under ' Carleill, Christopher,' 
states that " he married Mary, daughter 
of Sir Francis Walsingham, and sister of Sir 
Philip Sidney's wife. His widow was alive 
in 1609." On the other hand, under ' Wal- 
singham, Sir Francis ' it states that Wal- 
singham had no children by his first wife 
Anne, widow of Alexander Carleill (and 
nother of Christopher Carleill), and by his 
second wife Ursula, widow of Sir Richard 
Worsley, he had a daughter Frances (Lady 
Sidney), who was his only surviving child, 
and another daughter Mary, who died un- 
married in June, 1580. 

The latter biography gives the facts cor- 
rectly (except that, I think, " Sir Richard 
Worsley " should be " Richard W., Esq."). 
That Walsingham had no children but 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s.i. JAN. 29,1916. 

Frances and Mary is shown by pedigrees 
in Harl. MS. 807 ; that one daughter died 
in 1580, and that at his death in 1590 Frances 
was his sole surviving child, are facts for 
which there is abundant evidence. 

What then is the cause of the error in the 
life of Christopher Carleill ? The biographer 
seems not to have noticed that Sir Francis 
Walsingham was Carleill's stepfather, and, 
seeing him described by Stow (' Annales,' 
1605, p. 803) as Carleill's' " father-in-law " (a 
very common equivalent of " stepfather" in 
the English of that day), thought it neces- 
sary to marry him to one of Walsingham' s 
daughters. Whom Carleill did marry I 
have not discovered. In a letter to Lord 
Burleigh of June 10, 1590,* he speaks of 
" my poore wief and children" ; but though 
he seeks relief for his " most ruyned and 
distressed estate," his patrimony having 
been spent in the service of his country, he 
does not base any claim on the services of 
Walsingham, which he might well have done 
if his wife had been Walsingham' s daughter. 
That her name was Mary is seen from a note 
appended to the will of Alexander Carleill 
(31 Loftes) stating that on April 27, 1594, 
after the death of his widow Anne and his 
son Christopher, administration of the 
estate was granted to Mary, relict of 
the aforesaid Christopher, for the use of the 
children of the same Christopher. But she 
was certainly not Mary Walsingham. 


(See 9 S. xi. 227 ; 10 S. iii. 6.) On p. 5 of 
vol. iii. of " The History of Two Orphans. 
In Four Volumes. By William Toldervy. 
London : 1756," one finds the sentence : 

"'No, Sir,' .said the most talkative of them, 
' we are bound for Manchester, but shall remain 
here two days, in order to finish a parcel of fine 
old Florence at the Talbot : dam'e, I drank five 
betties last night for my own share, and one for 
Mr. Quillit; but, for all that, I am very well to- 
day.' " 

This example of the use of " betty," in the 
sense of a wine-bottle, ought to be added 
to the second edition of ' The Oxford Dic- 
tionary,' which contains other quotations 
from the same author, e.g. under " per- 
happen." Where is the best memoir of 
William Toldervy ? According to W. T. 
Lowndes, he wrote also ' Select Epitaphs ' 
(London, 1755) and ' England and Wales 
described in a Series of Letters ' (London, 
1762). E. S. DODGSON. 

* Lansdowne MS. 64, art. 54, printed (by N. 
Carlisle) in ' Collections for a History of the 
Family of Carlisle,' 1822, pp. 24-6. 

Prof. Emil G. Hirsch in a monograph of his 
father, Rabbi Samuel Hirsch of Philadelphia^ 
published in The Jewish Exponent, records 
of him an incident by no means exceptional 
in the careers of these holy men. German 
by birth, he settled in 1848 in Luxembourg, 
then under Prussian control. It was custom- 
ary before his advent there for Jewish 
recruits to be sworn in more judaico, in some 
degrading manner, which implied that no- 
Hebrew could be got to serve the colours 
" unless intimidated by invocations of 
divine curses." To that insulting mode ^ of 
recruiting his young brethren in faith 
Rabbiner Hirsch took the gravest possible 
exception, and declined to be a party to 
those detestable proceedings. He so far 
succeeded in removing the official slur by 
securing that Hebrew fathers should accom- 
pany their sons to the synagogue, where 
Hirsch himself dedicated them to their 
country's service, " on the National Flag," 
like other citizens. 



WE must request correspondents desiring in* 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries,, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

CAMERON (1653-1719), 


FOR many years past I have interested 
myself in what is called, in Mackenzie's 
' History of the Camerons,' the " Worcester 
branch of the family." In 1901 I became 
possessed of a quantity of family letters 
written by the following, viz. : Thomas 
Cameron ( 1704-77), Barbara Anne Came- 
ron (1716-73), Charles Cameron (1748- 
1818), Anne Cameron (1751-1815), Franeis 
Cameron (1780-1804), &c.; as well as a 
number of Jacobite papers, including a letter 
from James II., dated Aug. 20, 1670, in 
which he gives his reasons for becoming a 
Roman Catholic ; two letters from Prince 
Charlie to his father, dated Sept. 10 and 21, 
1745, respectively, and six letters to his wife 
and one to his son, written by Dr. Archibald 
Cameron from the Tower on June 6, 1753, 
on the eve of his execution. Since then I 
have acquired, or had access to, a number 
of other letters covering the period 1796- 

12 S. I. JAN. 29, 1916. NOTES AND QUERIES. 


1856, written by various members of the 
family, and a few by other people, viz., 
three from Dr. John Cameron (1579-1625), 
the famous Principal of Glasgow University ; 
three by ancestors of the Butt family, dated 
1686, 1709, and 1717, &c. Many of these 
letters are of great interest ; for instance, 
two written by Francis Cameron, Lieut. 
R.N., give accounts of the battle of Cape 
St. Vincent, in which he took part, and 
the attack on Teneriffe, in which Nelson 
lost his arm ; one from Mary Martha 
Butt (Mrs. Sherwood), dated 1800, describes 
a visit which she paid to the Camerons at 
Worcester ; another from Ewen Henry 
Cameron, dated July 21, 1834, describes at 
great length the wedding of his cousin Lucy 
Sherwood to William Bagnall ; another from 
Charles Marriott to Charles Cameron (1807- 
1861) gives Newman's reasons for a refusal 
of the latter' s offer of a contribution to the 
" Tracts for the Times " ; one by Lucy 
Lyttelton Cameron (1781-1858), * dated 
June 18, 1856, describes her golden wedding- 
day. Some of these letters have more than 
a family interest. 

In addition to these, I have seen and 
catalogued a quantity of relics which have 
been inherited by various members of the 
family, many of them of special interest. 
I have unearthed a very interesting account 
of the curious life led by the ancestors 
of Mrs. Charles Cameron (Anne Ingram) 
during the closing years of the seven- 
teenth century, when Richard Baxter 
ministered to the spiritual needs of the 
household ; besides records of visits of 
Queen Elizabeth and Charles II. to White 
Ladies, which had been inhabited by an- 
cestors of Anne Ingram for two hundred 
years. There is also a list of Mrs. Charles 
Richard Cameron's books, and the opinion 
of them expressed by Dr. Arnold and J. H. 

I have further been able, owing to the dis- 
covery of Timothy Butt's will, dated 1703, 
to throw fresh light on the origin of the 
Butt family, a subject about which there 
was much controversy at the time of the 
publication of the ' Life of Mrs. Sherwood,' 
in the middle of last century. 

During the past ten years I have made 
copies of the most interesting of the letters 
above mentioned, and have also in my spare 
moments written a short family history, which 
includes a copy of the Birth Brief of Thomas 
Cameron (1704-77), in the Lyon Office, 
Edinburgh, showing ~his ancestry to the 
point (in 1540) where the family broke off 
from the Camerons of Lochiel. The history 

gives fairly complete accounts of the lives 
of John Cameron (1579-1625) ; Archibald 
Cameron (1586-1662) ; John Cameron, Non- 
juror (1653-1719) ; his son-in-law, Robert 
Keith (1681-1757), Bishop of Fife, and 
afterwards Primus of the Scottish Episcopal 
Church ; and of Thomas Cameron and 
his son Charles Cameron, and their descend- 
dants at Worcester from the year 1727 to 
about the middle of the nineteenth century. 
It also contains notes on the histories of the 
following families, into which some of our 
ancestors have married, or with whom they 
were connected, viz. : Boyd of Portencross ; 
Macaulay of Ardincaple ; Keith of Pitten- 
drum ; Raitt of Halgreen ; Severne of 
Shrawley ; Plowderi of Plowden ; Lyttelton 
of Hagley ; Temple of Frankton ; Ingram of 
White Ladies, Worcester ; Lyster, Marten, 
Butt, Waller, Moor, &c. 

My manuscript (exclusive of the letters) 
covers about 200 pages of closely written 
foolscap paper, and I propose to add an 
appendix which will, if possible, include, in 
pedigree-form, the names of all the known 
descendants of John Cameron (1653-1719), 
e.g. the descendants of Bishop Keith, who 
married Isobel Cameron ; of Capt. Raitt, 
who married Isobel Cameron's sister ; of 
Thomas Cameron and his wife Barbara Anne 
Plowden, &c. For this portion of the book 
I must perforce depend on the assistance 
of the living descendants of these people. I 
have a fairly complete list of Thomas 
Cameron's descendants, and am indebted 
to Canon Keith Douglas for a list of the 
descendants of Bishop Keith and Isobel 
Cameron, and to Major-General Henry Raitt 
for those of the Raitt-Cameron marriage ; 
but the two last-mentioned lists are lacking 
in details, and I shall be very grateful to the 
present members of these families for further 
and fuller particulars. 

But the main and immediate purpose of 
this letter is to ascertain whether my relations 
and connexions, who claim descent from 
our common ancestor, John Cameron, the 
last Episcopal incumbent of Kincardine, 
Perthshire, as well as others connected 
with the Camerons by marriage, have suffi- 
cient interest in the family history to justify 
the publication of what I have written. I 
shall therefore be most grateful for com- 
munications on the subject. Nothing will 
be done until 1917 or 1918, when I hope to 
spend six months in England. If I receive 
sufficient encouragement to justify me in 
proceeding further, I shall obtain estimates 
of the cost of printing and publication, and 
then submit a definite proposition. I shall 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. i. JAN. 29, me. 

be grateful, therefore, if, without committing 
themselves at this moment to a definite 
promise of support, any of the descendants 
of John Cameron will let me know whether 
they approve of the idea of the publication 
of the book. 

I may add that by far the most interesting 
matter contained in it is derived from 
documents in my possession, and the in- 
formation contained therein is not otherwise 
available, while a great deal of the material 
reproduced has been gathered from the 
musty volumes of Scottish records, the back 
files of Worcester newspapers, &c. I have 
even gone as far afield as the University 
Library of Leyden, Holland, for some of my 
information. Much that has been scattered 
during the past generations among various 
descendants of John Cameron is now for 
the first time brought together and rescued 
from almost certain oblivion. 

I hope to illustrate the book with portraits 
of the past and present members of the 

Only one member of my family has seen 
my manuscript, and his verdict is that " i1 
is of absorbing interest." 

I shall be greatly obliged not only for 
replies to this letter (which may be seni 
direct) , but also for the names and addresses 
of any relations to whom I can send copies 
of it ; this request applies especially to the 
descendants of the Keith-Cameron anc 
Raitt-Cameron marriages. I shall also be 
grateful for copies of any old family letters 
and for information about any family por 
traits or other relics of past days. 

(Archdeacon of Johannesburg) 
5 Loch Avenue, Parktown West, 

Johannesburg, South Africa. 

Can any of your readers kindly state when 

vicious circle " first acquired this mean- 

ng ? I have traced it back to 1839 (Sir 

ienry Holland, ' Medical Notes and Reflec- 

ions,' p. 100), but there are probably 

earlier references. 

Westfield, Reading. 

GEORGE INN, BOROUGH. I am seeking all 
references relating to the history of the 
George Inn in the Borough other than the 
conjectural ones associated with the name 
of Dickens. Can any reader of * N. & Q.' 
help me in the matter ? B. W. MATZ. 

REBELLION AT ETON. I lately read an 
account of a rebellion at Eton which had 
been caused by the indignation of certain 
boys at having their misdeeds reported by 
their *' Dames." The injury lay in the words 
italicized. Can any one supply me with the 
reference ? HARROVIAN. 

stated that President Abraham Lincoln's 
favourite poem was one commencing : 

Oh, why should the spirit of mortal be proud? 
In what author are the verses in question to 
be found ? CYRIL. 

[In William Knox's 'Songs of Israel,' 1824. The 
poem in which they occur is entitled ' Mortality.' 
Bartlett, ' Familiar Quotations,' states that Abra- 
ham Lincoln was very fond of repeating the lines.] 

RICHARD WILSON. In ' Records of my 
Life,' ii. 357, John Taylor says that Richard 
Wilson, " for some reason generally styled 
Dick Wilson," was an early friend of the 
great Lord Eldon. Which of the numerous 
Richard Wilsons w^as this particular gentle- 
man ? He flourished at the beginning of 
the eighteenth century. Who was he, and 
when did he die ? HORACE BLEACKLEY. 

"THE vicious CIRCLE. " The expression 
" vicious [circle " usually denotes a logical 
fallacy in which a proposition is used to 
prove a conclusion, and is afterwards 
proved by the same conclusion which it 
was used to establish. 

But in pathology and in sociology 
" vicious circle " has acquired a different 
meaning, and denotes the process by which 
a primary disorder provokes a reaction 
which aggravates the said disorder. 

Strange to say, no dictionary English, 
French, or German alludes to " vicious 
circle " as used in this sense, although the 
process in question possesses great import- 
ance, and is accountable for a vast amount 
of social disorder, disease, and death. 

GREAT BRITAIN.' Detailed particulars are 
asked for about ' Observations on the Defence 
of Great Britain and its Principal Dock- 
yards,' by James Glenie, F.R.S., published 
in 1807. The book is not in the British 
Museum Library, nor have I been able to 
find a copy in other public libraries. 

J. H. LESLIE, Major R.A. 

(Retired list). 

often said, but, I believe, untruly, that 
Australian flowers do not smell, and that 
Australian birds do not sing. Where can 
precise information on these points be 
obtained ? ALFRED S. E. ACKERMANN. 

12 S. I. JAN. 29, 1916.] 



" COLLY MY cow ! " In ' The Ring and 
the Book ' (book xi. 1. 553), Browning puts 
Into the mouth of Guido the exclamation, 
" Colly my cow ! " It is apparently con- 
temptuous, and even insulting. Can any 
one explain its origin ? Dr. Berdoe, whose 
' Browning Cyclopaedia ' professes to tackle 
" all difficult passages," passes over it in 
silence, and the oniy references to the phrase 
which I have discovered are not very helpful. 
They are as follows : 

1. From Dr. Brewer's ' Dictionary of 
Phrase and Fab.e,' p. 275 : 

" Colly my Cow. A corruption of Calainos, the 
most ancient of Spanish ballads. Calainos the 
Moor asked a damsel to wife, who said the price of 
winning her should be the heads of the three 
paladins of Charlemagne," &c. 

2. Dr. Wright's * English Dialect Dic- 
tionary ' quotes " Sing, oh poor Colly, Colly 
my cow," from Halliwell, ' Nursery Rhymes,' 
6. It explains that Colly is, in some parts 
of England, " a term of endearment for a 
cow." A. K. C. 

(' Middle Temple Bench Book,' p. 397) 
notes that James Gordon, " third son of 
Harry Gordon of Gordonfield, Aberdeen- 
shire," was called to the Bar in 1790, and 
became Keeper of the Middle Temple 
Library. His services were dispensed with in 
May, 1827 (1821 ?), and he was granted a 
" pension of 40J. a year." Is this the James 
Gordon of the Middle Temple who tried to 
prove that his father, Col. Harry Gordon, 
R.E., of Knockespock, Aberdeenshire, had 
not married the lady who was the mother 
of his elder brothers ? The case (1818-21) 
is fully set out in Swanston's ' Report of 
Cases ' (i. 166 ; ii. 409-82). 

123 Pall Mall, S.W. 

RAPIER. In Vatel's ' Memoirs of Madame 
du Barry ' it is stated that Jean Baptiste du 
Barry (dit Adolphe), the only son of the man 
who planned and carried through the in- 
trigue by which Jeanne Becu, the daughter 
of a domestic servant, was brought to the 
knowledge of Louis XV., was killed in 1778 
(Nov. 10) in a duel which took place at Bath. 
The hilt of his sword, it is asserted, was 
picked up on the field, and " sert de cachet 
a la municipalite de Bath." Is there any 
foundation for this statement, and does the 
Bath Museum contain M. du Barry's broken 
^pier ? L. G. R. 


writes the well-known line in his ' Rape of 
the Lock ' : 

Here, Thou, Great Anna, whom three Realms obey. 
I wonder what three realms Pope referred 
to. It is true that Queen Anne's style and 
dignity was " Queen of Great Britain, 
France, and Ireland." Are these the three 
realms to which he referred ? Surely an 
educated man in Queen Anne's reign would 
not have regarded her as Queen of France. 

the Marquisate of Carnarvon created, and in 
which year did it lapse ? 


just read parts of 'Eva Lathbury's ' The 
Shoe Pinches : a Tale of Private Life and 
Public Tendency.' The scene of chap. vi. 
is laid in a garden where " there are a number 
of flower-beds cut into quaint devices, stars 
and hearts and coffins, full of June flowers." 
Only this morning I complained of a long 
bed, on a lawn in which I am interested, 
not having the lines of its sides parallel to 
each other. I was told they were as they 
should be, as the bed was a coffin. This 
strikes me as being an ill-omened thing to 
have cut into the sod of one's plaisance. 
Can any one say whether it be a customary 
memento mori, or give another reason for the 
adoption of the form, not otherwise appro- 
priate, or, to my thinking, beautiful ? 


(US. xii. 300, 363, 388, 448, 465.) 

So far, the most famous instance in modern 
times of coffin -opening has not been re- 
ferred to. I beg leave to give some details 
of this and of a few other cases which have 
not as yet been included in the printed 

In 1840, when Thiers was head of the 
French Government, consent was obtained 
by him from England for the exhumation 
of Napoleon's body at St. Helena, and for 
its removal to the banks of the Seine. The 
frigate Belle Poule was chartered for the 
purpose, and at midnight Oct. 14-15, 1840; 
the opening of the grave at St. Helena was 
begun. The work proved arduous, and it 
was not until 2.43 P.M. on Oct. 15 that the 

92 NOTES AND QUERIES. [IS s . i. JAN. s* me. 


coffin was actually opened. Among those 
present were Capt. Alexander, R.E., M. de 
Rohan Chabot, the Abbe Coquereau, Dr. 
Remi Guillard, Col. Hodson, and Darling, 
the undertaker of St. Helena. The official 
report afterwards issued was written by 
Dr. Guillard, and contains the following 
minute description of Napoleon's appearance 
at the opening of the coffin after nineteen 
years' interment : 

" The soldering was slowly cut, and the lid 
cautiously raised ; I then perceived a white 
covering which concealed the interior of the 
coffin, and hid the body from view ; it was of 
wadded satin, with which the coffin was also lined. 
1 raised the covering by one end, and rolling it 
from the feet to the head, there was presented to 
view the body of JSapoleon, which I immediately 
recognized, so well was the corpse preserved, and 
so much truth of expression did the head possess. 

'' Something white, which seemed to have 
detached itself from the satin, like a light gauze, 
covered all the coffin contained. The head and 
forehead, w'hich adhered strongly to the satin, 
were very much covered with it ; but little Was 
to be seen of the lower part of the face, the hands 
or toes. The body of the Emperor lay in an easy 
position, the same in which it had been placed in 
the coffin ; the upper limbs laid at their length 
the left hand and lower part of the arm resting 
on the left thigh the lower limbs slightly bent. 
The head, a little raised, reposed on the cushion ; 
the capacious skull, the lofty and broad forehead, 
were covered with yellowish integuments, hard 
and strongly adhering. The same was the case 
round the eyes, above which the eyebrows still 
remained. Beneath the eyelids were to be seen 
the eyeballs, which had lost but little of their 
fullness and form. The eyelids, completely 
closed, adhered to the cheek, and were hard when 
pressed with the finger ; a few eyelashes still 
remained on the ledges. The bones of the nose, 
and the integuments which covered them, were 
well preserved ; the tube and the nostrils alone 
had suffered. The cheeks were swollen ; the 
integuments of this part of the face Were remark- 
able for their soft and flexible feeling and their 
white colour; those of the chin were slightly 
bluish ; they had acquired this tint from the 
beard, which appeared to have grown after death. 
The chin itself had suffered no change, and still 
preserved the type peculiar to the face of Napoleon. 
The lips, which had become thinner, were parted ; 
three incisor teeth of extreme whiteness appeared 
under the upper lip, which Was a little raised at 
the left side. The hands left nothing to desire, 
they were not altered in the slightest degree ; 
though the muscles had lost their power of motion, 
the skin seemed to have preserved that peculiar 
colour which belongs only to life ; the nails were 
long, adherent, and very white. The legs were 
enclosed in boots, but the sewing of the feet had 
burst, and the four smaller toes of each foot 
were visible. The skin of these toes was of a dull 
white ; the nails were preserved. The anterior 
region of the thorax was much fallen in the middle, 
the sides of the stomach sunken and hard. The 
limbs appeared to have preserved their form 
beneath the clothes that covered them ; I pressed 
the left arm, and found it hard and diminished in 
size. The clothes themselves had preserved their 

colour ; thus the uniform of the chasseurs d 
cheval was perfectly to be recognized by the dark 
green of the coat and the bright red of the facings,, 
the grand cord of the Legion of Honour crossing 
the waistcoat, and the white pantaloons partly 
concealed by the small hat which rested on the 
thighs. The epaulettes, the gold work, and 
the two orders on the breast had lost their bril- 
liancy, and were blackened, with the exception 
of the crown surmounting the cross of an officer 
of the Legion of Honour, w*hich preserved its 
colour. Some of the silver vases lay between the 
legs ; one, surmounted by an eagle, between the 
knees; I found it uninjured and closed. As 
these vases adhered rather strongly to the adjoin- 
ing parts of the body, by which they were par- 
tially covered, the King's commissary thought it 
better not to displace them for nearer examina- 

The above report is printed in Norwood 
Young's ' Napoleon in Exile at St. Helena,' 
vol. ii., 1915, pp. 306-8. In the same work 
there is a reproduction of a very striking 
drawing by Jules Rigo of ' The Body of 
Napoleon as it appeared on Exhumation, 
Oct. 15, 1840.' In the wonderful collection 
of Napoleonic material made by Mr. A. M. 
Broadley, which is at present at The Knapp, 
Bradpole, Dorset, there are two illustrations 
in a " Grangerized " copy of Lord Rose- 
bery's ' Last Phase ' : (1) ' The Opening of 
the Coffin at St. Helena ' ; (2) ' The Exhuma- 
tion of the Body.' There are numerous 
illustrations of the second funeral in the 
same collection. Thackeray's famous nar- 
rative must not be forgotten, although it 
contains nothing not accessible through 
other means. Janisch, who went out to 
St. Helena with Sir Hudson Lowe, and 
acted as clerk, wrote an account of the 
exhumation, which was published at 
St. Helena in 1840. 

COL. FYNMORE says that he has seen in 
a catalogue of second-hand books ' An 
Account of the Body of King Edward I. 
as it appeared on Opening the Tomb,' &c. 
This was written for the Society of Anti- 
quaries by Sir Joseph Ayloffe, and read by 
him to them on May 12, 1774. The actual 
opening of the tomb took place on May 2. 
ten days earlier. A few copies of this 
valuable narrative were printed separately, ' 
but the whole of it may be found in Archceo- 
logia, vol. iii. pp. 376-431. 

As is well known, very special means 
were adopted to preserve the body of 
Edward I. when he died, and the curiosity 
of antiquaries, and specially of Daines 
Barrington, was roused in the eighteenth 
century to see whether the wax and other 
preservatives had availed to do what was 
expected. Ayloffe's story is very long, but 
most interesting. I will quote only that 

12 S. 1. JAN. 29, 1916. 



part which describes the body of Edward 
when seen at the opening of the coffin : 

" On lifting up the lid the royal corpse was 
found wrapped up within a large square mantle 
of strong, coarse, and thick linen cloth, diaper'd, 
of a dull, pale, yellowish brown colour, and waxed 
on its under side. The head and face were entirely 
covered with a zudarium or face cloth, of crimson 
sarcenet, the substance whereof was so much 
perished as to have a cobweb-like feel and the 

appearance of fine lint When the folds of the 

external wrapper were, thrown back and the 
sudarium removed, the corpse was discovered 
richly habited, adorned with ensigns of royalty, 
and almost entire, notwithstanding the length oi 
time that it had been entombed. 

" Its innermost covering seemed to have been 
a very fine linen cerecloth, dressed close to every 
part of the body, and superinduced with such 
accuracy and exactness that the fingers and 
thumbs of both the hands had each of them a 
distinct envelope of that material. The face, 
which had a similar covering closely fitted thereto, 
retained its exact form, although part of the 
flesh appeared to be somewhat wasted. It was 
of dark brown or chocolate colour approaching to 
black, and so were the hands and fingers. The 
chin and lips were entire, but without any beard, 
and a sinking or dip between the chin and upper 
lip was very conspicuous. Both the lips Were 
prominent, the nose short as if shrunk, but the 
apertures of the nostrils were visible. There Was 
an unusual fall or cavity on that part of the bridge 
of the nose which separates the orbits of the eyes, 
and some globular substance, possibly the fleshy 
part of the eyeballs, was moveable in their sockets 
under the envelope. Below the chin and under 
jaW was lodged a quantity of black dust which 
had neither smell nor coherence ; but whether 
the same had been flesh or spices could not be 
ascertained. One of the joints of the middle 
finger of the right hand was loose ; but those of 
the left hand were quite perfect .... On measuring 
the body by a rod graduated into inches divided 
into quarters, it appeared to be exactly six feet 
and two inches in length." 

AylofTe's details are very minute, but it 
does not seem necessary to quote more. 
They can be found in the Archceotogia 
at the reference already given. A fact 
which cannot be overlooked here, and which 
is of great interest, is that William Blake, 
then a lad of 17, was doubtless present at 
the opening of the tomb. Blake, as is well 
known, was employed by James Basire, 
engraver to the Society of Antiquaries, and 
it was his particular work to make drawings 
in Westminster Abbey, where the tomb was. 
There is a passage in Gilchrist's ' Life of 
Blake,' second edition, pp. 18-19, which 
may very appropriately be included here : 

" During the progress of Blake's lonely labours 
in the Abbey, on a bright day in May, 1774, the 
Society for which, through Basire, he was working, 
perpetrated by royal permission, on the very 
scene of those rapt studies, a highly interesting 
bit of antiquarian sacrilege, on a more reasonable 
pretext and with greater decency than sometimes 

distinguish such questionable proceedings. A 
select company formally, and in strict privacy^ 
opened the tomb of Edward I., and found the 
embalmed body in perfect preservation." 

It is a significant fact that one of Blake's 
visionary portraits is that of Edward I- 
It is reproduced in Gilchrist's book, and 
faces p. 300 of the second edition of that fine 
biography. A. L. HUMPHREYS. 

187 Piccadilly, W. 

(To be continued.) 

HEBREW DIETETICS (11 S. xii. 334,. 
405, 466). Up to the time of writing, 
no reference has been made to the most satis- 
factory work covering the fields into which 
this note has drifted, viz., ' Biblisch-tal- 
mudische Medizin ' (Preuss), 1911; among 
the numerous books on parts of the field*, 
this work seems unique as covering the 
whole, as by a^, physician, and as based: 
directly on the sources. Since the connexion, 
between medicine and religion was then so 
close, aid may be had from ' Die Beniitzung 
der Pflanzenwelt in der alttestamentlichen 
Religion' (Lundgren), 1908; and also from 
' Materialien zur Volksreligion Israels ' 
(Jirku), 1914, to judge from favourable 
reviews thereof. ROCKINGHAM. 

Boston, Mass. 

PARISH REGISTERS (12 S. i. 29, 78). The 
Society of Genealogists of London, 5 Blooms- 
bury Square, W.C., has slip - indexed the 
following Registers in Cambridgeshire :. 
Cambridge, St. Edward (marriages, 1559- 
1633) ; Conington (marriages, 1813-37) ; 
Over (marriages, 1813-37) ; Lolworth (mar- 
riages, 1813-37) ; Fen Drayton (marriages, 
1580-1837) ; Knapwell (marriages, 1599- 

The Oxfordshire Archaeological Society 
printed a full index to the Registers of the 
Darish of Ducklington (baptisms, 1550 ; 
narriages, 1581 ; burials, 1580 to 1880) in 
the year 1881. It was made by myself, then 
rector. I am not aware of any similar 
ndex for any other parish in the county. A 
ist of names occurring in the Registers of 
Wolvercote, near Oxford, 1596-1650, was 
printed privately by the late Mr. George 
Parker of the Bodleian Library in 1888, 
together with a list for 1539-75 in the parish 
of Bradfield, Berkshire. Should your cor- 
respondent wish for copies of these, I will be 
lappy to send them to him. 

Greenlands Cottage, Bloxham, Oxfordshire. 


[12 S. I. JAN. 29, 1916. 


THOMAS LISLE (US. xii. 421 , 12 S. i. 58). ' 
^M.A.OxON.'s suggestion that " Magdalen Hall 
must be a mistake for Magdalen Coll." is an 
unfortunate conjecture. Beadles sometimes 
make mistakes, and so the Matriculation Re- 
gister (followed in this case both by Foster 
and by Bloxam, vi. 210) may be in error; 
but Lisle elected Demy in 1726 is not likely 
to have been matriculated from Magdalen 
College in 1725. There were no commoners 
at Magdalen at this date. A gentleman 
commoner would have been ineligible for a 
demyship, which was an eleemosynary en- 
dowment. It was perhaps possible for a 
clerk to become a demy. It must have been 
very rare. Anyhow Thomas Lisle was never 
a clerk of Magdalen College. Magdalen Hall 
seems to been a favourite place for 
matriculation with those who were after- 
wards to be elected demies. Four were 
elected thence in 1725, three in 1728. A 
large majority of the demies at that time 
were elected from other colleges and from 
the halls. It is dangerous to depart from 
original evidence except for specific reasons. 
' N. & Q.' is more read than Foster or 
Bloxam, and M.A.OxON.'s unhappy con- 
jecture might injuriously affect all future 
biographies of Thomas Lisle. 

Queen's College, Oxford. 

(12 S. i. 11.) 

(5) George Hodges was the son of George 
of Shrewsbury, Salop,gent. He was 19 when 
he entered Christ Church, June 22, 1739. 
(6) Samuel Holford was y.s. Rich, of St. Dun- 
stan's, Middlesex, equitis ; brother of Robert 
Holford, y.s., which I suppose means 
youngest son, of Ric. of London, equitis. 
Entered Trinity Coll. 1702, aged 16. Foster 
refers the readers of both entries to his 
Judges and Barristers,' which I cannot 
find in the Picton Reference Library, Liver- 
pool. M.A.OxON. 

361, 410, 429, 450, 470, 489, 507; 12 S. i. 
37). The elder and the alder have, as ST. 
SWITHIN says, sometimes been confused ; 
in some of our dialects the same name is 
still given to both, and in others the names 
are so nearly the same that confusion is sure 
to arise ; but this does not altogether 
account for the hard things that have been 
alleged against the elder, nor is the alder's 
reputation entirely bad. In medicine, 
though it was, I think, never official in this 
country, it was used as a purgative and 
-emetic, though Gerard says that on account 

of the violence of its action it is " more fit 
for clownes than for ciuil people." Its 
leaves were used as fodder for cattle. 

The dwarf elder, again, had a much better 
reputation in medicine than would appear 

rom the note at the last reference. It was 
admitted into our pharmacopoeia, and much 
used for dropsy, for which (says Culpeper) 
its roots are " as gallant a purge as any under 

he sun." It was, indeed, credited with the 
same medicinal virtues as the common 
elder, but Brookes savs its action was 

' rough." C. C. B. 

I do not know on what legend Aldhelm 
based his riddle, but it appears from one 
conserved in the Harleian MS. 4196, fol. 76 b, 
col. 1, and printed in Dr. Richard Morris's 
Legends of the Holy Rood ' (E.E.T.S.), that, 
whatever the origin of the pips given by 
the angel in Eden to Seth, the outcome of 
them was not apple-wood. According to 
this particular tradition they respectively 
produced cypress, cedar, and pine, though 
the editor thought olive would be a better 
reading of the last. 

Dr. Morris gives lines which I had in 
mind when I wrote before, but could not 
accurately set down. They may be^ccept- 
able now : 

Quatuor ex lignis domini crux dicitur esse : 
Pes crucis est cedrus ; corpus tenet alta cupressus : 
Palma manus rebinet, titula laetatur oliva. 

P. xvii. 


FARE (US. xii. 140, 186, 209, 463 ; 12 S. i. 74). 
Carter's ' Curiosities of War,' p. 159, has 
an article on ' Animals in War,' not neces- 
sarily wild, but perhaps interesting in 
connexion with the subject. 


BRITISH ARMY : MASCOTS (12 S. i. 10, 58). 
I have a newspaper cutting relating to this 
subject, enumerating some regimental pets. 
Some years ago the Seaforth Highlanders 
captured in the Vindiya Hills two young 
black bears, which they made much of. 
These bears were very fond of lamp oil, which 
they purloined. The same regiment had 
also as a pet an Adjutant bird, which 
presented a strange spectacle wandering 
about in a red coat which the regimental 
tailor had made for it. The 2nd Life Guards 
maintained a monkey named "Jack" when 
Frank Buckland was a surgeon in the 
regiment. A goose joined the Coldstream 
Guards in Canada, and was brought home 
arid for a number of years paraded in frorrt 

128. I.JAN. 29, 1916.1 



of the guardroom. Eventually run over 
and killed, its head and neck may still be 
seen at the Horse Guards, decorated with a 
collar bearing the words " Died on Duty." 

I have some notes of other regimental 
pets. R. J. FYNMORE. 

BAPTISM, 1644 (12 S. i. 50). The " new 
fashion " at this reference is merely another 
record of the result of Puritan ascendancy, 
when the use of fonts was forbidden, arid 
their place was taken by a basin. See 
pp. 173, 174, of ' English Church Furniture,' 
by Dr. J. Charles Cox (1907), and the same 
.author's ' Churchwardens' Accounts ' (pp. 
155-7), published in 1913. A. C. C. 

According to the Directory, which super- 
seded the Prayer Book in *1644, the child 
"was to be baptized in church, but " not in 
the places where Fonts in the .time of 
Popery were unfitly and superstitiously 

It is also therein stated that the minister 
"" is to baptize the child with water : which for 
the manner of doing it, is not only lawfull, but 
sufficient and most expedient to be, by pouring 
or sprinckling of the water on the face of the 
ohild, without adding any other ceremony." 
* The Parish Registers of England,' by Dr. J. C. 
Cox (1610), 36. 


xii. 422, 464 ; 12 S. i. 10, 18)." He abolished 
the time-honoured institution of the Insol- 
vents' Court." There was up to 1861 a 
" Court for the Relief of Insolvent Debtors 
In England." Sir Richard Bethell, when 
Attorney-General, by " The Bankruptcy Act, 
1861," abolished this Court, and all the 
jurisdiction and powers of such Court were 
transferred to " the Court of Bankruptcy." 
The Insolvents' Court dealt with persons 
who were not traders. I may say by the 
way that Charles Phillips was one of the 
Commissioners of the Insolvents' Court from 
1846 until 1858. The proceedings of this 
Court were often highly amusing. 

" The ancient mode of conveying land." 
Lord Westbury when Lord Chancellor in 
1862, by "An Act to facilitate the Proof of 
Title to, and the Conveyance of, Real 
Estate," altered the mode of conveying 

" The eternity of punishment," &c. I am 
afraid I can say little more on this subject 
in addition to what I have already written, 
and must refer BARRULE to the decision of 
the Privy Council with reference to the 
charge against Mr. Wilson in Article 14. 
See that part of the judgment in ' The Annual 

Register ' for 1864, p. 245, which is too long 
for me to quote. 

The writer of the epitaph evidently con- 
sidered that the judgment of the Privy 
Council in effect decided that " orthodox 
members of the Church of England " need 
no longer believe that sinners were made to 
suffer eternal misery in hell that is, hell as 
generally believed in. 

I should like to call BARRULE'S attention 
to W. B. H.'s reply at p. 18, in which he 
explains the line " He was an eminent 

The mock epitaph was considered at the 
time of its publication to be excellent from 
beginning to end, and BARRULE must bear 
in mind that a jeu d' esprit should not be 
examined too critically. 


Inner Temple. 

OIL-PAINTING (12 S. i. 29). The following 
are among the best modern books on oil- 
painting : 
Collier (John), ' A Manual of Oil Painting,' 1903. 

Cassell, 2s. Qd. 
Ganz (H. F. W.), ' Practical Hints on Painting, 

Composition, Landscape, and Etching,' 1905. 

Gibbings, 2s. Qd. net. (Out of print.) 
Solomon (S. J.), ' The Practice of Oil Painting 

and of Drawing as associated with It ' (New 

Art Library), 1910, Seeley, 6s. net. 


For the purpose of studying the art of 
oil-painting it is essential to visit the nearest 
art gallery and copy one of the oil-paintings 
there. As a farther help to the study I think 
the following standard works may be of 
great assistance : 

Landscape Painting in Oils,' by Alfred East, 1907. 

Six Lectures on Painting,' by G. Clausen. 

The Theory and Practice of Painting in Oil and 

Water Colours,' by T. H. Fielding, 1852. 
Elements of Drawing,' by John Ruskin. 
The Practice of Oil Painting and Drawing,' by 

S. J. Solomon. 


WILLIAM LETHEUILIER (US. xii. 400, 449, 
v. sub ' Biographical Information Wanted '). 
The following information may be useful 
to G. F. R. B. In the year 1732 Capt. John 
Lethieulier resided at Brea, co. Kildare. He 
was a son of Mr. William Lethieulier of 
Clapham, Surrey, " an eminent Turkey 
merchant," and uncle of Mr. John Loveday, 
who acquired considerable reputation as an 
antiquary. Capt. John Lethieulier died in 
1738, and was succeeded by his son, William 
Lethieulier, who married, May 22, 1738, 
Elizabeth, second daughter of the Hon. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. i. JAN. 29, me. 

Charles Patrick Plunkett, of Dillonstown, 
co. Louth, M.P. for Banagher, and his wife, 
Elizabeth, daughter of Edward Stratford of 
Belan, co. Kildare. This William Lethieu- 
lier died on May 10, 1743. Assuming that 
he was identical with the William Lethieulier 
who was admitted to Westminster School 
in 1721/2, and who was then 10 years of 
age, he would have been about 32 years of 
age at the time of his death. 

26 Sandymount Avenue, Ballsbridge, co. Dublin. 

P R S V R Y, &c. = PERSEVERE YE, &c. 
(11 S. xi. 318, 435, 477, sub ' Hangleton '). 
In one cf my commonplace books is an 
extract from some unnamed paper or book : 

" In tlie parish church of Beeston Regis, near 
Cromer, the folloAving jeu d'esprit occupies a 
prominent position on the remains of a very 
elaborate screen separating the chancel. Four 
of the openings are filled with panels, on which 
are inscribed the Commandments and the Lord's 
Prayer and Creed. Under the two tables of the 
former is the following, in capital letters, which 
we leave to the ingenuity of our readers : 


V R K P T H S P R C P T S T N 

The vowel E explains the key." 

Perhaps this last line is not, or was not on the 
panels. The extract is not dated, but some 
of those near it are of 1855-60. Perhaps 
some Norfolk correspondent can confirm or 
deny the above. 

At the third reference J. T. F. remarks that 
he remembers seeing these initials somewhere, 
perhaps in ' The Boy's Own Book ' (c. 1845). 
It may be that he was reminded of one of 
the ' Paradoxes and Puzzles ' which appear 
in the edition of 1852, p. 568 : 

" Eighteen words in twenty- three letters. 
What do the following letters signify in the French 
language, pronounced in the order in which they 
stand ? 

Answer* Helene est nee au pays grec, elle y a 
ve"cu, elle y a tSte, elle y est decedee." 


MOIRA COALS (US. xii. 482 ; 12 S. i. 38). 
The (to quote from a publication of a few 
months ago) " well-known colliery centre in 
North-West Leicestershire" owes its origin 
and name to the enterprise of the Earl of 
Moira, afterwards first Marquis of Hastings, 
who very soon after the year 1800, being 
entitled as Lord of the Manor to the minerals, 
began to sink for coal, and ultimately 
succeeded in reaching at a depth of upwards 
of 1,000 ft. a seam of coal about 11 ft. 
thick, and of superior quality The mine 
has since been worked continuously, and is 

now in the hands of a limited company.. 
In 1834 was published in quarto ' Geo- 
logical Facts relating to the Ashby Coak 
Field,' by Edward Mammatt, F.G.S., with 
many coloured illustrations of strata and 
fossils ; and in later times Prof. Edward 
Hull has written on the subject. 

W. B. H. 

LORD MILNER' s PEDIGREE (12 S. i. 48). 
I was introduced to Lord Milner, when he 
was a freshman at Balliol, by the Rev. H. R. 
Bramley, for many years Fellow of Magdalen, 
and afterwards Canon of Lincoln. Milner- 
was a cousin of Bramley 's, and I alwaj^s 
heard that Bramley was a Yorkshireman. 

Will this help MR. BULLOCK ? OXON. 

361, 402, 469 ; 12 S. i. 34). It may interest 
MR. FOLEY to know that the " locket " in. 
my ring does contain hair. 



GUNFIRE AND RAIN (12 S. i. 10, 56). The 
idea that heavy gunfire produces rain is by 
no means confined to Galloway. Until 
recently there was a practice battery at 
Montrose, in the north-east of Scotland,,, 
and the neighbouring farmers would declare- 
that the firing always " broke the clouds" ; 
and to-day, among the farmers about twenty 
miles from a practice fort now in use, the 
supposition still survives, although scientists 
have discounted it, that the firing there 
produces rain. A farmer at Potters Bar in 
Hertfordshire told me that firing so far- 
away as Woolwich caused heavy rain to 

34 Great James Street, Bedford Row, W.C. 

MONERS (US. xii. 501 ; 12 S. i. 36, 57). 
1. Isabella Bennet, only child of Henry,. 
Earl of Arlington, and widow of Heiuy 
FitzRoy, Duke of Grafton, natural son of 
King Charles II., married secondly, in. 
1698, Sir Thomas Hanmer, Bart., Speaker of 
the House of Commons. She died in 1722/3. 

2. Sydney, widow of the sixth Duke of 
Manchester, married Sir Arthur Blackwood, 
K.C.B. They were the parents of the well- 
known author Algernon Blackwood, bom. 
1869. G. G. M. G. C; 

Mary, daughter of the Rev. Dr. Michel!,, 
Principal of Hertford College, Oxford, and 
widow of the Duke of Sutherland, married 
1896 Sir Albert Kaye Rollit, M.P. 


128. 1. JAN. 29, 1916.] 



Jn Britten's 'Old Clocks and Watches and 
their Makers,' third edition, 1911, this 
maker's name appears as Compigne. The 
^entry (p. 640) is : 

" Compign, , bracket clock, about 1710, in- 
scribed ' Compigne, Winton ' ; watch, ' Dav. 
Compigne, Winton,' about 1750 ; good long-case 
-clocks by him are to be met with in Hampshire." 


^(12 S. i. 49). One summer afternoon in 1882 
two young and foolish boys jumped into 
Harrow " Ducker " for the first time without 
studying the record of the various " depths " 
'indicated upon the edge of the bath. Neither 
could swim ; and, as the water just came 
over the tops of their heads, they were soon 
in a bad way. T. was hauled out by O. B., 
an older and more expert Harrovian, and 
fortunately had sufficient breath and pre- 
sence of mind left to say that your present 
correspondent was equally inefficient. So 
I also was rescued from a watery grave. I 
remember thinking that it was all up with 
me, and that, like Falstaff, I had swallowed 
;an intolerable amount of water ; but cer- 
tainly the events of my past life did not 
kinematographically pass before me. How- 
ever, we were none the worse ; and one 
^afternoon two years later, w r hen aged 16. I 
succeeded in swimming twelve lengths of the 
"bath. " Ducker " is 500 feet in length. 


During the second Afghan War (1878-80) 
T was at Quetta, where my duties brought 
me into intimate relations with a general 
who, as a youth, had served in the first 
Afghan War (1838-40). One day he related 
to me the following experience : His regi- 
ment was engaged in the first wa.r, and he (a 
subaltern then) was severely wounded in 
the chest and left, as he thought, dying on 
the field. Whilst so lying on the ground he 
said that he saw all his sinful actions pass in 
review through his mind, and feeling horrified 
he prayed earnestly to be allowed to recover 
and try to amend his way of life. He was 
picked up, taken to hospital, and recovered. 
Afterwards he lived a strictly religious life. 

Kirkby Lonsdale. 

THE BURY, CHESHAM, BUCKS (12 S. i. 48). 
Rock & Co. were the publishers of the 
views described. These were probably 
issued between 1840 and 1860 as steel 
engravings printed on enamelled cards ; the 
same illustrations of places of local interest 

were offered as note-paper headings, and in a 
guide-book if such a work was issued. Ihis 
was one of the earliest forms of the local 
view souvenir represented to - day by the 
picture post-card. Rock & Co., with com- 
mendable enterprise, included even the 
London suburbs in their series. For many 
years they carried on business in Walbrook-; 
and Rock Bros., Ltd., of 60 Paul Street, 
E.G., are their descendants. 


I think it will be found that the prints 
with " Rock & Co.'s " imprint were quite 
modern reproductions of older prints of 
1770. In the fifties and sixties small-sized 
steel engravings were issued in large variety, 
depicting seaside and other British resorts, 
and " Reck & Co., London," was familiar 
as a leading firm in that trade. I have a 
specimen of theirs dated " 1855. No. 2762." 
The prints were approximately the size of 
the present oblong post-card, and were 
issued as (1) cards, (2) headings for note- 
paper, and (3) bound as a series, and lettered 
" Album," with a local application. Other 
firms competing were Harwood, Fenchurch 
Street ; Newman & Co., Wat ling Street ; and 
C. & E. Lay ton, Fleet Street ; their pro- 
ductions extending from the early forties 
down to about 1880, when they succumbed 
to photography and process - work. As 
taking a place in the succession of etching, 
aquatint, and lithography as modes of 
popular illustration, the " steel " period of 
Rock & Co. and their competitors is not 
without artistic interest. W. B. H. 

" FAT, FAIR, AND FORTY " (12 S. i. 10, 53). 
-' The Magic Lay of the One Horse Chay ' 
is a poem of twenty-four four-lined verses. 
The first two are : 

Mr. Bubb was a Whig orator, also a Soap 

For everything's new christened in the present 

day ; 
He was followed and adored by the Common 

Council Board, 
And lived quite genteel with a One Horse Chay. 

Mrs. Bubb was gay and free, fair, fat, and forty- 
three, &c., 

as at the latter reference. 

H. A. ST. J. M. 


further back for traces of this saying. It 
will be found on one of Rowlandson's 

aricatures, wherein the Prince Regent and 
Lady Conyngham are lampooned. It may 
be far older. L. G. R. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. i. JAN. 29, uio. 

DR. JOHNSON ON FISHING (11 S. xii. 462 ; 
12 S. i. 18). Although I am unable to 
answer MONA'S query, it may be worth 
mentioning that the familiar libel on the 
angler's sport (but with the substitution of 
"hook" for "worm") is attributed to 
Dr. Johnson by Hazlitt : 

" There are those who, if you praise Walton's 
' Complete Angler,' sneer at it as a childish or 
old-womanish performance : some laugh at the 
amusement of fishing as silly, others carp at it 
as cruel ; and Dr. Johnson said that ' a fishing-rod 
was a stick with a hook at one end, and a fool at 
the other.' " 
Hazlitt continues : 

" I would rather take, the word of one who had 
stood for days up to his knees in water, and in 
the coldest weather, intent on this employ, who 
returned to it again with unabated relish, and 
who spent his whole life in the same manner 
without being weary of it at last. There is 
something in this more than Dr. Johnson's 
definition accounts for. A fool takes no interest 
in anything ; or if he does, it is better to be a fool 
than a wise man whose only pleasure is to dis- 
parage the pursuits and occupations of others, and 
out of ignorance or prejudice to condemn them 
merely because they are not his." Essay ' On 
Egotism ' in ' The Plain Spea.ker.' 

The edition of Hazlitt' s ' Essays ' before 
me is without notes. Possibly a reference 
to the annotated edition of his ' Collected 
Works,' published by Messrs. J. M. Dent & 
Sons, would throw some light on the matter. 


12 S. i. 14). I do not know of the existence 
of a published pedigree of Richard Bancroft, 
Archbishop of Canterbury, 1604-10, but the 
parish registers of Prescot yield the earliest 
information about the family. The first re- 
ference to it is under the date Jan., 1541, the 
entry reading : " John Bancroft was married 
the XXiiii daie." In May, 1542, the baptism 
of " Xrfor [Christopher] Bancroft, son unto 
John Bancroft," is recorded. In Sept., 
1544, the baptism of the Archbishop appears 
as follows : " Ric. Bancroft, sone unto John 
Bancroft, bapt. the Xii daiy." It was 
commonly believed that the family sprang 
from Farnworth, near Bolton, but it has now 
been proved that the Archbishop's forbears 
came from Farnworth in the parish of 

ARTHUR HUGHES, PAINTER (12 S. i. 29, 76). 
He was born in London, Jan. 27, 1832, and 
was the third and youngest son of Edward 
Hughes, who came from Oswestry early in 
life and married in London. Though Os- 
westry is in Shropshire, it has a very con- 
siderable Welsh population. The Times of 

Dec. 23, 1915, and The Manchester Guardian 
of Dec. 27 gave excellent memoirs of the- 
artist. He was a student at the Royal 
Academy in 1847 and a gold medallist ii* 
1849. Exhibited at the Royal Academy 
from 1849 to 1911 ; at the Liverpool Autumn 
Exhibition from 1872 to 1876 ; and at th& 
Grosvenor and New Galleries. His ' April 
Love ' is in the Tate Gallery, and a triptych 
is in the Walker Art Gallery at Liverpool- 
The subjects are: (1) 'Touchstone and 
Audrey ' ; (2) ' Orlando and Adam ' ; 
(3) ' Rosalind.' He died at Eastside House,. 
Kew Green, on Dec. 22, 1915, and was buried 
at Richmond on the 28th. An excellent 
painter, he was loved and honoured. The 
usual works of reference being silent about 
him, these brief notes may be useful to Sir 
Sidney Lee, Mr. Graves," Mr. Boase, and 
the other antiquaries who so often illuminate 
the pages of ' N. & Q.' THOS. WHITE. 


THE Two RYHOPES, co. DURHAM (12 S. i.. 
49). Peut-il etre interessaiit, pour 1'auteur 
de la question posee, d'avoir le texte exact 
de la chronique de Symeon de Durham, 
auquel se rapporte, sans doute, 1'ouvrage- 
cite : 

"Ethelstanus rex ad oratormm Sancti Cuth- 

berti divertit hoc subscriptum testamentum 

composuit et ad caput Saneti Cuthberti posuit 

et meani villam dilectam Wiremuthe anstralem,. 
cum suis appendiciis id est, Westun, Uffertun, 
Sylceswurthe, duas Reofhoppas, Byrdene, Sehatn,. 
Setun, Daltun, Daldene, Heseldene "I. 211. 

Je regrette de n'avoir rien trouve d'autre^ 

(12 S. i. 49). If Grand-Carteret's ' LaFemme 
en Culotte ' is not at the British Museum, it 
is in the London Library, and accessible to 
subscribers. HOWARD S. PEARSON. 

COL. JOHN HAYES ST. LEGER (12 S. i. 26 r 
77). At the former reference MR. HORACK 
BHEACKLEY says, quoting from a magazine,, 
that Col. John Hayes St. Leger became a 
captain and colonel in the 1st Guards r 
Oct. 25, 1782. This is an error. On that date 
he was promoted from major to lieutenant- 
colonel in the 65th Regiment. It was not 
till Sept. 5, 1787, that he exchanged with 
Capt. Richard Staynor Jones of the- 
1st Guards. On Oct. 4, 1794, he was trans- 
ferred as second lieutenant-colonel to the- 
16th Dragoons, and a few months later was 
promoted major-general and appointed 
colonel 80th Regiment. 


12 S.I. JAN. 29, 1916.] 


Disguise Plots in Elizabethan Drama : a Study in 
Stage Tradition. By Victor Oscar Freeburg. 
(New York, Columbia TJniversity Press ; 
Oxford, Clarendon Press, $1.50 net.) 

PROFESSORS and teachers of literature are much 
more numerous in the United States than in this 
country, and most of them seem bound to write 
monographs on some subject or other. While 
these contributions to learning display admirable 
industry, they seem to us often less judicious in 
the themes they discuss ; or is it that the good 
subjects are already all used ? Certainly the 
drama has not till recent times been so much 
discussed as the field of literature ; no classic 
work has put Aristotle's views of tragedy out of 
date ; and there are distinct' chances of filling 
gaps. We should be glad, for instance, to see a 
defence of melodrama, or a monograph on the 
stage ghost. Of course, there may be such works 
in existence, but we have not seen them. 

Dr. Freeburg's ' Disguise Plots ' is a typical 
American study, a most painstaking work, includ- 
ing a survey of no fewer than 425 plots. He is 
chiefly concerned with the Elizabethan period or 
with plays that can no longer be said to belong to 
the acted drama. We do not, however, object to 
this, though it is the student's habit to make 
too much of second-rate Elizabethan stuff. Our 
main regret is that the whole survey leads to no 
substantial conclusions concerning the art of the 
dramatist. Frankly, we did not expect that it 
would, for, as men patch grief with proverbs, 
dramatists have a way of patching bad plays with 
disguises. Disguise has a " rich theatricality," 
as Dr. Freeburg puts it in his somewhat elaborate 
style ; but it is a painfully obvious way of 
creating complications, and has none of the subtlety 
we enjoy when a character shows its changes by 
speech and mood. " Know'st me not by my 
clothes ? " Cloten asks Guiderius. who answers : 
No, nor thy tailor, rascal, 

Who is thy grandfather : he made those clothes, 
Which, as it seems, make thee. 
All this business of " disguise," " retro-disguise," 
" double disguise," &c., is mostly tailoring, and 
here are some of the things Dr. Freeburg says 
about it : 

" The disguise ceases to be active as soon as it 
is discovered." 

" The denouement of a play always tests the 
skill of a dramatist." 

" The dialogue of a disguise situation is especially 
capable of theatrical effectiveness. A disguised 
person is virtually two persons. One personality 
is maintained for the companions, who are 
deceived ; and the other personality for the 
spectators, who are not deceived." 

" The study of the spy motive, as of all disguise, 
has a tendency to fix our attention on the physical, 
momentary, theatrical values of certain dramatic 
Situations. There were repetitions, variations, 
and conventionalizing. The little writers bor- 
rowed from the big, and the big from each other." 
These things are true, but it does not need an 
extensive acquaintance with the drama to dis- 
cover them. Where Dr. Freeburg goes deeper, 

e.g., in suggesting that disguise sho Idueb 
"structurally basic," we cannot always follow 
him. His criticisms of the few examples of it in 
the drama of ancient Greece do not strike us as 
fortunate. The summary of the ' Philoctetes ' of 
Sophocles is inadequate, if not misleading. The 
' Rhesus ' and Dolon go back to the tenth ' Iliad ' ; 
and we do not see any inadequacy in the element 
of disguise as worked out by Euripides in that 
masterpiece, the 'Bacchae.' 

We notice that to-day the idea of a rapid 
change of dress concealing identity is not out of 
date in popular tales, even when reduced to farce, 
for it figures ad nauseam in the stories, now 
probably six hundred or so, of Nicholas Carter and 
similar detectives which enthral Dr. Freeburg's 
more unsophisticated compatriots. He is not so 
well up in modern dramas as in the Elizabethans ; 
otherwise he would have discovered a descendant 
of the story of Achilles among women in that 
delightful parody of ' The Princess ' of Tennyson, . 
the ' Princess Ida ' of W. S. Gilbert. Here, indeed, 
the disguise lasts a very short time, but it is 
essential to the plot. ' Measure for Measure ' is 
naturally displayed as a prime example of 
disguise neatly applied ; but it shows, too, that 
such neatness in itself cannot compensate for 
indifference to the intrinsic claims of character. 
A play with some of Shakespeare's greatest 
thought in it, it is sadly botched at the end. 

Dr. Freeburg's style of writing is not attractive. 
Apart from words like " intrigant " and " motiva- 
tion," he has a way of using substantives as 
adjectives which reminds the present reviewer of 
the average City prospectus, a document which 
has nothing to do with literature, though it may 
lead to drama when the worth of its statements 
has been tested by a guileless public. 

Cathay and the Way Thither. Vol. I. (Hakluyt 


WE reviewed at 11 S. xii. 471, vols. ii. and iii. of 
this welcome reissue of Sir Henry Yule's well- 
known work. These consisted of texts and 
introductions, and the present volume, which 
logically precedes them, gives -us Yule's pre- 
liminary essay on the whole subject of the 
intercourse between China and the Western 
nations in the days before the discovery of the 
Cape route. It was published first in 1866, and 
has remained for well-nigh fifty years the classical - 
authority for the historical geography of China 
and Central Asia in the Middle Ages. Hardly 
could higher testimony to its importance have 
been devised than the decision to add to it the 
immense amount of knowledge which has ac- 
cumulated since its appearance, in the form of 
notes and intercalations, rather than frame 
altogether a new account. 

Dr. Cordier deserves warm congratulation upon 
the manner in which he has accomplished what 
was doubtless a peculiarly congenial task. There 
is hardly a topic upon which he has not extended 
his author's information, and this may be said 
with especial emphasis concerning the history and 
situation of the Nestorian Christians hi China, and 
concerning the remarks which go to elucidate the 
' Supplementary Notes.' These, being extracts 
from sources, and many of them not easily ac- 
cessible, form by no means the least valuable 
portion of an exceedingly valuable work. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. i. JA. 29, ma. 

Archceolo(/ical Excavation. By J. P. Droop. 

(Cambridge University Press, 4s. net.) 
THIS is a very sensible, practical, and, as the author 
claims for it in his Introduction (p. x), entertaining 
handbook on the subject of archaeological exca- 
vation. It runs a slight risk of falling between 
two stools, as being too technical for the amateur, 
and not sufficiently technical for the trained 
archasological excavator. It may seem strange 
to describe such a book as this as entertaining, 
but the entertainment lies in the gentle irony 
which pervades its pages, in the quaint intro- 
duction of proverbial sayings, and in the construc- 
tion of an archaeological Decalogue, in which the 
-Scriptural prohibitions are cleverly parodied, and 
the archaeological counterparts of murder, adultery, 
and falsehood are cleverly described (pp. 50-51). 
We do not agree with chap. vii. about the co- 
operation of women. It might have been written 
by the founder of the Society of Antiquaries. 
This is a book which every beginner at excava- 
tions would do well to possess. 

The Edinburgh Review begins its first number 
for 1916 with a profoundly sympathetic article 
irom the pen of Mr. Edmund Gosse on ' The 
Unity of France.' We remember in the early 
days of the war a poem in which Mr. Gosse 
lamented, with some measure of passion, the dis- 
abilities of the man past military age. He may, 
we think, justly take to himself consolation ; he 
has done notable service in deepening, strengthen- 
ing, and also in enlightening our eager goodwill 
towards our heroic ally, and nowhere with more 
force and abundance of detailed information 
than in the pages before us. Particularly interesting 
-is his reference to the influence of Eugenie de 
Gu^rin, and particularly useful his demonstration 
of the fact that the France we all love and admire 
is the old France, whose high qualities have been 
but hidden under superficial appearances to the 
eyes of the equally superficial observer. Mr. 
Wilfrid Ward gives us a somewhat rambling 
criticism of Mr. Balfour's Gifford Lectures a 
criticism which goes over the same ground more 
than once, but breaks at last into a statement 
of the writer's own theory of the development of 
the religious sense in man, which is really worth 
reading. Mr. Algar Thorold writes on ' The 
Ideas of Maurice Barres,' in an essay which is one 
of the best we have seen by this writer, though 
it rather leaves on one side that aspect of Barres 's 
work which is represented by ' Colette Bau- 

Mr. Francis Grabble has certainly had his share 
of what we may call civilian or passive war ex- 
perience. His account of the opening of hostilities 
in the passage through Luxemburg has no little 
value, for meagre indeed, is the testimony we can 
expect from the particular angle he occupied. 
We notice that he does not subscribe the legend 
of the Grand Duchess's protest from her motor 
on the Pont Adolf. A barricade formed of the 
Luxemburg variety of " Black Maria," hastily 
removed, by the gendarmes in charge of it, seems to 
have been the protest the Germans actually en- 
countered. The paper following Mr. Gribble's 
is one we would commend with some special 
emphasis to our readers as being more definitely 
antiquarian in tcope than most of these articles 
are : it is ' The Psychology of Sumptuary Ideals,' 
Iby Mr. J. E. G. de Montmorency, not only excellent 

as a study of English temperament and custom, 
and a good r&3um6 of the legislation affecting 
domestic life throughout the Middle Ages, but 
also full of humorous detail and of timely counsel 
for the English of our present day. We have 
always been nearly as remarkable for our extrava- 
gance as for our insubordination. Nevertheless 
as Mahan, we believe, first brought home to us 
our extravagant ways have done us singular 
good service in the matter of our naval supre- 

ONLY two of the papers in the new Quarterly 
Review deal with literary topics, and 'one even of 
these is almost more closely concerned with the war 
than with letters. Three papers bearing no 
signature, ' British Diplomacy in the Near East,' 
' British Government and War,' and ' The Censor- 
ship and its Effects.' will probably attract serious 
attention in several quarters; and that will equally, 
we hope, be the fortune of M. Henri Davignon's 
' German Methods of Penetration in Belgium.' 
The two articles to which we referred at the outset 
are Madame Duclaux's ' A Chaplet of Heroes ' 
and Mr. A. C. Guthkelch's ' The Prose Works of 
Joseph Addison.' The latter is, in reality, a 
somewhat slender subject, for of Addison, as of 
many another writer, it is true to say that he is 
better worth reading than reading about. Never- 
theless, these are decidedly pleasant and welcome 
pages. Madame Duclaux despite the rather 
unfortunate fancy with which she sets out 
writes with all her wonted charm, and with the 
poignancy which only real pain can achieve, an 
account of five French men of letters fallen in 
the war. The men whom she celebrates are 
Peguy, Psichari, Lafon, Alain-Fournier, and 
Emile Nolly ; the first four of them fortunate in 
heroic death in battle, Nolly no less heroic 
through his slow dying in hospital. 

to (K0msp0ntonis. 

EDITORIAL communications should be addressed 
to "The Editor of ' Notes and Queries'" Adver- 
tisements and Business Letters to " The Pub- 
lishers "at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery 
Lane, E.G. 

DUBLIN. Forwarded to C. B. 


PROF. MOORE SMITH. Forwarded to MR. PAGE. 

MR. B. K. BALFOUR ("An Austrian army 
awfully arrayed"). These lines were printed in 
full at 3 S. iv. 88, and were discussed in vol. i. of 
our Tenth Series at pp. 120, 148, 211, 258, 277, 
280. Their authorship has been the subject of 
some conjecture. They may be found in The 
Trifler, May 7, 1817, and in Bentley's Miscellany, 
March, 1838. 

MR. ANEURIN WILLIAMS (" Citizens of no 
mean citizenship)." If this instance of an 
adaptation of St. Paul's phrase v. Acts xxi. 39 
has anything particular about it, perhaps some 
of the context in which it occurs could be given. 

j Q. v. We do not insert queries as to the 
value of old books. Booksellers' catalogues might 
be consulted with advantage. 

128. I. FEB. 5, 1916.] 





NOTES; Contributions to the History of European 
Travel, 101 Materia Medina in the Talmudic Age, 102 
Huntingdonshire Civil War Tracts, 105 Elizabeth 
Daughter of Sir Philip Sidney The Black Hole o 
Calcutta Thomas Seward, lO-'. 

QUERIES : Was Keats a Christian? 108 Sticking 
Plaster Portraits Allan Ramsay De Peauly of Kallen 
bach, 109 Bushton The Mother of George Frederic" 
Cooke, Tragedian Author Wanted Statue of Maxi 
milian Stuart, Count d'Albanie John Price Pete 
joye Col. John Campbell of Shankston in Ayrshire 
The Shades, London Bridge, 110 Jousterant, Miniatur 
Painter Sources of Southey's 'ThaKba' A Fellow 
Lodger of Benjamin Franklin Isabel Heywood an 
Prince Leopold Female Novelists, 1785-1815 E. Cashi 
'The Final Toast,' 111 

fREPLIES : Death Warrants, 111 The Effect of Opening 
a Coffin, 113 Frodsham -Papal Insignia" Staig," 116 
Village Pounds Authors Wanted Clockmakers : Cam 
pigne General Sir Robert Wilson Francis Meres anc 
John Florio, 117 J. B. Braithwaite Life of Johnson in 
the 1825 Oxford Edition of his Works Tigers' Whiskers 

TfOTES ON BOOKS: The Oxford Dictionary 
The Fortnightly Review' 'The Nineteenth Century' 
'The Cornhill.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 



(See ante, p. 61.) 


Viscount Chaworth, travelled to Brussels 
in 1621 as special Ambassador from James I. 
to the Infanta Isabella Clara Eugenia, 
Archduchess of Austria, daughter of Philip IT. 
of Spain, to condole with her on the death 
of her husband, the Archduke Albert. This 
was the ostensible cause of his journey, but 
the real object was to solicit her Highness 
for a cessation of arms in the Palatinate 
until a treaty of peace could be concluded. 
Chaworth' s own account of the journey and 
the preparations for it is printed in A. J. 
Kempe's .' Loseley Manuscripts,' London, 
1836, pp. 418-87. For his travels Chaworbh 
furnished himself with " a cassack, breeches 
and cloak of black cloth called ffrench blew, 
verie fyne, and a stuff doblett of black 
perpetuana. ' ' These were to be his ' rydeing 
^loathes, w th slyvers of welch cotton ov' ye 

breeches and a ryding coate w th wyde 
sleeves ov' ye doblett " when he journeyed. 
The cloak and cassock, being handsomely 
folded up and put into a black cotton bag, 
were to be carried by one of his pages. He 
suited his son Gilbert also, for riding like 
himself in all points, but " dyd not buye 
him a syde cloake of cloth, but only ye 
ryding sute " like his own. He is careful 
to record all his bills and expenses, and on 
Thursday, Oct. 4, 1621, he begins his journey. 
He carried with him 10 servants, including 
his interpreter, and 3 gentlemen voluntaries 
who travelled with their servants, in all 18 

An entry at the commencement of the 
journey is interesting as showing the addi- 
tional and unlooked-for expenses to which 
travellers at this time were constantly 
subjected. At Dover a servant was dis- 
patched to hire a boat to carry them to 
Calais. The price worked out at 41. , but 
" for carrying me and my companie to y e 
shipp " an additional 19s. 6d. was extracted. 
At Calais the procedure was even more 
expensive : 

" Before I could get to Calais it was lowe water 
and I could not gett neare w th my shipp to land, 
and (after long staye in bargaining) was forced 
to give ye ffrench skippers for a long boate to 
Jande me and my companie w th me, leaving my 
stuff aboard until y e tyde arose, I say they wold 
have 44s. And after to carye me over the creke 

The crossing was usually made in four, 
five, or six hours. Chaworth' s boat took 
six hours, but owing to calm and mist it was 
sixteen hours before he could land. Calais 
did not please him ; it was a 

' beggerly extorting towne, ill effected to y e 
English, monstrose deere and sluttish, verie 
incivil ; the garrison there turneing dyrect 
)eggers of all ambassadors. The best is (in y e 
cource it ys in) it will not long be a towne, being 
so neglected at both ends (for ye sea almost com- 
passeth it) that y 6 sea (it ys to be hoped) will 
^evendge our quarell and regaine it and swallowe 
fc, being alreadic on y e too ends at high tydes 

From Calais he travelled post to Bruges 
>y way of Gravelines, Dunkirk, Nieuport, 

and Ostend. Ghent was reached next, and 
hen Alost, where he was robbed of about 
!50 in English gold by one of his servants, 

Oliver, "my theefe," who broke open a 
runk and decamped. The trunk, however, 
yas repaired at a cost of Is. 9cZ. ; and in due 
ourse the party reached Brussels and 
Chaworth had his first audience with the 
nfanta. Some ten days or so were spent 
n audiences and courtesies, and on Oct. 30 
haworth departed for Antwerp by water, 



[12 8. I. FEB. 5, 1916. 

changing boats at every four or five miles 
on account of the locks and bridges, and 
taking with him as a parting gift a jewel 
of large size but small value, which he sub- 
sequently sold for 701. Of Brussels he 
could say much, 

" it being a well seated and well watered towne 
as ever I sawe, y e civillest people in y e world, 
verie populous, of all nations that are Catholick 
and civil], full of brave soldjers and men active 
for com' and, full of verie hansome women." 

He left it with evident regret. Antwerp 
pleased him less. Though it is reputed to be 
the best-built town in the world, he does not 
like its situation, " being extraordinarie 
flatt." He notes the Church of Notre Dame 
and the Jesuit Church still building, the 
galleries of which both above and below 
were "wholly roofed w th brave pictures of 
Rubens makeing, who at this tyme ys held 
y e master workeman of y e world." 

From Antwerp he started homewards 
through Brabant and Artois to Calais, and so 
to Dover. Of the towns visited, both on the 
outward and homeward journey, he records 
briefly the chief buildings and characteristics. 
Thus Gravelines 

" is a prittie little town. . . .It hath in itt a verie 
prittie Eng 8h monestarie of nuns .... There were 
b'2 p'fessed whe' I was there, all handsome wo me', 
yonge and well lykeing, and liveing altogether 
uppo' charitie uncertaine from Eng' 1 . They 
eate no flesh, ffast all ffasts, when you see y m they 
must winke and not speake to you : but at another 
gate where they ma ye speake to or answer you a 
boarde and curtaine are betwixt you." 

Ostend was still suffering from the result 
of the Spanish siege, but it was being re- 

"and y s y e coldest towne I ever came in.... It 
ys a brave haven : and att my being there had 
in itt new built and in building 20 brave shipps. 
I could judge none of them to be less than 800 

Bruges was a fair and populous city, well 
served with water, and containing many 
goodly churches. Alost of all places he 
could not abide. JHe had been robbed 
there, and the recollection of it was fresh 
upon him : 

" Of all townes in y e world [ho writes], I 
intend not to lodge in this both for y c unreason- 
able deerness of itt and for my particular ill 
fortune in itt." 

At Lille he bought a piece of cambric 

" for y e rate of Is. an elne English w*" 1 ' cannot be 
followed in Engl d for a marke an elle. Here 
hence beare y 3 names of those Lisle grogeroms 
w h we weare and are of good use, beeing here 
made w th great facilitie in abundance." 

From Aire he visited St. Omer, where he 
notes the Abbev church, the Abbot of 

which for some reason was obliged to keep 
a live eagle, " and hath a good revenew for 
his fatt monks and verie faire lodgeings for 
himself." But what struck him most 

the Jesuit College, which he describes as the 
best ordered in the world : 

" At my being here there were 140 youths of 
Eng d who renounced theyr names and (as I 
feare) nation and nature of Eng 8h men. It was" 
a pittie to see y m (for they were the fynest youths 
I ev r sawe) that they shold be bredd traytors : 
but excepting their religion they are the strictest, 
orderlyest, and best bredd in y 8 world." 

Chaworth does not record the date of 
his return, but on reaching Dover he fell 
upon his knees and returned thanks, and 
then sought the presence of his sovereign, 
begging if he had found favour to be used 
again as the King might please. The King 
was graciously pleased with the results of 
his journey, received him with a smile,. 
called him " sweet George ! " and " deare- 
George," and subsequently promised him 
an English peerage. But Chaworth was ta 
learn the disappointment of the man who 
builds his prospects on the honours and 
preferments of a Court. To his great dis- 
appointment, he was at length created a 
Viscount of Ireland only, by the title of 
Baron Chaworth of Trim in the County of 
Meath, Viscount of Armagh. The King 
had warned him before starting that he was 
" straungely besett for monie on all sydes," 
and was not prepared to " stow cost" on the 
journey to make a show. Chaworth was 
allowed five marks a day for his entertain- 
ment, and received in addition 1,OOOZ. for 
other expenses without any liability to 
account ; but he evidently preferred to be 
on the safe side, and his narrative contains 
full particulars of his payments preparatory 
to his journey, as well as an account of his 
charges by the way. MALCOLM LETTS* 




THE Gemara gives us a great multitude of 
facts and incidents connected with the noble 
science of healing, but without disparaging 
these it may be conceded that the Hebrews 
of the pre-Talmudic era had but little know- 
ledge of disease, and that little was at its 
best mere empiricism. From the records of 
medical diagnoses and experiments during 
the period, say, that intervened between the 
dedication and destruction of the second 
Temple roughly, a period of two and a half 

12 S. I. FEB. 5,1916.] 



centuries it may be seen that extraordinary 
strides were made, both in the philosophy of 
medicine, and in the methods of determining 

Side by side with a remarkable progress 
in surgery and in pathological knowledge a 
curious but by no means inexplicable state 
of things persisted. Folk-lore, legendary 
traditions, and family nostrums among the 
populace were responsible for all the prevail- 
ing backwardness in medical discovery, both 
before and after the period aforesaid. Magic, 
witchcraft, charms, amulets, incantations, 
&c., took precedence over medicine proper in 
many spheres of society in the East, where 
the plague and other forms of disease raged 
most furiously, and for long periods these 
superstitions successfully resisted the slow 
but irrevocable advance of science. 

Old and new ideas in homoeopathy and 
science move, as it were, along parallel lines 
through those wonderful pages, the riches of 
which cannot be reduced to system and order. 
We begin with setting down a list of some of 
the plants, herbs, shrubs, and seeds to be 
found in the Talmud, including with them 
oils, unguents, perfumes, spices, and the like. 

1. Pakuous (gourds), oil of pakuous, ob- 
tained by crushing its seedlings. The Rabbins 
allowed Parnassim (wardens) to light syna- 
gogues with this when oils extracted from 
sesame, nuts, or olives were unobtainable. 
The seeds of this plant yielded an unguent 
for pharmaceutical purposes also. 

2. Garlic or onions (bloospin and kloofsin) 
in Ned. 49. Some writers consider balpassin 
were figs or dates, which young unmarried 
women (ibid., 50) were forbidden to eat. 

3. Kikauyoun (gourd), believed to be 
sesame, the croton of the Greeks. The 
famous " oil of Kik " was obtained from this 
shrub for lighting the Neir Tamid (perpetual 
lamp) in the Temple. 

4. Kopher (camphor), according to Celsius, 
h a botanical product used by the Hebrews. 

5. Karshinnin (rye) is identified as the 
Kussaymess of Ex. ix. 32 by Maimonides. 

6. Malluchim (common mallows). 

7. Morouris termed dandelion, but modern 
Hebrews apply the name to horse-radish, 
which is one of the special herbs eaten at 
the Seder services on Passover. 

8. Charub (ceratia) was objected to by the 
Rabbins on account of its indigestibility. 

9. Though galbanum or chelbenna had a 
very unpleasant odour (Kerissous, 6), it was 
one of the elements in the Temple incense 
(ibid., 6 a, the locus cldssicus for this fasci- 
nating study). 

10. Caraway is mentioned also. 

11. Dudueem (mandrakes) occur at Eru- 
bin, 2 1 . The fruit of this plant was regarded 
by the vulgar as promoting fertility (see 
Gen. xxx. 14). The Arabs named it " the 
devil's apple," tufah-al-sheitan. 

12. Pishtan (flax) was rejected because it 
was supposed to induce spasms and vapours 

13. Zanvilla or ginger (Yoma, 81 b ; 
Shobbos, 65 a; Pesachim, 42 b). 

14. Boris, or seaweed, yielded the Hebrew 
doctors their potash. 

15. Botnim are pistachios or terebinth. 

16. Chazayress, lettuce. 

17. Ulshin, endives. 

18. Tamcha, tansy. 

19. Charbona, nettle. To extract their- 
aromatic essences the five just mentioned 
were boiled in fat, and formed useful un- 
guents for various complaints. 

20. Balm (bousem) was regarded by the . 
faculty as stimulating gestation. Women 
who lived witjhin the vicinity of the plains 
of Jericho, which was only ten parasangs 
from Jerusalem, were supposed to be greatly 
favoured in that respect (Yoma, 3 9 b ). On the 
other hand, women residing, say, in Galilee, 
who took the statutory trips to the Temple 
three times a year, were spared the evil effects 
accruing from the incidental bad odours of 
the place through the redeeming qualities of 
the incense (ibid., 21 a). 

21. Aviyounous (capers). 

22. Adoshim (lentils). 

23. Shum (sumach), quoted Berachoth, 51.. 
The disagreeable pungency imputed to it 
makes one think garlic was intended (San- 

24. Kaphrissin (capers), in Kerissous, 5, 
have caused a difference of opinion among 
the Rabbins, some finding in the phrase 
" Yein Kaphrissin" its place of origin, viz.,, 
Cyprus ; others contending that its name was 
due to the aromatic quality of the herb. 

25. Mustard (cherdal) in Berachoth, 40,. 
was recommended for heart affections. 

26. Kaytsach (black cummin), recom- 
mended for the blood. 

27. Pakrissin (mushrooms), associated 
with Deut. xxxii. 13. 

28. Kemoheen (cress), Berachoth, 40 b. 

29. Kar count (saffron). 

30. Dekolim (palm-trees) in Baba Bathra,, 
36 a. 

31. The Rabbins gave hyssop (eizouv 
or shoomshook) for kidney disorders (Sabbath,- 
109 b). 

32. Doses of shum (sumach) were pre- 
scribed for cleansing the complexion and 
the intestines (Baba Kama). 



112 S. I. FEB. 5, 1916. 

33. Patreeyous, lentils, (Berachoth, 40 b). 

34. Zippouren, onycha (Kerissous, 6 a). 

35. Himelta, opium (Yoma, 81 b; Bera- 
-choth, 36). 

36. Levounct, frankincense (Kerissous, 6). 

37. Kinnomoun. cinnamon (ibid., 6 a). 

38. Dveillim (dried figs), in Yoma, 83 b. 

39. Zimmukim (raisins), in Yoma, 83 b. 

40. Delooin (poppies), in Nedarim, 54 a. 

41. Pull hamitzree (Egyptian beans) in 
Nedarim, 54 a. 

Salt plays a large part in Rabbinical 
pharmacy. Physicians advised salt after 
every meal, and water after wine in order 
to avoid the risk of askerra = parched throat 
and suffocation (Berachoth, 40). Lentils 
'(adoshim), taken once a month (ibid., 40), 
were also held to destroy any tendency to 
those troubles. Bulmus may be a printer's 
error for kulmus (calamus), or the sugar- 
cane (Knei bosem of Ex. xxx. 23). Kolae 
(dried corn) is found in Avodah Zara, 38 b ; 
from that a popular drink (shociss) was made. 
Ground or milled into flakes or grains, 
kneaded with butter, honey, spices, and 
-\wine, it was a most refreshing dish, and very 
invigorating. Workmen, shepherds, and 
others found it most sustaining when merely 
-damped with water. Palpal (pepper) is 
mentioned in Tractates Sabbath, 65 a; 
Gittin, 69 a ; and Pesachim, 42 b ; and, 
along with finely matured wines and fat 
meats and little fishes (dogim ketannim), in 
Yoma. Strange to remark, fish, as diet 
"for all and sundry, does not seem to have 
to the Rabbins at all. In Cha- 

giga, 10 a, occurs an epigram on pepper: 
*' One peppercorn is worth a dozen dates." 

Roush (hemlock or the head), laanoh (worm- 
wood), cheemoh (radish), dill, rue, narcissus, 
luf (arum), nightshade, kubla (camomiles), 
lupines, cocoa-nut, and castor-oil, cited by 
Celsius, Maimonides, Lightfoot, and Royle 
in their writings, have escaped my eye. 

Reference has already been made to the 
presence in the Talmud of what the Rabbins 
stigmatized as " Darkei Hoamouree " (Shob- 
bos, 67 a), " the manners of the Amorites," 
viz., the popular fondness for " cures " by 
magic, amulets, charms, and incantations. 
The following (ibid., 67 a) is one of many 
-examples of the public will overriding the 
higher law of the Rabbins: " Women in a 
state of convalescence (meshoom refuoh) may 
walk abroad on the Sabbath day bearing a 
grasshopper's egg, a fox's tooth, or a charmed 
nail." Fevers, epilepsy (Berachoth, 34 b), 
shabreeree or temporary blindness (Gittin, 69), 
yerouko or jaundice (Tractate Shobbos), were 
all held by the hedyouteem (the masses), and 

especially by their womenkind, to be amen- 
able to the traditional treatment by means 
of charms, and of unguents mystically pre- 
pared by the assia (homceopathist) of the 
town or village. Jaundice was combated 
by giving the patient yerokous (yellow 
messes) made of herbs; and there was a 
popular delusion about the sun's power to 
absorb the patient's fevers, as the follow- 
ing anecdote (Berachoth, 34 b) will illus- 
trate : One of the sons of Rabban Gamaliel 
lay stricken with fever. As a last resort 
Gamaliel dispatched two of his disciples to 
Rabbi Chaneena ben Dousa, a famous assia, 
who, as soon as they arrived, without speak- 
ing a word to them, ascended to his private 
chamber to pray. As he entered the room a 
flood of sunshine greeted him. Taking this 
for a good omen, he rejoined his anxious 
visitors and directed them to return joyously 
because his prayers had been heard and the 
boy " had been saved by the sun " (sJmychol- 
zosou cheimo), i.e., the fever had been taken 
away. Astonished at the working of the 
miracle, the young men asked him whether 
he was a prophet. " I am neither a prophet 
nor the son of a prophet, but I have been 
orally taught (kach mekooblannee) that when 
my prayers come freely (shegooro tefillosee 
be fee) all is well ; if not, then the patient is 
metoorof, torn asunder body from soul," 
it being an unlucky omen (Pesachim) 
if speech comes haltingly or things be 
done clumsily. Quacks would prescribe 
for shabreeree by muttering a sort of 
abracadabra made out of the word itself. 
In Tractate Shobbos, 67 a, a man had a 
bone in his throat, and the assia (local 
herbalist) procured a particular root (possibly 
hemlock because it signifies head, roush, as 
well), and, after laying it on his head for a 
time, muttered mystical sentences over him. 
The amulet called Darkoun or dragon 
(Berachoth, 62 b) opens up too wide 
a subject. Suffice it to say that Rashi 
in loco suggests that the malady called 
Droken in the text is a tumour which was 
believed to be curable by looking at a 
symbol of a dragon, in which ingenious 
word-play lay the seeds of the so-called 
Kabbalah, many of whose votaries in less 
enlightened centres of Judaism (known as 
Chassideem) still favour homoeopathic reme- 
dies and consult the bals^em (a degenerate 
type of the Talmudic assia), whose specious 
injunctions they carry out with regrettable 
fidelity. In Baba Mezia this dragon- 
charm is associated with the sun, and may, 
therefore, have been used by those simple- 
persons to charm away fevers, &c., as it 

12 S. 1. FEB. 5, 1916 ] 



apparently has properties similar to those of 
the stone (possibly an amethyst) which, 
the Rabbins tell us, " was suspended round 
Abraham's throat and healed the sufferer 
straight away." Possibly it was just such 
a charm that Rabbi Chaneena used to cure 
Rabbi Yochanon ben Zakkai's son, as related 
in Berachoth, 34 b. According to the 
author of ' Vahyikra Rabba,' ladies wore 
a picture of the darkoun on their shoes, 
to protect them when in' public, the 
serpent being responsible, in Hebrew folk- 
lore, for many mischances. They also wore 
earrings with magical formulas carved on 
them to protect them from contagion, &c. 
That was, indeed, the basic idea of the 
extensive use in the Orient of aromatic 
waters, odoriferous oils, ointments, fra- 
grant spices, and perfumes of all kinds in 
the home, the public squares, the theatres, 
and places of worship and of social assem- 
blage. Oftentimes they hung aromatic roots 
and ^ spices round a patient's neck, thus 
serving the double purpose of amulet and 
cure ; and on Sabbath days ladies were per- 
mitted to carry their " camires," disks made 
of gold or silver, in reticules, where they 
kept face powders, perfumes, and spare false 
teeth (Shobbos, 64 b). Probably in the 
cult of perfumes lay the origin of modern 
snuff-taking, snuff being a compound of 
ground tobacco and aromatic spices blended 
together by repeated mixings. 

. M. L. R. BRESLAB. 
Percy House, South Hackney. 

(To be concluded.) 


(See ante, p. 86.) 

[1643, June 2.1 

10. Eight Speciall | ORDERS | of | The Lords 
end Commons assembled in Parliament : \ viz. 

1. An ORDER for associating the County of 

Hun- | tingdon, with the Counties of Hert', 
Cambridge, &c. 

2. An ORDER for present search in London, 

and | places adjacent, for Souldiers and 
Horses, to be sent to | his Excellency. 

3. An other order concerning Souldiers. 

4. An order for apprehending dangerous and 

suspe- | cted persons. 

5. An order forbidding Tenants to pay Rents 

to such | Bishops and temporall persons, 
as have raised armes a- | gainst the 
0. An ORDER for apprehending spyes. 

7. An ORDER for Collections speedy bringing in 
of | Moneys. 

8. An ORDER for releife of such persons as are 
o- | ver rated in the Weekly Assessement. 

Ordered by the Commons assembled in Parlia- 
ment, | That these ORDERS be forthivith printed' 
and \published. 

Hen: Elsynge, Cler. Parl. D. Com. 
London, Printed for Edw. Husbands, and are 
to be sold at his shop I in the middle Temple. 
June 2. 1643. 
4 11. 8 pp. 

1643 [Aug. 3]. 

11. The Copy of a | LETTER | Written by I 
COLONEL CROMVVEL, | To the | Committee at 
Cambridge. I Dated on Monday last being I the 

Concerning the raising of the Siege at Gains- 
borough, with the Names of those that were f 
Slayne, and t he Number of the | Prisoners taken- 

This is licensed according to order. 
London : 

Printed for Edward Blackmore, at the Angell 
hi Pauls | Church- Yard. August the 3. 1643. 

P. 6. Dated from " Huntington, | luly, 31, 
1643. | Gentlemen I am | Your faithfull seruant \ 
Oliver Cromwell." 

4 11. 6 pp. Black-letter. 

[1643] August 14. 

12. An | ORDINANCE | of | The Lords and 
Commons assem- | bled in Parliament, | Concern- 
ing the Names of the Committee for | the Asso- 
ciated Counties of Norfolk, Suffolk, Es- \ sex, 
Cambridge, Hertford, and Huntington : 

Together with | Instructions for the said 

Also, Three Speciall Orders : viz. | 

1. That the Divines of the Assembly that are 

Resiants of | the Associated Counties, and 
now attending the Assem- | bly, be desired 
to go down into their severall Counties, | 
to stir up the people to rise to their defence. 

2. That the Lord General! the Earl of ESSEX, 

be desired to | grant a Commission to the 
Earl of Manchester, to be Ser- | geant 
Major Generall of all the Forces of the six 
Associ- | ated Counties. 

3. That the said six Associated Counties shall 

forthwith | raise a Body of Ten thousand 
Foot and Dragoons to | withstand the 

Ordered by the Commons in Parliament, That 
this | Ordinance, Instructions, and Orders, be- 
forthwith | printed and published : 

H. Elsynge, Cler. Parl. D. Com. 
Printed for Edward Husbands, August 14. 
4 11. 8 pp. 

1643 [Aug. 17]. 

13. An I ORDINANCE | of the | LORDS and 
COMMONS | Assembled in | PARLIAMENT. | 
For the speedy Pressing of 20,000 | Souldiers,. 
with so many Gunners, Trum- | petors, and 
Chirurgions as shall be thought fit by | the 
Committees for the six Associated Coun- | ties 
of Norfolke, Suflolke, Essex, Cambridge, Hert- \ 
ford-shire and Huntington-shire, with the Ci- ] ty of 
Norwich, and Isle of Ely. 

Die Mercurii, 16 Augustii, 1643. f Ordered by the 
Lords Assembled in Parliament, \ that this Ordin- 
ance bee forthwith Printed and Published. 

lohn Browne, Cler. Parliament. 

August 17 London, Printed for John Wright* 
in the Old -Bailey. 1643. 

Black-letter. 4 11. 5 pp. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. i. FEB. 6, ww. 

1643 [Sept. 22]. 

14. An | ORDINANCE | of the | LORDS and 
COMMONS | Assembled in Parliament, | Wherein 

| The County of Lincolne is added in the 
Association of the six Counties of Norfolke, 
.Suffolke, Essex, Cambridge, Hartford, Huntingdon, 
I for the mutuall defence each of other against 
the [ Popish Army in the North under the com- 
mand | of the Marquesse of Newcastle. | Also, 
giving power to the Earle of Manchester to | 
nominate Governours over the parts of Holland 
f\ nd | Marchland ; and if any person harbour a 
souldier that | is impressed to serve under him, 
lie shall be fined ; if he refuse | to pay his fine, 
his goods shall be sequestred, and he | imprisoned 
till the fine is satisfied | With the names of the 
Committees appointed for | the collection of 
money to pay the Forces raised for | the preserva- 
tion of those seven Counties. 

Die Mercurii 20 Septemb. 1643. 
Ordered by the Lords and Commons assembled 
in Parliament, \ that this Ordinance shall be 
forthwith printed and published. 

J. Brown, Cler. Parliamentorum. 


Printed for John Wright in the Old-baily, | 
Scptemb. 22. 1643. 
6 11. 10 pp. 


15. An | ORDINANCE | of the | LORDS and 
COMMONS | Assembled in Parliament : | To inable 
the Right Honourable, | EDWARD, | Earle of 
Manchester, To put in execution all former I 
Ordinances for Sequestring Delinquents estates : | 
Weekly Assessments : The fift and twentieth j 
parts : Contributions for Ireland : And | other 
Ordinances for raising Monies with- | in the 
Associated Counties of Northfolk, \ Suffolk, Essex, 
Hertford, Cambridge, \ Huntingdon, Isle of Ely, 
<and | City of Nonvich. 

Ordered by the Commons in Parliament, that 
this | Ordinance be forthwith printed and pub- 


Printed by L. N. for Edu-ard Husbands, and are 
\ to be sold at his shop in the Middle-Temple. 

4 11. 5 pp. 


16. The | First'- Century | of | Scandalous, 
.Malignant | Priests | made and admitted into 
Benefices | by the Prelates and or a narration 
c-f the causes for which the Parliament hath 
ordered the sequestration of the Benefices of 
severall Ministers Complained of before them for 
vitiousnesse of Life, &c. 

Printed by order of Parliament, 1643. 

51 pp.^? Contains particulars of sequestered 
Huntingdonshire clergy. [From a Sale Cata- 

1644 [April 1]. 

17. A | CATALOGUE | of remarkable mercies 
conferred | upon the seven Associated | Counties, 
viz. | Cambridge, Essex, Hartford, Huntingdon, \ 
Norfolk, Suffolk, and Lincoln. \ Printed, by the 
Command of the | Riyht Honourable | EDWARD, 

| Earl of Manchester, the Major Generall \ thereof, 
and the Committee now residing \ in CAMBRIDGE : 

And appointed to be published in the severall 
Parish-Churches of the aforenamed Counties, 
upon the fourteenth of April, that Almighty 
God may by solemne Thanksgiving, ] have the 
glorie due unto | his Name. 

Hereunto is annexed an Order for the more 
so- | lemne keeping of the Publick Fast. 

Printed by Roger Daniel, Printer to the Univer- 
sitie of | CAMBRIDGE. 1644. 

6 11. A 2, A 4. 

1644 [May 14]. 

18. An | ORDINANCE | of the Lords and 
Commons | Assembled in 1 PARLIAMENT, | for | 
The maintaining of the Forces of the | Seven I 
ASSOCIATED COUNTIES, | Under the command of 

| Edward Earl of Manchester. 

Ordered by the Commons assembled in Parliament, 
| that this Ordinance be forthu-ith printed and \ 

Hen. Elsynge, Cler. Parl. D. Com. 
Printed for Edicard Husbands, 1644. May 14. 
4 11. 7 pp. 

1644 [July 5]. 

19. An | ORDINANCE | of the | Lords and 
Commons | assembled in Parliament ; | For 
putting the Associated Counties | of | Suffolk, 
Norfolk, Essex, Huntington, \ Hertford, Cambridge! 
Lincoln, \ The Isle of Ely, and the Cities o, 
Lincoln and | Norwich into a Posture of Defence ; 

| By the Better Regulating of the Trained Bands, 
and | Raising other Forces of Horse and Foot, 
for the | preservation and safety of the said 
Counties | and Cities. 

Ordered by the Commons Assembled in | 
Parliament that this Ordinance be forth- | with 
printed and published. 

Henry Elsyng, Cler. Parl. D. Com. 

London, Printed for Edicard Husbands, and are 
to be | sold at his shop in the Middle-Temple, 
luly 5. 1644. 

8 11. 15 pp. Black-letter. 

1645 [Aug. 27]. 

20. The | ROY ALL ENTERTAINMENT | of the | 
King, by the Royalists | of | HUNTINGTON. | 
Being a true Relation of the great Joy of I that 
Town at his Comming, with their bountifull | 
Gifts to welcome him thither. | Also his tender 
care of them exprest by Proclamation | to keep 
them free from Plunder; and his extraordinary | 
Favour and Mercy in setting all the | Prisoners 
Free. | Together with the great Lamentation of 
the Inha- | bitants at his departure | Sent in a 
Letter by a person of Credit, | to a Gentleman of 
worth in London. 

London, PRINTED by John Ma cock, 1645. 

[P. 8 " Your Loving Friend, &c., J. W. 

Hunt. 27 Aug. 1645. "j 
4 11. 8 pp. 

1646 [Aug. 6]. 

21 . An ordinance of Parliament for the sleigh ting 
and demolishing of several garrisons under 
Parliament [Newport-Pagnell, Cambridge, Hunt- 
ingdon, and Bedford], and the speedy supply of 
Forces to bee sent to Ireland. 

Printed for John Wright. 

Thomason tract, I. 455. B.M. E. 349 (11). 

1648 [July 10]. 

22. A great | VICTORY | obtained by | 
COLLONELL SCROOPE | against the | Duke of 
BUCKINGHAM, at Saint | Needs in Huntington- 
tthire. On Munday \ July the 10th. 1648. 

12 S. 1. FEB. 5, 1916.] 



Where was slain The Duke of Bucking- 

Col. Dolbier, Quarter- ham fled icith 200 Horse 

master Generall. Taken besides 

3 Officers more 2QO H 

8 Trooper, ffe 

100 great Saddles 

Earl of Holland, of other good plunder 

30 Officers and Gentle- The Earle of Hollands 

men, blew Ribbon and his 

120 Troopers George. 


Printed for the generall satisfaction of moderate 
men. M DC XL vm. 

4 11. 6 pp, and p. 6 woodcut. 
[Reprinted in The St. Neots Advertiser, 1905 ; 
also as a tract.] 

1648 [July 11]. 

23. Prince CHARLES | Sailing from Callice, 
towards the North | of | ENGLAND | In a 
great ship of 35 peece of Ordnance | with five 
Ships more, with Prince Rupert, \ Generall 
Ruthen, the Earl of Branford, the | Lord Hopton, 
the Lord Wilmot, and di- | vers other Lords and 
Oentlemen. Also | The Princes Warrants, taken 
by Sir | MILES LIVESLEY. I And | A further Vic- 
tory against the Duke of | Buckingham, by Col : 
Scroop, who hath slain, Sir Lyonell Digbey his 
son, 2 Collonels, and ta- | ken Sir Gilbert Gerrard, 
and 5 Collonels and | Majors, and Col : Coventry 
taken with a | Coach and 6 horses, and the Duke 
of | Buckingham fled with 60 Horse. 

With a List of the Collonels and officers names 
kild & taken. \ Also the Earl of Holland his 
Speech to the Souldiers | when they took him in 
his Chamber. 


Printed for the generall satisfaction of moderate 


4 11. 8. pp. Woodcut depicting a fight at sea. 
1648 [July 12]. 

24. Colonel Hammond's \ LETTER | sent | To 
the Honorable William Lenthal, Esq ; I Speaker 
of the Honorable House of Commons. ] Wherein 
he desires, | That Mr. Osborns Charge against 
Major | Rolph, may be brought to a speedy 

Ordered by the Commons assembled in Parliament, 
That | thi* letter be forthwith printed and published 
H. Elsynge, Cler. Parl. D. Com. 

With a | LETTER | Sent to the Honorable 
Committee at Derby -house, \ Concerning the 
taking of the Earl of Holland, and many Of- | fleers 
of quality, Two hundred Horse, much Gold and | 
Silver, with other good Booty. 

Ordered by the said Committee, That this 
Letter be forth- | with Printed and Published. 
Gualther Frost Seer'. 

London, Printed fcr Edward Husband, Printer 
to the | Honorable House of Commons, July 12. 

4 11. Pp. 7 and 8 give an account of the battle 
at St. Neots by Isaac Puller and William Plomer, 
dated from " Hartford, July 11, past five in the 
morning 1648." 

1648 [July 12]. 

25. The | DECLARATION | of the | COUNTIES 
I of | Worcester- shire, War wick- shire, Hereford- 
shire, and | Salop, concerning the raising of Forces 

there | for the | KING: | ALSO | A Declaration oj 
the City of London, to give satisfaction | touching 
their Desires of a Personal Treaty with | His 
Majesty. | With a List of the prisoners taken at 
St. Needs, and the | names of the Colonels, and 
other Officers taken | since in the pursuit of the 
Duke of | Buckingham. 

[Woodblock device.] 

LONDON, Printed by B. A. 1648. 

4 11. 8 pp. 

1648 [Sept. 22]. 

26. A Great | VICTORY | Obtained by the | 
ROYALISTS | near | Hunlingtonshire, against the 
Parliaments Forces, and | the manner of the 
Cavaliers ingaging them ; with | the particulars of 
the bloudy Fight, and the | number killed, 
wounded, and taken | prisoners. 


Their dismounting of the Lord Generals 
Troopers, | their slashing and cutting of them 
and taking | of divers horses and arms, and the 
name | of the Commanders in chief of | the Kings 


Joyfull Newes from the Royall Navy, the 
Desires | of his Highness the Prince of Wales, 
the Propo- | sitions of Prince Maurice, concern- 
ing the | English Ships, and a great Victory | 
obtained near Carlyle. 

London, Printed for R. VV. 1648. 

4 11. 6 pp. 


27. The English [ CATHOLIKE | CHRISTIAN, 
| or, | The SAINTS Vtopia : \ By Thomas de Es- 

challers de la More, | an unprofitable Servant of 
Jesus Christ : | Of Graies-Inne Barrister, and 
Minister of the Gospel | of Eternall Salvation, j 
In the yeer of Grace and Truth, 1649. | A Trea- 
tise consisting of four Sections. 

1. JOSVAH'S Resolution. 

2. Of the Common Law. 




Printed by R. Leybourn, in Monks-well street, 
and are to | be sold at Graies-Inne. 1649. 

The Epistle Dedicatory is signed : 

Thomas de la More, Cornet to his Excellencie 
Sir Thomas Fairfax, Knight, Generall of England- 

From my Quarters at Spaldwick in Huntingdon- 
shire, Feb. 22, 1646. 

, P . 2 ,,pp.36. 

28. The | Coun trey-man's | Complaint | or | A 
true Account of the Moneys, | given, and lent to 
the Parliament, | Since the year 1640. By 
William Pryor of | Thurning, in the County of 
Huntington, | His means being but 17Z. 10s. a 
yeer. | Together with his Losses, crosses, vexa- 
tions, | and Imprisonments, by means of the 
Committees, | Justices of the County, Lord 
Mountague of Boudon, | and Parson Wells of 
Thurning. | Who with their Murthering Practises, 
have | endevored (as much as in them lies) the | 
destruction of the said Pryor. | Humbly presented 
to Parliament for Justice ; | to be relieved from 
his oppressors. 

Printed in the Year 1649. 
B.M. E. 562 (7). 




SIDNEY. Hunter in his ' Chorus Vatum ' 
(Add. MS. 24,490) states : 

" The date of her birth is very precisely fixed 
by the Inquisition on her father's death, which 
sets forth that at the time of his death, Oct. 17, 
1586, she was aged 2 years, 8 months, and 18 days ; 
according to which she would be born Jan. 31, 
1583/4 " (i.e., four months after her father's 
marriage, on Sept. 20, 1583). 

Sir Sidney Lee in the ' D.N.B.' follows 
Hunter without a qualm. Mr. M. W. 
Wallace in his recently published ' Life of 
Sir Philip Sidney ' points out that Hunter's 
date is manifestly incorrect, but adds, 
" How the error arose it is difficult to see," 
" the exact date of her birth has not been 
discovered." The error arose through 
Hunter's misreading of the Inquisit. post 
mortem taken on July 6, 1588, which sets 
forth that at that date not at the date of 
her father's death Elizabeth's age was 
2 years, 8 months, and 18 days. She 
was therefore born on or about Oct. 19, 
1585, the year in which, as Mr. Wallace 
points out, her birth was celebrated in a 
poem by Scipio Gentili. 

Hunter himself notes that (according to 
the Collectanea Topog. et GeneaL, ii. 311) 
the baptism of Elizabeth, daughter of Sir 
Philip Sidney, is recorded in the Registers 
of St. Olave's, Hart Street, on Nov. 20. 
1585, but his previous miscalculation led 
him to doubt if this date was correct. As 
will be seen, it agrees perfectly with the date 
of Elizabeth's birth now proposed. 


interest readers of ' N. & Q.' who are 
students of Indian history to know that the 
usually received story of the Black Hole of 
Calcutta has been seriously challenged. 

The critic is Mr. J. H. Little, and his 
article is in the December number of Bengal : 
Past and Present. A summary appears in 
The Pioneer Mail of Dec. 18, 1915. 



THOMAS SEWARD. According to the ' Diet. 
Nat, Biog.,' li., 282, Seward was admitted a 
foundation scholar of Westminster School 
in 1723 ; " was elected by the school to 
scholarships at Christ Church, Oxford, and 
Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1727 "; and 
" upon his rejection by both universities he 
became a pensioner of St. John's College, 
Cambridge " ! As part of this statement is 
quite unintelligible it is as well to put the 

real facts on record. Seward was admitted 
to Westminster School in Feb., 1718/19, 
aged 9. He became a King's Scholar in 
1723. On failing to obtain his election from 
the school to either university he went to 
St. John's College, Cambridge, where he 
was admitted as a pensioner June 17, 1727. 

G. F. R. B. 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries,, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 


IT may be premised that this (to some,, 
doubtless) startling question is no more 
theological than that which crops up 
periodically as to whether Shakespeare was 
an Anglican, or Roman Catholic, or no 
Christian at all, but is a purely literary or 
historical attempt to determine Keats's 
attitude towards religion in general and 
Christianity in particular. I was led to the 
subject by happening on a letter of Keats 
to Leigh Hunt in Thornton Hunt's edition 
of his father's letters (' Correspondence,' 
vol. i. p. 104). The letter, which is dated 
from Margate, May 10, 1817, contains the- 
subjoined excerpt, and seems to be Keats' s 
solitary letter to Hunt : 

" The last Examiner was a battering-ram 
against Christianity, blasphemy, Tertullian,. 
Erasmus, Sir Philip Sidney ; and then the 
dreadful Patzelicians, and their expiation by 
blood ; and do Christians shudder at the same 
thing in a newspaper which they attribute to 
their God in its most aggravated form ? " 
Mr. H. Buxton Forman gives the letter in 
his edition (1883) of Keats's works and 
letters (vol. iii. p. 56), but alters " Patze- 
licians " to " Petzelians," as correctly 
printed in The Examiner of May 4, 1817, and 
quotes in his Appendix (p. 346) the passage 
or incident referred to by the poet. This I 
need not reproduce here. 

As to Keats's Christianity or non 
Christianity, which the above paragraph 
seems to me to leave indeterminate, a broken 
ray of light, not steady enough to help to 
decide either way, is shed upon the matter 
by the following extract by Mr. Forman 
(vol. iv. p. 359) from B. R. Haydon's 
' Recollections of Keats ' : 

"His [Keats's] ruin was owing to his want of 
decision of character and power of will, without 
which genius is a curse. He could not bring his 

128. 1. FEB. 5, 1916. J 



mind to bear on one object, and was at the mercy 
of every theory Leigh Hunt's ingenuity would 
suggest .... He had a tending to religion when 
first I met him [1816], but Leigh Hunt soon 
forced it from his mind. Never shall I forget 
Keats once rising from his chair and approaching 
my last picture (' Entry into Jerusalem'); he 
went before the portrait of Voltaire, placed his 
hand on his heart, and bowing low, ' That's the 
being to Whom I bend,' said he, alluding to the 
bending of the other figures in the picture, and 
contrasting Voltaire with our Saviour, and his 
own adoration to that of the crowd. Leigh Hunt 
was the great unhinger of his best dispositions. 
Latterly, Keats saw Leigh Hunt's weakness. I 
distrusted his leader, but Keats would not cease 
to visit him, because he thought Hunt ill-used. 
This showed Keats's goodness of heart." 

Describing elsewhere (ibid., p. 350) a 
social gathering (Jan., 1817) at which he, 
Shelley, Keats, Mr. and Mrs. Hunt, " Old 
Hill," and Horace Smith were present, 
Haydon says, " All present were deists but 
myself," and Shelley and Hunt virulently 
attacked Christianity, but that 

*' neither Smith, Keats or Hill said a word ; the 
women seemed delighted to be palliated in the 
infidelity they had come to ; and Shelley, Hunt, 
and S. kept at it till, finding I was a match for 
all their arguments, they became personal, and so 
did I. We said nasty things to each other, and 
When I retired to the other room for a moment I 
overheard them say, ' Haydon is fierce.' ' Yes,' 
said Hunt, ' the question always irritates him.' 
As his wife and sister were dressing to go, Hunt 
said to me, with a look of nervous fear, ' Are 
these creatures to be d ned, Haydon ? Good 
heaven ! What a morbid view of Christianity.' " 

Here Keats is distinctly numbered 
amongst the deists, from whose ranks 
Haydon strove valiantly to extricate him, 
for in the following May he wrote thus to 
him, -pleadingly : 

" Trust in God with all your might, my dear 
Keats. . . .Beware, for God's sake, of the delusions 
and sophistications that are ripping up the 
talents and morality of our friend ! He will go 
out of the world the victim of his own weakness, 
and the dupe of his own self-delusions, with the 
contempt of his enemies, and the sorrow of his 
friends." Vol. iii. p. 61. 

This passage refers, according to Mr. 
F. W. Haydon, to Leigh Hunt. I am not, 
however, dealing with Hunt's religion, but 
with that of Keats, and seek evidence, if it be 
forthcoming, from those better informed on 
the matter of the poet's Christianity or non- 
Christianity. Did Haydon' s influence over 
him outbalance that of Hunt, and retain 
for him or restore to him his one-time belief 
in the Christian religion ? Mr. Forman 
appears to think so, for he observes on the 
letter quoted above : 

" This is an excellent example of the kind of 
influence the painter exercised on the poet " ; 

and Keats himself, in reply to that letter, 
wrote to Haydon : 

" I wrote to Hunt yesterday scarcely know 
what I said in it.... His self-delusions are very 
lamentable they have enticed him into a 
situation which I should be less eager after than 
that of a galley slave what you observe thereon 
is very true must be in time. Perhaps it is a 
self -delusion to say so but I think I could not fce 
deceived in the manner that Hunt is may I die 
to-morrow if I am to be." 

There is a spark of hope here which I 
would fain see kindled into a flame of 
certainty. The phrase " God bless you " 
is frequent in his (and, for that matter, in 
Hunt's) letters, but I know of no definite 
acceptance of Christianity in his works 
beyond that incident recorded above. 

J. B. McGovERN. 

1 Ravenswing,' chap, vii., Thackeray speaks 
of " little cracked sticking-plaster minia- 
tures," and in * The Book of Snobs, 1 
chap, xiv., of " a sticking-plaster portrait of 
Hugby. . . .in a cap and gown." What were 
these ? It seems possible that silhouettes 
may have actually been made of black court- 
plaster, or that they may have been jocularly 
designated from the appearance of the black 
paper of which they were made ; but I do 
not know any evidence of this. Does the 
expression occur elsewhere ? 



ALLAN RAMSAY. What is the date of 
composition of Allan Ramsay's ' Stanzas 
to Mr. David Malloch on his Departure 
from Scotland,' and when was it first 
printed ? Any information concerning this 
poem will be welcome. What is the date 
of the first edition of vol. ii. of the ' Tea- 
Table Miscellany ' ? Which library contains 
a copy ? A. E. H. SWAEN. 


[The stanzas to David Malloch (Mallet) were 
written in 1723.] 

reader inform me where I may find the 
pedigree of the family of De Peauly (Fr., 
or Von Poly (Ger.) of Kallenbach in Rhenish 
Prussia ? Baron George de Peauly died 
in exile at Banbury, and was buried there in 
1810, and his Baroness in 1813, leaving an 
only child, Baroness Antoinette, who pub- 
lished a book entitled ' Memoirs of the 
Family of De Poly ' (Northampton. J. Able, 
1822), in which she is very vague about her 
ancestry. This book was subscribed for by 
a large number of the aristocracy. Her 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. i. FEB. s, 1916. 

orphan cousin, Baroness Sara, whose parents 
were victims of the French Revolution, 
found a home in childhood with her kinsman, 
the second Earl of Mansfield, her troubles 
and those of her family being narrated by 
Frangois Perieau in * La Debacle dans ces 
Dernieres Annees ' (1816). In neither of 
these works do I find any account of the 
early descent of the family, which is referred 
to in the latter volume as " one of the most 
ancient and most honoured in Bas-Rhin." 

RUSHTON. Can any of your readers tell 
me where a poem entitled ' Neglected Genius, 
or Tributary Stanzas to the Memory of the 
Unfortunate Chatterton,' written by one 
Rushton, a blind sailor, is to be found ? 
This was stated by S. T. Coleridge " to be 
by far the best poem on this subject." I 
have good reason to suppose that Rushtoii, 
the blind sailor and poet, is the Edward 
Rushton, poet (1756-1814), mentioned in 
the ' D.N.B.,' who lost his sight when a 
mate on a ship on the Guinea coast, and 
recovered it in 1807 ; he published poems 
and political writings. JR. A. POTTS. 

COOKE, TRAGEDIAN. The maiden name of 
the mother of George Frederick Cooke v/as 
Rent on, and her family is said to have been 
Scottish. Further particulars and the date 
of her death will oblige. 


AUTHOR WANTED. Information as to 
the identity of the following writers would 
be much appreciated : Marmaduke Maxwell, 
author of ' Advice to Sportsmen,' 1809 ; 
Caleb Quizem, author of ' Annals of Sport- 
ing,' 1809. WM. JAGGARD, Lieut. 

of a statue of Maximilian which represents 
him in full armour, wearing a crown of 
thorns on his helmet. Does such a statue 
exist ? Is it the Innsbruck statue ? 

J. D. 

grateful for information as to the Count 
d'Albanie mentioned in the paragraph from 
The Times quoted below : 

" Pall Mall This Day Relics formerly be' 
longing to Prince Charles Edward Stuart, known 
as the Young Pretender, late in the possession of 
Charles Edivard Stuart, Count d'Albanie, and now 
to be sold under the directions of his last will and 
testament by his daughter. 

" Messrs. Foster respectfully announce for 
Sale by Auction at the Gallery, 54 Pall Mall, 
this day, 12th May, highly interesting Relics 

including an Ivory Casket said to have been given 
by Francis I. to Henry VIII., piece of the ribbon 
of the Garter of Charles I., miniatures of James II., 
James III. (or Elder Pretender), locks of hair of 
Prince Charles Edward, the ribbon of the Order 
of the Garter worn by him...." The Times, 
Thursday, May 12, 1881, p. 16, col. 5. 

Perhaps I may be referred to the columns 
of ' N. & Q.' for information as to this or 
allied families. HAROLD S. ROGERS. 

[Much information about this gentleman will be 
found at 58. viii. 28, 58, 92, 113, 158, 214, 274, 351, 
397, especially in the important editorial note at 
the third reference. A summary of the Counts 
will appears at 6 S. iii. 265.] 

JOHN PRICE. According to the ' Diet, of 
Nat. Biog.,' xlvi. 330, he was born "of 
Welsh parentage in London in 1600," and 
was buried in the chapel of the Augustinian 
monastery in Rome " about 1676." I 
should be glad to obtain further information 
concerning his parentage, and also the exact 
date of his death. G. F. R. B. 

PETER Jo YE. He is described by Col. 
Chester in his ' Westminster Abbej^ Registers,' 
p. 477, as " the well-known Peter Joye, 
founder of the free school in St. Anne, 
Ble^ckfriars, benefactor to Sion College, &c." 
I should be glad to have further information 
about him, and about his son James Jove. 

G. F. R. B. 

AYRSHIRE. Information concerning the 
above officer would be much appreciated. 
He was brother of Hugh Campbell, third 
Earl of Loudoun, who died in 1731, and of 
Sir James Campbell of Lawers, who was 
killed at the battle of Fontenoy, 1745. He 
was M.P. for Ayrshire, 1700-2? I should be 
glad to know date and place of death 
and burial, the regiment of which he was 
colonel, and any biographical particulars. 


desirous of gleaning full details of the 
history of this ancient, but, alas ! vanished 
place of entertainment, which adjoined old 
London Bridge. 

I am acquainted with its description given 
us by Richard Thomson and that in ' Wine 
and Walnuts,' but I imagine its history must 
> Jive been far greater and more important 
than that described by these authorities. 

Is there any lengthy description to be 
found in any historical romance, such as 
Harrison Ainsworth gave in his ' Star 
Chamber ' of the Thiee Cranes in the 

12 s. i. FEB. 5, i9i6.i NOTES AND QUERIES. 



anything known of a miniature painter 
named Jousterant, who flourished in 1795 ? 
I possess a miniature on ivory of Lieut. 
Charles Hardy, 80th Regiment, in uniform, 
signed and dated, " Jousterant, 1795." 

Ewell, Surrey. 

subjects treated of in Southey's ' Thalaba 
the Destroyer ' are said by him to have been 
derived from some "'Arabian Tales." The 
present writer has, during many years' study 
of . Arabic, sought to discover such tales, 
without success. Can any of your readers 
assist him in this search ? Whence is the 
name " Dorndaniel," "which has nothing 
Arafcic about it, taken (or mistaken) ? 


LIN. In the ' Life of Benjamin Franklin ' 
published in 1826 (p. 31) we are told of a 
fellow-lodger of his in Duke Street, opposite 
the Catholic chapel, who was 
" a maiden lady, by choice and habit a nun. She 
devoted her small estate to charity, and lived 
entirely on water-gruel ; was cheerful and health- 
ful ; and her superstition moved Franklin's com- 

Could any one tell who this lady was ? 
Perhaps some member of the Catholic 
Record Society could identify her. 

F. R. B. 

In Joseph Foster's ' Baronetage and 
Knightage ' for 1883 we find under Heywood 
of Claremont, co. Lane., Bart. (1838, U.K.)., 
the following notes of relatives : 

"Samuel [Heywoodl, serj.-at-law, and a Welsh 
judge, b. 8 Oct., 1753, d. 11 Sept., 1828, having m. 
1 Jan., 1781, Susan, dau. of John Cornwall, Esq., of 
London ; she d. 19 Jan., 1822, having had with other 
issue two daus." 
The second daughter is thus described : 

" Bell, or Isabel, for whom her father refused the 
hand of Prince Leopold, before he was chosen as 
husband of Princess Charlotte. She d. unm." 
When did this marriage project take place ? 

FEMALE NOVELISTS, 1785-1815. 1. Who 
was the husband of Sophia Bouverie, 
authoress of * St. Justin ' (London, 1808) ? 
What were her dates ? 

2. Who was Mrs. Boys, authoress of 

* The Coalition,' 1785 ? 

3. Who was Mary A. C. Bradshaw, 
authoress of ' Ferdinand and Ordella,' 1810 ? 

4. Who was Mrs. Bridget, authoress of 

* Mortimer Hall,' 1811 ? 

5. Who was Mrs. A. Bristow, translator of 
'The Maniac,' 1810? 

6. Who was Eliza Bromley, translator of 
' Cave of Consenza,' 1803 ? 

7. Who was Caroline Burney, authoress of 
' Seraphina,' 1809? Was she married ? 

8. Who was Mrs. Burton, authoress of 
* Laura, or the Orphan,' 1797, and of ' The 
Fugitive ' ? Who was her husband ? 

9. Who was Mrs. H. Butler, authoress of 
' Vensenshon ; or, Love's Mazes,' 1806 ? 
Who was her husband ? 

10. Who was Mrs. Byron, authoress of 
4 Anti-Delphine,' 1806; 'Drelincourt and 
Rodalvi,' 1807 ; and ' The Borderers,' 
1812 ? Who was her husband ? Ei C. 

E. CASHIN. There are nineteen pictures 
mostly water-colour of old Bristol, 18218, 
in the Bristol Museum and Art Gallery, by 
this artist. Is anything known of him ? 

F. W. C. 


' THE FINAL TOAST.' A song with this 
title was written by E. J. Crow, afterwards 
organist of Ripon Cathedral, about 1872 ; 
is anything now known of the words or 
music ? J. T. T. 


(12 S. i. 49.) 

THE King does not sign " death warrants." 
The ' N.E.D.' gives, as an illustration of the 
word " death warrant," a quotation from 
' The Queen's Resolve,' by C. Bullock, which 
is as follows : 

" Before Parliament relieved her of the 
necessity, she [Queen Victoria] had to sign the 
death warrant of all prisoners sentenced to suffer 
capital punishment." 

It is curious that this is a mistake, for 
the Queen never had to sign a death warrant. 
Pulling, in ' Laws and Customs, &c., of 
London,' in defining the duties of the 
Recorder of London, states (p. 18) : 

" At the conclusion of each session [of the 
Central Criminal Court] he prepares a report of 
the case of every felon capitally convicted within 
the City of London and County of Middlesex, 
for the information and consideration of the 
Queen in council, and afterwards attends to take 
the directions of the Crown, under advice of the 
Privy Council. It then becomes the duty of the 
Recorder to issue his warrant for the reprieve or 
execution of the criminal." 



[12 S. I. FEB. 5, 1916. 

There is a form of the Recorder's warrant 
in the Appendix to vol. iv. of Blackstone. 
In the first year of her reign Parliament 
rendered it unnecessary for this report to be 
presented to the Queen. The statute 
7 W. IV. and 1 Viet, c. 77, enacted : 

" That from and after the passing of this Act 
it shall not be necessary that any Report should 
be made to Her Majesty, Her Heirs and Successors, 
in the case of any Prisoner convicted before the 
Central Criminal Court, and now under sentence 
of death, or who maybe hereafter convicted before 
such Court and sentenced to the like Punishment, 
previously to such sentence being carried into 

This assimilated the practice of the 
C.C.C. to the other courts of criminal judica- 
ture, viz., the Crown Courts on circuit, 
No report of death sentences passed in such 
court was reported to the King, as in the 
cases sentenced at the C.C.C. 

Stephen, in his ' History of the Criminal 
Law,' vol. ii. p. 88, says that when the 
Recorder's report was made to the King in 
Council the King was always personally 
present, and he adds : 

" The list of persons capitally convicted was 
on these occasions carefully gone through, and the 
question who Avas and who was not to be executed 
was considered and decided." 

One reason for altering the practice 

" because it would have been indecent and 
practically impossible to discuss with a woman 
the details of many crimes then capital." 

MR. ACKERMANN assumes that there wag 
a practice for the King to sign death warrants 
for the execution of criminals, and there is, 
I think, a general belief that this was at one 
time usual. In Harrison Ainsworth's ' Tower 
of London ' there is an illustration by 
Cruikshank of Queen Mary signing the 
death warrant for the execution of Lady 
Jane Grey and her husband. No reference 
is made to this practice in Blackstone, in 
Stephen's ' History of the Criminal Law,' in 
Ghitty's ' Criminal Law,' or in any textbook 
to which I have referred. Blackstone, 
chap, xxxii., ' Of Execution,' says that the 
warrant '* was antiently by precept under 
the hand and seal of the judge." The 
practice now is for the judge to sign the 
calendar made up by the Clerk of Assize, 
which the judge first carefully examines with 
his notebook. 

Even in a case where a sentence of death has 
been passed in the High Court of Parliament 
before his Majesty, the sentence is always 
put in force by a writ from the King under 
the Great Seal of Great Britain, but the 
King does not sign such writ, See the form 

of this writ in the case of Earl Ferrers, 
19 ' State Trials,' 974. 

I have been dealing with the general 
practice in ordinary capital cases, and with 
the death warrant which went to the sheriff. 
In the case of Mary, Queen of Scots : 

" Queen Elizabeth, after so me hesitation, having 
delivered a Writing to Davison, one of her 
Secretaries, signed with her own hand, command- 
ing a warrant under the Great Seal of England to 
be drawn up for the Execution, which was to be 
in readiness in case of any dangerous Attempt 
upon Queen Elizabeth, commanded him to 
acquaint no man therewith," &c. 1 'State 
Trials,' 1207. 


Inner Temple. 

The " death warrant " is, in fact, an order 
for execution made out by the Clerk of Assize 
of the Circuit at which the offender is 
capitally convicted (or, at the Central 
Criminal Court, by the Clerk of the Court, I 
believe). It is signed by the Clerk of Assize, 
and proceeds : " Whereas at this present 
sessions of Gaol Delivery, A. B. is and stands 
convicted of Murder (or other capital felony), 
It is thereupon ordered and adjudged by this 
Court," &c. (proceeding to set out the terms 
of the sentence, and concluding " By the 
Court, J. S., Clerk of Assize"). This is 
delivered by the Clerk of Assize to the head 
warder of the gaol in which such offender is 
confined, together with a copy of the Judge's 
Calendar, also signed by the Clerk of Assize, 
in which will appear, in his due place in 
the Calendar according to his number : 
" No. (say) 5. A. B. Guilty of murder. To 
be hanged." 

The warder and the Clerk of Assize, or his 
deputy, examine the Calendar signed by the 
judge with the copy signed by the clerk, to 
see that they in all respects agree, and the 
order for execution and copy of the Calendar 
constitute the sheriff's authority to execute 
the malefactor. 

I do not know that in ordinary crime any 
other practice has been followed. Until the 
accession of Queen Victoria, the King in 
Council did, so far as the Old Bailey Sessions 
were concerned, personally consider the 
commutation of sentences ; but even those 
who were left for execution in the ' Recorder's 
Report ' were often reprieved by the Secre- 
tary of State. I do not know if the King 
personally signed the ' Recorder's Report,' 
but at all events his Majesty did not sign 
any execution orders in respect of capital 
convictions on circuit. 

Under one special statute, sentence o 
death was not passed by the Recorder at the 
end of the Sessions, but was awarded in ther 

12 S. I. FEB. 5, 1916.] 



King's Bench, and a special order for execu- 
tion came down direct from the King. This 
was an Act of 19 Geo. II. c. 34, intended to 
put down gangs of smugglers, and provided 
that if any persons, named in the Gazette in 
two successive issues as offenders against 
the Act, did not surrender within the time 
limited by the Act forty days they should 
be deemed guilty of felony without benefit 
of clergy. During the first few years of its 
existence a number of persons were con- 
victed, and some executed, under this Act. 

For the reason stated, their names do not 
appear in the list of capital convicts printed 
in the Old Bailey Sessions papers, as they 
were not sentenced in Court, and thus a 
measure of error has been introduced into the 
returns of capital convictions and executions 
prepared by Sir Theodore Janssen, and 
republished by Howard, Romilly, and other 
reformers of our penal system. 


The sovereign does not sign " death 
warrants," nor is there, strictly speaking, 
any such instrument nowadays. The autho- 
rity for the. execution of a criminal is the 
sentence pronounced by the judge. 

Many years ago I believe it was the 
practice, at any rate of the Central Criminal 
Court, to reserve cases in which the capital 
sentence had been passed for confirmation of 
the King in Council. A list was made out, 
and unless the competent judicial authority 
saw any reason for advising that the sentence 
should not be carried into effect, it received 
the royal sign manual. This list came to 
be regarded as a death warrant by the 
unhappy individuals whose sentences were 
left undisturbed, but the practice was 
abandoned when Queen Victoria came to 
the throne. 

I believe it is still customary, though not 
a statutory obligation, for the Home Office 
at the proper time to notify the sheriff that 
there are no grounds for interfering with the 
sentence of the Court. 


The King of England does not now sign 
" death warrants " except, under certain 
circumstances, in the case of a peer. At the 
close of Assizes in the country the execution 
of the sentences has always been left in the 
hands of the sheriffs ; but formerly, in 
London, the regular practice as to the 
execution of convicts was that the Recorder 
reported to the King in person their several 
cases, and, if he received the royal pleasure 
that the law must take its course, he issued 
his warrant to the sheriffs directing them to 

do execution at a specified time and place. 
Since 1837, however, the practice of the 
Central Criminal Court as to the award of 
execution in criminal cases is assimilated 
to that of the other courts, in accordance 
with 7 Will. IV. and 1 Viet. c. 77. 


The subject has already been discussed 
in 'N. & Q., ! 1 S. iv. 243, 317. At the latter 
reference a writer, who signs himself A. B.,. 
says very truly : 

" There has not been such a thing as a death 
warrant in England for centuries, except in London 
and Middlesex (where the Recorder communicates 
the pleasure of the Crown to spare certain prisoners^ 
and leave others to their fate, in an instrument 

improperly so called) " 


"Before Parliament relieved her of the necessity,. 
she [Queen Victoria] had to sign the death warrant 
of all prisoners sentenced to suffer capital punish- 
ment." C. Bullock, 'Queen's Resolve 'U886),51/l. 

" She [Queen Victoria] must sign her own death 
warrant it the two Houses unanimously send it up 
to her." Walter Bagehot, 'The English Constitu- 
tion ' (1888), 57. 


(11 S. xii. 300, 363,388,448, 465; 12 S. i. 91.) 

THE tombs of other monarchs have been 
opened, but details are not so full as in the 
case of Edward I. 

In June, 1766, some workmen who were 
repairing Winchester Cathedral discovered 
a monument under which was the body of 
Canute. It was remarkably fresh, had a 
wreath round the head, and several other 
ornaments of gold and silver. 

In the reign of James II. a curious dis- 
covery was made in connexion with the 
coffin of Edward the Confessor, and in 
February, 1687/8, there was published, 

" A true and perfect narrative of the strange 
and unexpected finding of the Crucifix and Gold- 
chain of that pious Prince, St. Edward, the King 
and Confessor, which was found after six hundred 
and twenty years' interment, and presented to 
his most Sacred Majesty King James the Second. 
By Charles Taylour, Gent. London, printed by 
J. B., and are to be sold by Eandal Taylor, near 
Stationers' Hall, 1688." 
He says that 

" on St. Barnaby's Day [June 11], 1685, between 
11 and 12 at noon, he went with two friends to see 
the coffin of Edward the Confessor, having heard 
that it was broke ; fetched a ladder, looked on the 
coffin and found a hole as reported, put his hand 
into the hole, and turning the bones which he felt 
there, drew from under the shoulder-bones a 



[12 S. I. FEB. 5, 1916. 

crucifix richly adorned and enamelled, and a 
golden chain of twenty-four inches long to which 
it was fixed ; showed them to his friends ; was afraid 
to take them away till he had acquainted the 
Dean ; put them into the coffin again." See 
Evelyn's ' Diary,' 1906 ed., vol. iii. p. 373. 

In the year 1522 the tomb of William the 
Conqueror, in the Abbey Church of St. 
Stephen at Caen, was opened, and the body 
appeared as entire as when it was first 
buried. It is said that a local artist of 
the time painted a picture of the royal 
remains as they then appeared, and this 
was hung on the wall of the church where 
William was buried. 

Some years later (in 1562) the Calvinists 
broke open the tomb of Matilda, William's 
wife, and discovered her body " apparelled 
in robes of state," &c. 

Very remarkable details of the barbarous 
exhumations which took place in France at 
the end of the eighteenth century are to be 
found in ' Promenade aux Cimetieres de 
Paris, aux Sepultures Royales de St. Denis, 
et aux Catacombes.' It will be remem- 
bered that the National Convention in the 
year 1793 passed a decree, upon the motion 
of Barrere, that the graves and monuments 
of the kings in St. Denis should be destroyed. 
Nor did it end with the kings, but the graves 
of all the celebrated persons who had been 
interred at St. Denis were opened also. The 
first coffin opened was that of Turenne. 
His body was found dry as a mummy and 
of a light bistre colour, the features perfectly 
resembling the portrait of this general (he 
had been buried for a hundred years). As 
Turenne \vas not specially disliked, some 
enthusiasm was affected at the sight of his 
remains, and Camille Desmoulins cut off 
one of his little fingers as a souvenir. The 
body was then handed over to a person 
corresponding to a sexton, and he kept it in 
a chest for some months to make a show 
of it. 

Henry IV. 's grave was then violated. 
His features were found to be perfect. The 
head had been opened and the cavity filled 
with tow dipped in an aromatic extract so 
strong that the smell was unbearable. A 
soldier present cut off a lock of the beard, 
and, putting it upon his upper lip, made 
ribald remarks. 

Louis XIV. was found in perfect preserva- 
tion, but entirely black. The body of 
Louis XV. was fresh (he had died only a 
few years before, in 1774), but red, lying 
bathed in a liquor formed by the dissolution 
of the salt with which it had been 

In the coffin of Jeanne de Bourbon, wife 
of Charles V., a gilt distaff was found, with 
the remains of a crown, bracelet, and em- 
broidered shoes. The body of Louis VIII. 
was the only one which had been sewed up 
in leather. The leather was strong and 
thick, and retained all its elasticity. The 
body and winding-sheet were almost con- 
sumed. In the vault of Francis I. there 
were six leaden coffins deposited on bars of 
iron. In each of these the remains were 
in a state of liquid putrefaction, the odour 
of which was unbearable. 

The grave of Pope Sylvester II., otherwise 
known as Gerbert, was opened in 1648, and 
the following story is taken from F. Pica vet's 
excellent biographical study (Paris, Ernest 
Leroux, 1897): 

" La l^gende, battue en brche par Baronius, 
se d^couronne en 1648 quand Innocent X., 
pour reparer 1'eglise de Saint-Jean-de-Latran, fit 
ouvrir le tombeau de Sylvestre II. ' Quand on 
creusa sous le portique, dit le chanoine Rasponi, 
le corps fut trouve" tout entier, couche" dans un 
sepulchre de marbre, a une profondeur de douze 
palmes. II etait rev etu des ornements pontificaux, 
les bras croise"s sur la poitrine, la tete couverte de 
la tiare sacre"e. Des qu'on 1'eut change 1 de place, 
1'action de 1'air le fit tomber en poussiere et il 
se re"pandit tout autour une odeur douce et agr- 
able, peut-etre a cause des parfums que Ton avait 
employes pour 1'embaumer. II n'en resta 
qu'une croix d'argent et 1'anneau pontifical." 
' Gerbert,' par F. Picavet, pp. 210-11. 

Some very remarkable cases of premature 
burial and coffin-opening are given in Edgar 
Allan Poe's w r orks. One of these narratives 
is of a woman who died at Baltimore, a 
town Poe was well acquainted with. The 
lady was buried in the family vault, which 
for three subsequent years was undisturbed. 
At the expiration of this term it was opened 
for the reception of a sarcophagus. The 
husband personally opened the door of the 
vault, and a white apparelled object fell 
rattling in his arms. A careful investiga- 
tion made it evident that she had revived 
within two days after her entombment 
that her struggles within the coffin had 
caused it to fall from a ledge to the floor, 
where it was so broken as to permit her to 
escape. But she had swooned soon after, 
and as she fell her shroud became entangled 
in some ironwork. Thus she remained, and 
thus she rotted erect. (See Poe's essay on 
' Premature Burial.') 

John Wycliffe's body was buried at 
Lutterwortli in 1384, but was dug up in 
1414 and cast into the river at the south side 
of the town. No record exists of what 
actually took place, nor of what Wycliffe's 
features looked like. 

.1-28.1. FEE 5, 1916.] 



Dante Rossetti's wife, Elizabeth Siddal, 
died at 7.15 A.M., Feb. 11, 1862. She was 
buried at Highgate Cemetery, and in her 
coffin were placed Rossetti's own poems, 
then in manuscript. In October, 1869, 
Rossetti was prevailed upon to have them 
disinterred. The manuscript was recovered 
from the coffin, and consigned in the first 
place to Dr. Llewelyn Williams, 9 Leonard 
Place, Kennington, to be properly dis- 

I know of only one narrative of what 
happened at the opening of the* grave. It 
is found in ' My Story,' by Hall Caine, 1908, 
pp. 90-91 : 

" At length the licence of the Home Secretary 
was obtained, the faculty of the Consistory Court 
was granted, and one night, seven and a half 
years after the burial, a fire was built by the side 
of the grave of Rossetti's wife in Highgate Ceme- 
tery, the grave was opened, the coffin raised to 
the surface, and the buried book was removed. 

" I remember that I was told, with much else 
that it is unnecessary to repeat, that the body 
was apparently quite perfect on coming to the 
light of the fire on the surface, and that when 
the book was lifted there came away some of 
the beautiful golden hair in which Rossetti had 
entwined it. 

" While the painful work was being done the 
unhappy author of it, now keenly alive to its 
gravity, and already torturing himself with the 
thought of it as a deed of sacrilege, was sitting 
down, anxious and full of self-reproaches, at the 
house of the friend who had charge of it, until, 
later than midnight, he returned to say it was all 

The same story appears, almost word for 
word, in Caine's * Recollections of Rossetti,' 
issued in 1882. 

Oscar Wilde died Nov. 30, 1900, and was 
buried Dec. 3 in the cemetery of Bagneux, 
Paris. On July 20, 1909, his body was 
taken from the coffin in which it had been 
originally buried, and transferred to Pere 
Lachaise, and buried in a new coffin. It is 
a curious fact that the head of this remark- 
able man had suffered little change after 
nine years' burial, and that his hair had 
grown considerably during nine years' 

On Dec. 30, 1907, the body of T. C. Druce 
was exhumed. The following is an account 
from The Times, Dec. 31, 1907, p. 10 : 


" . . . . The coffin now lay for an hour at the bottom 
of the tomb, awaiting the doctor's arrival. Dr. 
Pepper and Sir Thomas Stevenson appeared 
promptly at the appointed time. Men descended, 
and ropes being got round the casket, it was hoisted 
to the surface with the utmost care. It was an 
old-fashioned coffin covered with cloth and 

studded panel-style with brass nails. One of its 

six brass handles had come off, but otherwise 

all that was amiss was some fraying of the cloth 

j and a little wasting of the edge of the lid. Careful 

measurements were made of dimensions, and both 

Dr. Pepper and Sir Thomas Stevenson mado 

detailed notes of all these particulars as well as 

I of the actual state of the casket. The name-plate 

| haying been washed, the inscription became 

plainly visible : 

Thomas Charles Druce, 

Died 28th Deer., 

In his 71st year. 

" Above and also below the inscription WPS a 
brass cross. A photograph was taken. This 
ended, the gravediggers left, and two workmen 
employed by the undertakers entered the shed, 
unscrewed the lid with powerful pliers, and showed 
the lead inner coffin, which bore on its surface 
the same inscription as that on the outer oaken 
and cloth-covered coffin, further measurements 
were taken and noted, A workman next cut 
through the lead all round the outer edge of the 
upper surface. The lid was removed, bringing 
away with it the top of the innermost wooden 
shell which was attached to it. Then there was 
displayed a shrouded human figure which proved 
to be that of an aged, bearded man. 

" It is understood that after the Home Offico 
experts and the other interested persons had 
made all the observations and records which 
the circumstances of the case demanded, steps 
were at once taken to return the coffin "to the 
vault, to restore the latter to its origin? 1 condition, 
and to re-erect the monument. The Homo 
Office, it is stated, has no intention to issue any 
official statement as to the opening of the grave 
beyond that already issued." 

It will be recalled that Lord Nugent 
caused John Hampden's grave to be opened. 
The body was found in such a perfect state 
that the picture on the staircase of the house 
at Great Hampden was known to be his 
from the likeness. 

I have referred to numerous authorities, 
but there are others which I have not con- 
sulted. Among the latter are ' Receuil de 
pieces concernant les Exhumations faites 
dans 1'enceinte de FEglise de Saint Eloy 
de la ville de Dunkerque,' Paris, 1783 ; 
' Rapport sur les Exhumations du Cime- 
tiere et de 1'Eglise des Saints Innocens,' par 
Thouret, Paris, 1790 ; 'Reflexions sur des 
personnes qui, sous une apparence de mort, 
ont ete enterrees vivantes,' par Jean Janin, 
Paris, 1772 ; ' Address on Premature 
Death and Premature Interment,' by 
William Hawes ; 'Report of the Post- 
mortem Examination of a Body exhumed 
Seventeen Months after Death,' by T. 
Barrett, Lancet, 1845, pp. 425-8. 


187 Piccadilly, W. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. i. FEB. 5, wi-e. 

In an old volume of The Antiquary, 1887, 
ii., I find the following note, which has, 
perhaps, something to do with the question : 

" Mr. Laver showed [on Oct. 21, to the Essex 
Archaeological Society] a drawing of a coffin [in 
lead, as it is spoken of a little above] with 
a piece of tube about two inches in diameter 
sticking out of the lid, over where the face of the 
deceased was placed. He could give no reason 
for this strange and hitherto unique addition." 

Perhaps some reader of ' N. & Q.' may be 
more successful than the honourable member 
of the Essex Archaeological Society. I have 
not at hand the volume of The Antiquary 
giving (MI recount of the next meeting, 
when the question was, perhaps, studied 
again and resolved. PIERRE TURPIN. 

The Bayle, Folkestone. 

FRODSHAM (12 S. i. 49). There are two 
main branches of the .Frodsham family 
existing now : (1) a Cheshire branch, and (2) 
a London branch. 

1. The Cheshire branch trace their descent 
through Henry of Hapsford, the fourth son 
of John Frodsham of Elton and Mary Savage, 
his wife (1620-68). The Elton property, 
which came into the Frodsham family on 
the marriage of William de Frodsham with 
Isabel!, granddaughter of Thomas de Elton 
(Inq. 35 Edward III., 1362), passed to 
Edward, the third son of John Frodsham, 
1668, but his heirs male failed two genera- 
tions later, in 1766, with the death of Peter 
Frodsham of Elton. The estate was then 
alienated by the marriage of Elizabeth 
Frodsham, sister of Peter Frodsham, with 
George Hodson of Thurstaston. Elton, 
which came with a woman, went with a 
woman four hundred years later. The 
Elton pedigree ended, so far as the Frodshams 
were concerned, with the death of Peter 
Frodsham in 1766, but the Frodsham 

pedigree, linked on, as stated above, with 
Henry of Hapsford, still continues. The 
senior representative of this branch of the 
family is the Right Rev. George Horsfall 
Frodsham. Ca-non of Gloucester, and until 
lately Bishop of North Queensland. The 
first known connexion of the Frodsham 
family with Hapsford was acquired in 1268 
by Thomas de Elton. Elton Hall is now a 
farmhouse. The last Hodson died without 
issue a few years ago. 

2. The London branch of the Frodshams 
begins to appear in the register of the City 
early in the seventeenth century. By the 
use of the same Christian names and arms 
they appear to have come from Cheshire, but 
no definite connexion can be traced. It is 

conceivable that a cadet of the Frodshams 
may have gone to London in the train of 
Sir Thomas Challoner, whose mother was 
Etheldreda, the daughter of Edward Frod- 
sham. of Elton, circa 1536. Sir Thomas 
Challoner was educated under the direction 
of Lord Treasurer Burleigh, and was the 
discoverer of the first alum mine known 
in this kingdom. He accompanied King 
James I. to London, and was entrusted 
afterwards with the care of Prince Henry's 
education. There are numerous members 
of this branch of the family who trace their 
pedigree to William James Frodsham, 
F.R.S., 1779-1850. Among them are CoL 
W. James Holmes Frodsham of Mettingham, 
and the Rev. T. E. C. Frodsham of Uplyme, 
Lyme Regis. Some of the female members 
of this branch of the family are notable 
educationalists, the daughters of the late 
Mr. Gee rge Frodsham of London. 


PAPAL INSIGNIA (12 S. i. 50). The arms 
of the Popes from 1198 to 1878 are repre- 
sented uncoloured, but probably sufficiently 
for MR. CLAPPERTON'S purpose, on pp. 549-54 
of part iv. of the Misses Tuker and Malleson's 
' Handbook to Christian and Ecclesiastical 
Rome ' (London, 1900). 


" STAIG " (12 S. i. 68). The reviewer of 
Sir James Wilson's book is correct in saying 
that, whatever may be the practice in 
Strathearn, there are Scottish districts in 
which the staig is an unbroken colt or filly. 
It is so, for example, in Fifeshire, w r hich is 
not very far from the parish with which 
Sir James Wilson's work is concerned. In 
early summer a Fife farmer will say that he 
has just sent the staigs to pasture for the 
season, and he would be much surprised to 
find that his remark was supposed to allude 
to a group of stallions. This fact, and the 
evidence of Sir James Wilson and MR. 
BULLOCH, show that the term is differently 
used in different places. In his song ' There 
Leevit a Carle in Kellyburn Braes,' Burns 
has the line : 

It's neither your stot nor your staig ; 
and one of his most trustworthy editors 
says that " staig " means " a two-year-old 
horse," while another simply gives the 
annotation " horse." Neither, apparently, 
had been reared in Strathearn or the county 
of Aberdeen. In the ' Scottish Dictionary ' 
Jamieson gives the primary meaning as " a 
horse of one, two, or three years old," and 
adds, " The term is more generally applied to> 

J2S. I. FEB. 5, 1916.] 



one that has not been broken for riding, nor 
employed in working." He appends other 
two uses of the term : (2) "a stallion ; a 
riding horse " ; and (3) " metaph. applied 
to young courtiers." 


VILLAGE POUNDS (12 S. i. 29, 70). For 
many years there were the visible remains 
of a pound in Clapham, Beds, on the north 
side of the road leading to Milton Ernest. 
It may interest your readers to know that in 
Herts the impounder went by the name of 
the pinner. M.A.OxoN. 

AUTHORS WANTED (US. xii. 360). 
I know thee, who hast kept my path, and made 
Light for me in the darkness, tempering sorrow 
So that it reached me like a solemn joy. 
A ' Concordance to the Poems of Browning,' 
complete in MS. and nearly ready for the 
press, edited by Dr. L. N. Broughton, of 
Cornell University, and the writer, shows 
that these lines are to be found in * Para- 
celsus,' v. 71-3. BENJAMIN F. STELTER. 
University of Southern California, Los Angeles. 

'12 S. i. 29.) 

I have these verses set as a song entitled 
* Good-bye,' the music by Robert E. Clarke. 
The name of the author of the words is not 
given. The publisher is J. H. Larway, 
14 Wells Street, Oxford Street, London. In 
the song the first line runs : 

We say it for a moment, or for years. 


(12 S. i. 69.) 

2. " Too quick a sense of constant 
infelicity " may be found in one of Jeremy 
Taylor's sermons. SUSANNA CORNER. 

L. A. W. will find a full account of 
"* Thinks I to Myself,' which was written by 
the Rev. Edward Nares, D.D., Regius 
Professor of Modern History in the Univer- 
sity of Oxford, in G. C. White's ' Versatile 
Professor' (1903), pp. 172-99. 

G. F. R. B. 

97). Referring to MR. PEDDIE'S query, it 
may interest your correspondent to know 
that I possess a long-case clock bearing the 
name " David Compigne, Winton," and I 
know of other clocks by the same maker in 
Winchester. I have heard that this clock- 
maker belonged to a Huguenot family that 
settled in this city. At St. Michael's Church 
there is a memorial to David Compigne, who 
died May 28, 1780. 

The clock in my possession has a 
somewhat elaborately decorated dial, with 
brass filigree work in the angles. It also 
has the spaces between the hours divided 
into " quarters " on the inner circle, and 
into " five minutes " on the outer one. This 
double arrangement, I have been told, was 
used for some time after the introduction of 
the minute hand, and so may indicate a date. 
From the general style of my clock I put the 
date at about 1750; and so, if the David 
commemorated at St. Michael's was a clock- 
maker, it might have been his work. 
MR, PEDDIE appears to put the date a 
century earlier, and spells the name with an 
a in lieu of an o. It certainly is a curious 
coincidence of both Christian name and 
place, if there is no connexion between the 
Winchester clockmaker and that on the 
label in the Bagford Collection. 



319). MR. LANE may be able to obtain the 
information required from Mr. A. Wallis 
Wilson, late Manager of Selinsing Estate, 
Taiping, Federated Malay States, now, I 
believe, on active service. His home ad- 
dress is Edgmead, Leamington, Warwick. 
Kuala Lumpur, Federated Malay States. 

xii. 359, 458; 12 S. i. 54). My attention has 
only just been called to the communication 
from MRS. STOPES at the last reference, in 
which she complains that I " published in 
your columns private information," given 
me in a letter from her to me, " without 
further explanation." Now I should be the 
first to apologize, and to express regret, if I 
thought I had done anything at variance 
with the honourable understanding with 
regard to the publication of " private in- 
formation." But what are the facts ? In 
her work on * Shakespeare's Sonnets ' (1904) 
MRS. STOPES twice makes the statement that 
Meres was Florio's brother-in-law (pp. xl, 
and 185), but gives no authority for it. The 
late Rev. Walter Begley, however, accepted 
it on the authority of MRS. STOPES, and 
uses it in support of a Baconian argument 
( 4 Bacon's Nova Resuscitatio,' vol. ii. pp. 75 
and 199)., I also incautiously adopted the 
statement in my book * Is there a Shake- 
speare Problem ? ' (p. 222, note, and p. 355.) 
Whereupon a correspondent wrote to ask 
me on what evidence the allegation was 
based, stating that he could find none, and 
that he had, some time ago, vainly applied 



[12 S. I. FEB. 5, 1916. 

to MRS. STOPES for information. I then, by 
your courtesy, published a query, asking if 
any of your readers could supply me with 
the evidence required (' N. & Q.,' Nov. 6, 
1915). I had hoped that MBS. STOPES, as a 
frequent contributor to your columns, might 
reply to this ; but although she wrote to you 
a note concerning ' Plays at Hampstead, 
1709,' which appeared the next week 
(' N. & Q.,' Nov. 13, 1915), my question was 
not answered, either by her or by any other 
of your readers. 

I then wrote to MRS. STOPES, who is, I am 
sorry to say, personally unknown to me, 
asking if she would be so good as to tell me 
the authority on which she had published 
this statement on a matter of no little public 
interest. She replied, by letter dated 
Nov. 15 last, informing me that she was 
unable to give me the authority on which 
she had relied. The letter was not marked 
" private," and I can conceive of no reason 
why even the strictest precisian in matters 
of etiquette should suggest that, having 
published a statement on the authority of 
MRS. STOPES, I was not at liberty to inform 
my readers, and any others whom it might 
concern, that I could, on further inquiry, 
find no authority for it, and that the lady, 
who had first published it, was unable to 
supply me w r ith any. MRS. STOPES suggests 
1hat I ought to have added that, although 
engaged in writing a book, and also not 
infrequently writing to the press, she was, 
unfortunately, prevented by the state of her 
health from looking up the authority 
in question. Had I known that she would 
have wished me to publish these details, 
which I much regret to learn, I would gladly 
have done so. I sincerely hope that her 
health may soon be so completely restored 
that she may be able to publish, not only her 
new work, but also the long-sought evidence 
which some of us so much desire to see. 
Meantime, I am quite unable to admit that 
she has any ground for reproaching me with 
publishing " private information." 


House of Commons. 

J. B. BRAITHWAITE (US. xii. 463, 508; 
12 S. i. 51). Joseph Bevan Braithwaite, 
i arrister-at-law, of the Middle Temple, 
practised as a conveyancer at 3 New Square, 
Lincoln's Inn. His published works are 
enumerated in Joseph Smith's ' Descriptive 
Catalogue of Friends' Books,' vol. i. (1867), 
p. 314 ; Supp. (1893), p. 67. He died at his 
house, 312 Camden Road, London, Nov. 15, 
1905, aged 87 years, and was interred in 

the Friends' Burial-ground at Winchmore 
Hill, Middlesex. A memoir of him appears 
in ' The Annual Monitor,' 1907, p. 3. See 
' J. Bevan Braithwaite, a Friend of the 
Nineteenth Century,' by his Children, 1909^ 
with a portrait as frontispiece. 

An excellent photograph of him is included 
in the collection of portraits at the Friends^ 
Institute, 138 Bishopsgate, London. 


EDITION OF HIS WORKS (12 S. i. 70). The- 
essay on Johnson's ' Life and Genius ' was 
written by Arthur Murphy. See Courtney's 
' Bibliography of Johnson,' p. 166 f" Oxford 
Hist, and Lit. Studies," vol. iv.), and ' Diet. 
Nat, Biog.,' xxxix. 334-7. G. F. R, B. 

The author of ' The Life and Genius of 
Samuel Johnson,' attached to the above 
edition of Johnson's ' Works,' edited by 
Francis Pearson Walesby, was Arthur 
Murphy (1727-1805). It was published to 
accompany the 1792 edition of Johnson's 
' Works,' and, according to Nichols in his 
' Literary Anecdotes,' ix. 159, " for this 
slight essay the booksellers paid Mr. Murphy 
300." It was also published separately in 
the same year (1792). A life of Murphy 
may be found in the * D.N.B.' 


The John Bylands Library. 

This * Life of Johnson ' is a reprint of 
Murphy's essay on his ' Life and Genius.' 
The edition was superintended by Francis 
Pearson Walesby, 1798-1858. See 2 S. xi, 
269, 335, and W. P. Courtney, ' Johnson 
Bibliography,' Oxford, 1915, pp. 166-7. 

TIGERS' WHISKERS (11 S. xii. 481 ; 12 S. i, 
37). The late Col. Campbell of Skipness 
states that the natives of India have a 
superstitious belief that, unless the whiskers 
of a tiger be singed off directly after he is 
killed, his ghost will haunt those who have 
caused his death. In ' The Old Forest 
Ranger ' he depicts Ishmail, the chief 
huntsman, singeing off the whiskers of a tiger- 
that had just been killed, while he addresses 
the animal as follows : 

' ' How do you like that, you sulky- looking old 
bantchoat ? You little thought, half an hour ago,, 
that you would have me for a barber ; but I've 
got you by the beard now, and the devil a bristle 
shall I leave on your ugly snout. No, no, I had 
trouble enough with you when alive, and have 
no fancy to be haunted by your ghost now that 
you are dead.' " ' The Old Forest Banger,' p. 51~ 

T. F. D. 

12 S. 1. FEB. 5, 1916.] 



on 8S00ks. 

A New English Dictionary on Historical Prin- 
ciples. (Vol. IX.) Subterraneously Sullen. By 
C. T. Onions. (Oxford, Clarendon Press, 2s. 6d.) 

remarks which we made in reviewing the 


section ' Su Subterraneous ' hold good with some 
additional force of the section, next in alphabetical 
order, now before us. Etymo logically simple for 
the most part, the group of words compounded 
with sub represents matters of great philosophical, 
historical, and scientific interest, and has yielded 
a rich harvest of quotations to the compilers. 
Philosophy predominated in the former section : 
in this history chiefly in virtue of curious 
ecclesiastical and legal terms may perhaps be 
said to carry off the palm. 

The first to arrest attention here is the batch 
of words we have made out of the Latin subtilis. 
There are two separate articles under "subtile " 
and " subtle " ; it has proved beyond our subtlety 
to discover a principle sufficient to account for 
the separation ; and though doubtless the com- 
piler detected one, a study of the illustrative 
quotations makes us suspect that he could not 
always hold it in sight. There seems some 

question are technical. Again, under " Subur- 
bicarian " seeing that whoever looks up the 
word will probably need the information it 
would have been just as well to print, either in the 
definition or in one of the half-dozen quotations, 
the names of the six dioceses so denominated. 
That would have been better worth the space than 
the entry under ." succeeded " which gives four 
lines to nothing but perpetuating and explaining 
" The newly succeeded Lord Tollemache " from 
The Daily Neics ! " Succession powder " without 
contriving any mention of la Voisin seems 
another instance of failing to lay a clear track 
for a searcher. 

In two or three articles we find the subdivisions 
unnecessarily multiplied ; once or twice we have 
noticed points in a definition which are left without 
illustration. The frequency of quotations from 
the daily press remains something of a feature 
to be grumbled at. Having unburdened our 
minds of these few complaints, we are free to 
dilate on the infinitely more numerous excellences. 
Any one taking the trouble to recollect that there 
are comprised within this section, for instance, 
the words " succour," " sue," " suffer," " suffice," 
" suggest," with their derivatives, may realize 
how comprehensive are some of the cadres to be 
filled. All these are admirable articles, in which 

hesitation about pronouncing on the fundamental we noticed as particularly good the collection of 
meaning of subtilis. Here we have "(: I^.subtllem, illustrations to "succour" in the obsolete sense 

app. finely 

nom. -His, for *subtelis *subtexlis 
woven, f. sub under + *texld, tela woven stuff, 
web." But subtilis in Latin means not only 
" fine," " delicate," " exact," but also, of speech 
or a speaker, " plain," " unadorned " : and this 
use is frequent in Cicero, whereas what appears | 
to us the more usual sense is, in prose, on the 
whole post- Augustan. Is it not possible that the 
first meaning of subtilis is not " woven fine," but 
" belonging to the warp," tela ? A " texture " 
whether literal or metaphorical in which the 
warp determined the general appearance would 
be plain ; on the other hand, where the woof 
made a design that caught the eye, it would 
require some degree of acuteness to detect the 
tela supporting it. For metaphorical purposes the 
warp or tela would no doubt become assimilated 
to the general notion of a " ground " : something 
which does not arrest attention, but which 
persons of livelier perceptions or inquisitiveness 
would notice running through and under the osten- 
sible. The notion of " fineness " would first 

of shelter ; those to " sufficient reason " ; and the 
handling of the article " suggestion." " Suck," 
" suburb," " succeed," may also be mentioned r 
and " such " affords an example of really 
masterly compilation and arrangement. 

In about a dozen cases this section pro- 
vides new etymological data or references to 
sources not hitherto cited. The most important 
of these words is " sugar " an adaptation, 
through Med. L. (and this probably, the ' Diction- 
ary ' tells us, through O.H.G.), of the Arabic 
sukkar, the earliest instances of which come from 
accounts belonging to the end of the thirteenth 
century, where the word appears as sucar, sucur, 
and zuker. This word takes up some seven 
columns. Not less interesting, though of smaller 

J-l ^-i_l _ CC li^ . " CC rt ,,J,, '> 

scope, are the articles on 
" Suigothic," and " succory, 

suling," " suds,' 
belonging to the 

same group. 

We observed that The Athenceum allowed the 
monstrosity " Suffragette " needless to say 
within inverted commas to decorate its columns 

adhere to subtilis, not in connexion with any j as early as 1907 ; and in the same year it used 

literal fineness of texture, but rather in connexion 
with the difficulty of detecting the ground within 
and beneath the pattern the minuteness or 
delicacy of its appearances. In English the word 
is what one may call an old favourite and has a 
goodly number of forms. Even its culinary use 
which seems to have lasted for about two hundred 
years goes back to the fourteenth century : 
" It techith for to make curious potages and 
meetes, and sotiltees"; the earliest instance given 
is dated ? c. 1390. 

While admiring the masses of illustrative 
material brought together here we are inclined to 
think that in some points more consideration 
might be shown for the convenience of those who 
will consult the ' Dictionary.' Thus, twice over in 
this section the words " In mod. Diets.," " In 
recent Diets.," are held to dispense the compiler 
from the necessity for illustration ; which seems 
unsatisfactory, though it is true the words in 

the word " sufflaminated," which had been 
neglected since 1836, and, since it appears in 
connexion with " gas microscope," was, we would 
Wager, wrongly etymologized by half its readers. 
Under " suffumigation " is the interesting quota- 
tion (1684): "A Phthisical Person [cured] 

by a Suffumigation of Amber " ; and under 
" sullen " (1688) a note from Holme's ' Armoury ' 
which tells that " the sullen lady " was a name 
for " the black Fritillary." The ' Dictionary ' 
records De Quincey's odd mistake of using 
" sudatory" for " sudary " both, and especially 
the latter, highly interesting words ; and it also 
takes note of Coleridge's unsuccessful invention,. 
" suffiction " a fiction taken as hypothesis. 

Slang has no great portion in this section ; 
but it includes the Cambridge rowing word 
" sugar " in the sense of to shirk while pretending 
to row hard ; and under " suffer " we get, from 
Thackeray in 1841, the " cant phrase " " Who 



[12 8. I. FEB. 5, 1916. 

suffers for your coat ? " which was the equivalent 
of those days to our " What's the damage ? " 

The great bulk of the section is of Latin 
derivation, but in Sudra and Sufi it has Oriental 
words of prime importance ; and in " suckeny ' 
a curious and interesting example of Slavonic. 
The words recorded number 1,224 and the 
illustrative quotations 8,398, which may be com- 
pared respectively with 121 and 478 in Johnson. 

The Fortnightly Review for February has two 
articles upon the present crisis of the world's 
history in its academic aspect which should 
command careful attention, not necessarily entire 
agreement : the first, Dr. Dillon's impressive 
criticism of our national attitude towards the 
war, its effect hitherto, and the fxirther results 
which may be expected from it ' The Fruits of 
Amateurism ' ; the second, Mr. Sidney Low's 
discussion of ' The New Orientation of History.' 
r fhe tendency of both is to deride the generaliza- 
tions which Were as light to the steps of our fore- 
fathers, and we admit that there was some mistak- 
ing about this illumination. At the same time we 
think there is increasing among writers of maga- 
zine articles, and exemplified in these two, a 
rather absurd inclination to scold the last quarter 
of the nineteenth century for not having tackled 
problems the terms of which it had not the means 
of knowing. Mr. W. W. Gibson contributes four 
sonnets in memory of Rupert Brooke, in which, 
though the main thought and outline of the 
imagery have nothing extraordinary, there are 
touching and finely set details. The editor gives 
us the first part of a classical study ' Aristo- 
phanes the Pacifist ' : very lucid, vivacious, and 
good. Mr. P. P. Howe makes pleasant reading 
on ' Hazlitt and Liber Amoris,' and castigates, 
we think with reason, the indiscretion of Mr. le 
Gallienne in making public the total MS. from 
which the author had taken a selection to com- 
pose his work. Mr. D. A. Wilson has .justice on 
his side in accounting for Carlyle's attitude to- 
wards the German Empire, and this defence is 
timely. Madame Hel&ne Vacaresco's sketch of 
'Marriages in Roumania ' should be noted by the 
folk-lorist, though it is descriptive and entertain- 
ing rather than learned. 

IN The Nineteenth Century for this month the 
article of the greatest permanent importance is 
that by Mr. H. Wickham Steed, entitled ' The 
Pact of Konopisht,' in which, upon the authority 
of a correspondent whom he has every reason for 
believing to be well informed, the writer states 
that a visit paid by the Kaiser to the late Arch- 
duke Franz Ferdinand, ostensibly to see the 
fa.mous rose-gardens at Konopisht in the height 
of their beauty, was, in reality, the occasion of the 
framing of a startling plan for the reorganization 
of Central and Eastern Europe. Mr. Steed shows 
good grounds for giving careful attention to the 
account, and points out how it explains the curious, 
the otherwise inexplicably negligent and con- 
temptuous manner in which the funeral of 
the Archduke and hls^wife was^conducted the 
assumption being that, in the interval between 
the assassination and the funeral, the Archduke's 
papers, revealing the nature of the agreement 
with the Kaiser, had been brought to the know- 
ledge of Francis Joseph and the Hapsburgs 
generally. There are two literary papers : Mr. 
Arthur Waugh's sketch of Lionel Johnson, and 

Mr. W. S. Lilly's ' Balzac Re-read.' Balzac, or 
rather his work, is like London a vast entity 
about which, after any prolonged contact with 
it, a literary person feels compelled to say his 
say for there is a quality in that vastness which 
strikes each observer afresh, as if it were some 
new discovery ; and all the time there is nothing 
much to be said about it after the few obvious 
things are said, because it is too huge for purely 
literary analysis. Still, we confess to a complete 
sympathy with Mr. Lilly in his inability to resist 
saying these things yet . once again ". Bishop 
Mercer, in ' Humour and War,' justifies the ways 
of Tommy Atkins to the serious more par- 
ticularly to the German and is able to enter very 
thoroughly into the difficulties of the question 
from a serious point of view. Mr. Hugh Sadler 
draws out a ' Contrast ' between Disraeli and 
Abraham Lincoln deftly enough. ' Is Anything 
wrong with German Protestantism ?' seems rather 
like inquiring ' Is Anything wrong with the 
Bankrupt's Solvency ? ' But the essay, by 
Bishop Bury, under that title is worth noting ; 
and so is Mr. R. S. Nolan's ' Social Training and 
Patriotism in Germany and in England.' A paper 
which should by no means be missed is Mr. W. H. 
Rem\ick's ' British Merchant Sailors under War 

THE February CornhiU to be frank about it 
a somewhat weak number. There are five 
papers concerned with the war, of which ' A 
Wounded Officer's Day ' is well worth reading ; 
but the others, except Mr. Boyd Cable's, are 
lull, that is to say, are merely on "a level with the 
products of daily journalism. With Mr. Boyd 
table's we quarrel because it is too obviously, 
and at too great length, " written up," and for 
3his we find the subject altogether too tragic. 
There is an exuberant, but very interesting ap- 
preciation of Sir William van Home, by Miss S. 
Vi'acnaughtan, and one by the late Sir Clements 
Vlarkham of Sir Allen Young ; and then a set of 
ketches called ' Little Girls I have Met,' by Mr. 
W. H. Hudson, which is graceful and sympathetic, 
but has not quite the crispness of touch necessary 
to make a perfect success of such slender 

The Athenaeum now appearing monthly, arrange- 
ments have been made whereby advertisements of 
posts vacant and wanted, which it is desired to 
publish weekly, may appear in the intervening 
weeks in 4 N. <fc Q.' 


ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

MR, A. E. MARTEN. The ' N.E.D.,' in the 
article under ' Tradesman,' shows that the word 
las been commonly used for an artisan as well as 
'or a seller of goods, and that especially in 

GUY EDDIS (" Now Barabbas was a pub- 
isher"). Commonly attributed to Byron, but 
in reality a joke perpetrated by Thomas Camp- 
bell. See MR. MURRAY'S letter at US. ii. 92. 

12 (J. L FEB. 12, 1916.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



CONTENTS.- No. 7. 

NOTES -Casanova in England, 121 Materia Medica in 
the Talmudic Age, 122- Recruiting for Agincourt 
Unusual Christian Names, 124 Payments to Eigbteenth- 
Century Authors Underground Railway of the United 
States Ferrers and Alleyne : Possible Connexion- 
London Society for Promoting Christianity among the 
j ews _The Emerald and Chastity, 125. 

QUERIES : Rumours of Capture of Napoleon ' The 
Decamerone' Russian Regiments Gennys of Laun- 
ceston Tithe-Barn in London Smalt Mezzotint 
Engravings, 126 "Government for the people," &c. 
Swinburne Reference -Only Child Sudbury Hospital 
"Domus Cruciata" 'De Imir,ationi Christ! ' I). Ross 
Blantyre Estates Per Centum " H*> rmentrude's " 
Pedigrees Shilleto Family 'Blazon of Gentrie,' 127 
Dean Church on 'Sordello' Dr. A. V. Smith's Ascent of 
Mont Blanc Timothy Constable Dorton-by- Brill 
Anomalies in the Peerage Joshua Steinfery ' The 
Tommiad 'Scott's Eve of St. John' Richardson, c. 1783 

Cleopatra and the Pearl Joanna la Loca Mrs. 

Plunkett and Arthur Murphy Walker of Middlesex, 123. 

REPLIES : Tavolara : Small Republics Newspaper 
Placard, 129 Epigram by Scaliger Patterson Family- 
Duchesses who have married Commoners, 130 French 
Song, 131 -Phantom Parliament Clerks as Combatants 

Heart Burial, 132 Biographical Information Skull 

and Nail Leitner Shrines and Relics, 133 Hagiography 
of Cyprus Guidott Moray Minstrels, 134 Seventeenth- 
Century Quotations Wyvill Rev. P. Rosenhagen Ann 
Cook, 135 Author Wanted ' Magical Note' British 
Herb, 136 George Inn, Borough, 137 ' Passionate Pil- 
grim' General Guise Pindar of Wakefield John Stuart 
Regimental Nicknames, 138 Trevisa Mascots ' Vicar 
of Bray,' 139. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : ' Runic Poems ' Whitaker's 
Almanack and Peerage Ryland's Library Bulletin 

OBITUARY -.William Percy Addleshaw. 


(See 10 S. viii. 443, 491 ; ix. 116 ; xi. 437 ; 
US. ii. 386 ; iii. 242 ; iv. 382, 461 ; 
v. 123, 484.) 

IN almost every page of the ' Memoires ' 
that describes the visit to England some 
example may be found of Casanova's 
wonderful memory. 

He tells us that Pauline, the Portuguese 
lady, was in the habit of attending the 
Bavarian ambassador's chapel, as one would 
expect a devout Catholic to do. ( ' Memoires ' 
{Gamier], vi. 393.) For such a chapel did, 
of course, exist, standing in Warwick Street, 
Golden Square. It was burnt down in the 
Gordon Riots in 1780. In 1763 the notorious 
Oount Haslang was the Bavarian ambassa- 
dor. In connexion with the mysterious 
Pauline, whom some commentators have 
concluded rather hastily to be a myth, 
Casanova mentions a M. de Saa, whom he 
<calls " envoye de Portugal." ('Memoires' 

[Gamier], vi. 424, 452, 501 ; vii. 3.) At that 
time M. de Saa was, in fact, acting as Portu- 
guese ambassador in the absence of Don 
Mello y Castro, F.R.S., the Envoy Extra- 
ordinary, who did not arrive in England till 
January, 1764. (Rider's ' British Merlin ' for 
1764, p. 108; cf. The Gentleman's Magazine, 
xxxiv. p. 43.) The Portuguese Embassy 
was in South Audley Street. 

About February, 1764, Casanova left his 
"belle maison" in Pall Mall, and took "a little 
room at a guinea a week " in the house of a 
Mrs. Mercier. (' Memoires ' [Gamier], vii. 60, 
68.) A copy of a MS. letter, preserved in the 
Archives at Dux, describes this lady as 
" Mistress Merce, near the gold head, 
Greet Street [sic], Soho Square." The name 
and address are confirmed by the West- 
minster Rate -Books, 1762-4, where the 
following entry appears: "Susanna Mer- 
cier, Greek Street, Soho, rent 19Z." 

Casanova was surprised that his friend 
Commodore the Hon. Augustus Hervey 
(afterwards third Earl of Bristol) should 
speak to a brother of Lord Ferrers, the 
murderer, who had been hanged three years 
before at Tyburn. 

" Is he not dishonoured," he asked, " by 
the execution of his relative ? " 

" Dishonoured ! " replied Hervey. " Not 
at all." 

It is curious to note that Dr. Johnson 
confirms this opinion. " No man is thought 
the worse of here whose brother was hanged," 
he told Boswell on April 6, 1772. (Boswell's 
' Life of Johnson,' G. Birkbeck Hill, ii. 177.) 

I have pointed out previously that 
Casanova's chronology in regard to his 
sojourn in England is often confused and 
inaccurate. He arrived at Dover from 
Calais, as we know, on Saturday, June 11, 
1763 (see 10 S. viii. 443), after a passage of 
two hours and a half, which was a quick 
crossing, but quite possible. On Dec. 25 
of the same year John Wilkes crossed from 
Dover to Calais in about the same time. 
(' Grenville Papers,' ii. 186 ; J. Almon's 
' Life of Wilkes,' ii. 34.) Casanova says that 
he reached London in the evening ; but, if his 
description is to be trusted, it was the evening 
of Monday, June 13. (' Memoires' [Gamier], 
vi. 353.) At all events, he missed seeing 
Sophie Cornelys, who always dined with her 
mother on a Sunday. The house of Madame 
Cornelys (i.e., Carlisle House, which was on 
the east side of Soho Square, south of Sutton 
Street) is described by Casanova as opposite 
the residence of the Venetian ambassador. 
(' Memoires ' [Gamier], vi. 344.) This state- 
ment is no doubt correct, since, according 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. i. FEB. 12, 191* 

to Rider's ' British Merlin ' for 1764, p. 108, 
M. Zuccato, Resident for Venice, lived in 
Soho Square. Zuccato, who would not 
present Casanova at Court (' Memoires,' 
vi. 355, 358), remained in England till August, 
1764, when he was succeeded by M. de 
Vignola. ( Gentleman's Magazine, xxxiv. 396.) 

Another ambassador, whom the adventurer 
met while he was in London, was the Marquis 
Caraccioli, the Envoy Extraordinary from 
the King of Naples, who was introduced to 
George III. on Wednesday, Jan. 11, 1764. 
(' Memoires,' vii. 33, 44, 48 ; cf. Gentleman's 
Magazine, xxxiv. 43.) So he was in London 
with Casanova for about two months. 

" Le celebre violon Giardini," mentioned 
in the ' Memoires,' vi. 478, was, of course, 
the famous Italian violinist Felice di 
Giardini, who was born at Turin in 1716, 
and died at Moscow on Dec. 17, 1796. At 
this period he was living in Suffolk Street, 
and was manager of the Italian Opera at 
the King's Theatre, Haymarket. (Vide The 
Public Advertiser, Aug. 4, 1763 ; ' Letters 
of H. Walpole ' [Toynbee], v. 403.) 

I have not identified the Star Tavern 
mentioned in the ' Memoires,' vi. 377, 383 ; 
but perhaps that is impossible, for, according 
to a writer of the previous century, the 
name was a generic one, and all taverns 
of this description were of evil repute. 
('History of Signboards,' Jacob Larwood, 
pp. 492, 501.) 

Claude Frangois, Comte de Guerchy, at 
whose house Casanova met the Chevalier 
d'Eon (' Memoires,' vi. 356), was then 
(October, 1763) in temporary residence at 
Lord Holland's house, 14 Arlington Street, 
at the corner of Piccadilly, while Lord Bate- 
man's house in Soho Square was being pre- 
pared for him. (The St. James's Chronicle, 
Oct. 11-13, 1763 ; cf. ' The Squares of 
London,' E. B. Chancellor, p. 113.) 

It may be not out of place to give a list 
of the residences of the distinguished 
Englishmen and Englishwomen whom the ad- 
venturer met during his stay in London, and 
at whose houses he was sometimes a guest : 
Caroline Fitzroy, Countess of Harrington, 
8 Stable Yard ; Elizabeth Percy, Duchess of 
Northumberland, Northumberland House, 
Charing Cross ; Lady Betty Germain, nee 
Berkeley, widow of Sir John Germain, Bart., 
16 St. "James's Square ; Elizabeth Chud- 
leigh, Countess of Bristol, Kingston 
House, Knightsbridge ; Henry, tenth 
Earl of Pembroke, 4 Privy Gardens ; 
Charles, second Earl of Egremont, Cambridge 
House, 94 Piccadilly ; Richard, first Earl 
Grosvenor, 14 Grosvenor Place ; John, first 

Earl Spencer, 10 St. James's Place; Evelyn 
Pierrepont, second Duke of Kingston,. 
3 Arlington Street. 

" The honest" Bosanquet ('Memoires,' vi 
457, 480 ; vii. 63, 67) was probably one of the 
founders of the famous banking house ; but, 
although I have referred to all the obituary 
notices in The Gentleman's Magazine under 
this name, I have not enough evidence to 
identify Casanova's banker. Perhaps some 
one acquainted with the genealogy of the 
family can determine the point. 

With regard to Salvador (see vii. 67) there 
appears to be less doubt. The principal 
representative of this famous family of 
Portuguese Jews then alive was Joseph 
Salvador of Upper Tooting. (The Public 
Advertiser, Aug. 16, 1766.) His chief title 
to fame was his association a few years later 
with the notorious Margaret Caroline Rudd,. 
" a forgotten heroine of the Newgate Calen- 
dar," who was tried for forgery at the Old 
Bailey on Dec. 8, 1775, in connexion with the 
Perreau frauds. (Cf. The Town and Country 
Magazine, vii. 481 ; The Morning Post,. 
Nov. 25, 1777 ; ' Authentic Records of the 
Life and Transactions of Mrs. Margaret 
Rudd ' [J. Bew, 1776], vol. ii. letters 2ft 
and 27.) 

SOLOMONS have kindly furnished me with 
many interesting particulars with reference 
to the Salvador family, from which I learn 
that this Joseph Salvador died at Charles- 
town, in North Carolina, on Dec. 29, 1786. 
At the time of Casanova's visit to England 
two of Joseph Salvador's nephews were 
living, i.e., Daniel and Moses Salvador, 
who may have been associated with him in 

The name Vanhel (see ' Memoires,' vii. 67} 
may be a misprint for Vanhek, intended for 
Vanneck, as the name was sometimes 
spelt in the newspapers. Another banker,, 
named Leigh (see vii. 63, 66, 69), I have not 
yet identified. HORACE BLEACKLEY. 

19 Cornwall Terrace, N.W. 



(See ante, p. 102.) 


THERE remains to be brought forward 
evidence of what the Rabbins have contri- 
buted to the science of medicine. For the 
Hebrews of those centuries aforesaid, religion 
and law were convertible terms. The beauties 

; of nature and the natural objects which 

12 S. I. FEB. 12, 1916. J 



entered directly into their religious observ- 
ances brought the science of botany within 
their ken. The first-hand technical know- 
ledge derived from inducting infants into 
the Covenant, and from Taharns, or the 
ritual process of killing animals for food, 
opened the road to the study of anatomy and 
diseases. The various injunctions in the 
Scriptures regarding women created gynae- 
cology. In osteology and in embryology the 
Rabbins made remarkable discoveries, having 
regard to the prevailing level of scientific 
possibility in those remote times. They 
counted the bones, and made them equal to 
the number of affirmative precepts in the 
Torah. The disciples of one Rabbi actually 
procured the body of a woman to practise 
upon for research work. They insisted 
on original work only (Chulin, 94 a). The 
result was that ? long before modern 
science had noted the laws of morphological 
and biological developments in internal 
structures and their direct associations with 
the pathology of tissues and external sur- 
faces, the Hebrew physicians in Talmudic 
times had already built up a sound body of 
reliable data out of their daily experiments 
in Millah (initiation) and in Tahurus 
(hygienic science). Autopsy of slaughtered 
beasts, which is a religious duty of cardinal 
importance, led to the detection of degene- 
racy in the meat in its initial stages, and 
animals so affected were (and are to-day) 
rejected as trifa (unfit). Opportunities of 
directly acquiring knowledge of medicine 
were obviously circumscribed. Science won 
in the long ran, as can be shown from the 
identical sources whence illustrations of 
dragon-lore, &c., were obtained, viz., from 
the pages of the Talmud itself. Much of the 
foregoing is the embodiment of passages 
in Tractate Chulin and elsewhere; but many 
others might be quoted. Autopsy or bedikka, 
and the act of examining the lungs, called 
riah (Chulin, 47 b), provide the nuclei of 
Kosher and Trifa. If the lungs adhere in 
the minutest degree to the ribs ; if they are 
abnormal in number and size ; or if any foreign 
substance, such as a nail, is found in any 
part of the carcase, the animal is immediately 
condemned by the schouchet (operator). 
This rigid autopsy makes meat prepared 
more Judai.o an expensive business ; 
but it has immeasurable advantages in 
promoting the general hygiene and the 
longevity of the people. Again, too, the 
Abraham ic rite showed the way to the attain- 
ment of proficiency in pathology, for it is 
directed in the Gemara that the operation 
shall be postponed sine die in the case of 

infants suffering from incipient symptoms of 
haemophilia, ophthalmia, tetanus, or jaundice^ 
The pathological diagnoses and experiments 
of earlier times with regard to these 
dangerous complaints have been the means 
of saving many lives, notwithstanding that 
this order is in direct contravention of one of 
the three cardinal tenets of Judaism. 

The doctors of the Talmud started out 
with one dominant principle. Prevention 
they rated higher than the cure of disease. . 
For instance, they are scrupulous about 
sanitation : "A fine dwelling, a handsome 
wife, and fine furniture raise a man socially ' r 
(Berachoth). They made a point of dieting 
patients (Pesachim, 42 a and 42 b). They 
directed persons suffering from heart trouble 
to be sparing in starchy foods and wine. 
Certain others were put off melons and nuts 
(Berachoth). They wrote about zayvel 
(diarrhoea) and haemorrhage (dom harbei), 
and gave instructions as to dieting accord- 
ingly. Honey and similar substances were 
administered by the Rabbins (Yoma, 83 bj- 
in boluses, &c., to persons prostrated by 

The Hebrew ladies were permitted on the 
Day of Atonement to bring with them to 
the Temple services salt lozenges (galgal 
maylach) (Shobbos, 64 b and 65 a). The 
men were allowed on that day to have with 
them bags of pepper or ginger to freshen up 
their nerves (Yoma, 81 b). Salt lozenges and 
pepper were used as tooth powders (Shobbos r 
65 a). 

Many of the rules and ordinances aforesaid 
were more or less empirical, no doubt ; 
but the Rabbins had to square the end 
to the means, and they did. They gave 
directions how to treat retching, giddiness,, 
and headache, mainly with change or sus- 
pension of diet, and modern practice has 
followed on their lines, more or less. They 
understood all about the Caesarean operation, 
and invented various instruments, such as 
splints and crutches, for the relief of suffering 
humanity and even of animals, as the follow- 
ing anecdote shows. Rabbi Shimmon ben 
Chalafta had a very valuable hen that dis- 
located its thigh-bone. After consultation 
with his medical friends he constructed a 
splint of bamboo cane, and it recovered 
(gnassa shefouffress shel konay, vechoiyesah). 
They had an elementary knowledge of anaes- 
thetics and administered sleeping draughts. 
They practised vivisection on animals ; 
they had some theories on psychology 
(Yebamoth, 9 a). Reference is made to* 
diseases of the ear in Tractate Sabbath. 
They insisted on medical examinations, and 



[12 S. I. FEB. 12, 1916. 

went into family histories very closely 
"" The bride whose eyes sparkle may be 
wooed," was one of their maxims (Taanith 
24 a). They objected to kissing otherwise 
than on the forehead or the hand (Rosh 
Hashana, 25 b). Capping, amputations, and 
the setting of fractured limbs were all 
mastered, and detailed directions for them 
are given in the different sections allocated 
to these matters. 

Among the ancient Hebrews there was 
but one aristocracy, the aristocracy of the 
intellect. Here the Rabbi was a monarch 
absolute, and next in rank stood the cho- 
cham, a specialist in all manner of diseases, 
called generally chaloeem, yissurin, and 
machouveem, maladies of the mind and of 
the body, which only masters of medicine 
can diagnose. Next in rank were the 
rephoim, who combined surgery with medi- 
cine, and were equally adept in either branch ; 
next to them stood the umman or rophei 
umman (surgeon), who invariably attended 
patients with a retinue (levoyah) of 
apprentices, and whose advent was usually 
the signal for an ovation, every one saluting 
them, and lining up so that they might pass 
along with the least possible delay (Chulin, 
54 b). The assia was the people's doctor 
with his nostrums already described. Many 
of these skilled men had extensive " rounds," 
and earned large fees. They could only 
settle in poorer quarters of the town, as 
much for the convenience of their humble 
clients as for the benefit of the landlords 
whose estates suffered through the noise 
caused by the continuous traffic to and from 
their surgeries. Many of them inherited 
large practices. Every city had to have a 
professional man (Sanhedrin, 17 b). Their 
official position was very high, and their 
testimony in criminal cases was held to 
be final (Gittin). Corporal punishment 
was administered under their sole direction. 
The Talmud mentions several distinguished 
medical men by name : Shammai ben Gama- 
liel ; Yochanon ben Nuri ; Shemuel Yarche- 
nooee, medical adviser to Rabbi Yehudah 
Hannassi, on whose behalf he went on a 
political mission to Antoninus Pius, and 
while in Rome was successful in rescuing 
from the dungeons a beautiful Hebrew lad, 
who ultimately became a mouray houro^o, 
an eminent scholar, and an ornament to 
Judaism ; and lastly, Rabbi Chanina, who 
was a famous physician, being boki Berefuous 
(Yoma, 49 a), of whom an excellent anecdote 
is related, proving his fine independence of 
character and unflinching adhesion to the 
highest traditions on which the religion of 

Israel has been enduringly fostered and 
inflexibly sustained. 

This essay is dedicated 
to the beloved memory of 

my dear Parents, 
Raphael and Rebecca Breslar. 

Percy House, South Hackney. 

The Prime Minister recently cited, in the 
House of Commons, two stanzas from an 
" old ballad," which were singularly apposite 
to the topic of recruiting, which he was 
discussing at the time : 

Go 'cruit me Cheshire and Lancashire 
And Derby hills that are so free ; 
Not a married man nor widow's son 
No widow's curse shall go with me. 

They 'cruited Cheshire and Lancashire, 
And Derby hills that are so free : 
Though no married man or no widow's son, 
They have 'cruited three thousand and three. 

I have seen no allusion in the papers to 
the source of this quotation. 

Two versions of this old ballad are to be 
found in an appendix to Sir Harris Nicolas' s 
' History of the Battle of Agiricourt,' pub- 
lished in 1832. The first consists of fourteen 
stanzas, and the second of twenty-three. 
The first is prefaced by a note : 

" The following ballad was obligingly communi- 
ated by Bertram Mitford, of Mitford Castle in 
Northumberland, Esquire, who wrote it from the 
dictation of a very aged relative." 
[n the first version the last line of the first 
stanza quoted by Mr. Asquith read : 
For there was a jovial brave company. 
In the second, 

No widow's curse shall go with me 
vas substituted ; so he blended the two. 


lave from time to time been placed on 
record in ' N. & Q.,' it may, perhaps, be 
nteresting to add a few more (which appear 
n the second volume of Stebbing Shaw's 
History of Staffordshire ') : 

P. 16. Walter Bassett married Sconsolate 

P. 38. Granada Brown, relict of Edward 

P. 70. Eintina (or Encina), daughter of 
Sir William Ruffus. 

P. 70. Geoffrey de Bakepuse and Eneisin 
lis wife. 

P. 100. Edward Croxall married Avarilla 
Vincent. R. B. 

12 S.I. FEB. 12, 1916.] 



MENTS. A volume of broadsides and 
pamphlets 'on the eighteenth-century copy- 
right agitation and the publishers' petitions, 
which lies before me, has belonged successively 
to Thomas Longman, William Lort, and 
Bindley. It contains a 4-page 4to circular, 
' An Account of the Expense of correcting 
and improving Sundry Books,' which recites 

" the Booksellers now petitioning the Legisla- 
ture for Relief, most humbly beg leave to observe 
that there is scarce an instance of a new Edition 
of any living Author's Work printed without 
submitting it to his correction and improvement," 
so the 

" authors sometimes receive, in Process of Time, 
us much money for corrections and improvements 
as was first paid for the Copy." 

The examples quoted are principally 
dictionaries (Ains worth's, Baretti's, and 
Bayle's), but the following are of more than 
ordinary interest : 

' Johnson's English Dictionary,' s. d- 

2 vols., folio, to the Author for 

Improvements in the Third 

Edition 300 

The Editors of Shakespeare 

Mr. Bowe . . 

Mr. Hughes 

Mr. Pope . . 

Mr. Fenton 

Mr. Gay 

Mr. Whatley 

Mr. Theobald 

Mr. Warburton 

Mr. Capel . . 

Mr. Johnson, copies to the amount 

Ditto, a new Edition in 1774 
' Universal History, Ancient and 

Modern,' for revising, correcting 

and digesting it, for a new Edition 1,575 
The last item in this list of examples is : 
Paid to Authors and Editors, over s. d. 

and above the original Sum given 

for the Copy of the above-men- 
tioned Books 11,952 15 


UNITED STATES. This phrase seems to 
have been well understood in the days prior 
to the American Civil War. The following 
extract is from ' American States, Churches, 
a nd Slavery,' by the Rev. J. B. Balme, 
London, Hamilton, 1863 : 

" There are a few instances on record of slaves 
who have been delivered from the grasp of their 
pursuers, and consigned to the care of a merciful 
Providence by the Underground Railway to 







NEXION. (See ante, p. 84.) Burke's 
' Baronetage,' &c. (see 1915 ed., p. 91), 
begins the Alleyne pedigree with " George 
Alleyne of Chartley, Stafford and Grantham, 
co. Lincoln," and makes no reference to 
Dethick's note ; from which it may be 
inferred that either a copy of the Visitation 
pedigree lacking the note was consulted, or 
that the transcriber failed to appreciate its 

The family tradition appears in later days, 
to have been ignored or forgotten. Prob- 
ably, prosperity and importance gained 
beyond the seas had something to do with 
this. Not only has Burke evidently no- 
suggestion to work on, but Wotton (1771) 
" cannot give their particular descent," and 
begins with a prominent member of the 
family in Barbados (iii. 249), not even the 
first there. 

The Alleyne arms are : " Per chevron gu.. 
and erm., in chief 2 lions' heads erased or." 

This coat was granted (or recorded) at 
Heralds' College in 1769 (Fox-Davies,. 
' Armorial Families,' sixth ed., p. 25).. 
apparently when the baronetcy was conferred 
(April 6 of that year). It is not much like 
" vairy or and gu." ! 

How did this coat come to be chosen ? 
It is remarkably like that of Jacomb, " per 
chevron az. and erm., 2 lions' heads era. arg." 
" Christian," the wife of Richard Alleyne,. 
D.D., whose son Reynold was the first of 
the family to settle in Barbados, may have- 
been a member of this family the merest 
conjecture this ! It would be interesting to- 
have the point cleared up. 


worthy of a note in your valued paper that 
the title of this society is now Church Missions 
to Jews ; the former title it had borne for 
107 years. The Patron, Vice-Patron, Pre- 
sident, Vice-President , and present officers 
are all members of the Church of England 
or of Churches in communion with her. 


Richard Tomlinson's English translation of 
the "Medicinal Dispensatory. .. .by the 
Illustrious Renodseus " (London, 1657), there 
is a curious passage about the emerald's 
alleged love of chastity, quoting the case 
of an unnamed Hungarian queen, the stone 
in whose ring broke into three parts on a 
certain occasion. Mr. George Fred. Kunz* 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. i. FKB. 12, me. 

In his ' Curious Lore of Precious Stones ' 
{ Philadelphia, 1913), gives, in facsimile, a 
specimen page of a fourteenth (?) century 
MS. in his possession containing an Italian 
version of the * De Mineralibus ' of Albertus 
Magnus (1193-1280), for a short time 
Bishop of Ratisbon, to whom Renodaeus 
was evidently indebted for his information 
on this subject. In this translation the 
Hungarian king's name, as per specimen 
page, is given as Bela, on the strength of 
which Mr. Kunz identifies him with Bela IV. 
(1235-70). In the original version, how- 
ever, the king's name is not mentioned, but 
it is merely stated that he was the bishop's 
contemporary. L. L. K. 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
; in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

1798. The following eighteenth - century 
passages need explanation : 

"At Edinburgh, during the American War, the 
Governor of the Castle received despatches. Lady 

, his friend, in the French sense of the word, 

was with him ; and he was half drunk. Unfit for 
the task himself, he gave her the despatches to 
read. The lady has a warm imagination, and is 
delighted by a grand display ; something that she 
read inflamed her fancy, and she exclaimed, 
* Governor, here is great news ; you must order 
the Castle guns fired directly.' The Governor 
took her word for it. and gave orders accordingly ; 
but the great news, like the capture of Buonaparte 
in Hyde Park on Thursday, was wholly ideal. 
The guns were fired, the city was alarmed, crowds 
came running to know the reason, arid tho maudlin 
Governor was disgraced and laughed at." 

Who was Lady - - ? Who was the 
Governor of the castle ? W hat is the source 
of this anecdote ? Are there any references 
to " the capture of Buonaparte in Hyde 
Park" on that Thursday in July, 1798, 
among the papers or magazines of the time ? 
"July 26th [1798]. Went to Debrett's. The 
news there, that Buonaparte and his whole fleet 

were taken ; it was communicated by Lord H to 

the horse volunteers that were reviewing in Hyde 
Park; they immediately gave three huzzas, and 
it ran from mouth to mouth through the crowd. 
It was false. Such scenes are tragically ridiculous. 
......Buonaparte has been captured at least a dozen 

times. On one of these occasions Lord L , as 

I hear, communicating the news to one of the 
B 's, began his letter with three hurrahs." 

Who was Lord H ? Who was Lord 

? Who were the B 's ? 

E. C. 

' THE DECAMERONE.' Recently I pur- 
chased a rare edition of the first English 
translation of Boccaccio's ' Decamerone.' 
On referring to the tenth novel of the third 
day I found the original story omitted, and 
another substituted entitled : 

" The wonderful and chaste resolved continency 
of fair Serictha, daughter to Siwalde, King of 
Denmarke, who being sought and sued after by 
many worthy persons that did affect her deerly, 
would not look a man in the face until such time 
before she was married." 

I should like to know whether this substituted 
tale is by the author of the ' Decamerone,' 
or taken from some other source. 


Review of August, 1915, Dr. John Pollen, 
C.I.E., says that the Astrakan Regiment of 
the Russian army, the 12th Grenadiers, was 
raised by Roman Bruce, " eldest son of one 
William Bruce, who migrated to Russia in 
Cromwell's time." Was he related to 
Master General James Bruce of the Airth 
family, who, according to James Grant 
('Scottish Soldiers of Fortune'), was the 
first officer to render the Russian artillery 
efficient ? Were any other Russian regi- 
ments of to-day raised by Scotsmen ? 

123 Pall Mall, S.W. 

There is reason to believe that some 
member or members, of this ancient Cornish 
family migrated to Ireland in the seventeenth 
century. Any information on the subject 
will be gratefully acknowledged by 

79 Grosvenor Square, Rathmines, Dublin. 

ago there was a statement in one of the daily 
newspapers to the effect that the tithe-barn 
at Peterborough had been bought by a 
London antiquary, who proposed to remove 
it and re-erect It somewhere in London. 
Was this scheme ever carried out ? 


[ have in a scrap-book the small mezzotint 
}itle-page of ' Pidding's New Pocket Cabinet 
"or 1829,' and some ten mezzotint prints, of 
miniature size, generally about 3| by 2 in., 
mostly topographical, but with a few fancy 
subjects, evidently taken from the work 
named. The views include Dover and 
Carisbrooke Castles, Godalming, Rochester 
Bridge, Maldon Church, and the Pantheon 
at Rome, and are remarkably well executed, 

12 s. i. FEB. 12, i9i6.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


one having " H. James " as the artist or 
engraver. Were there issues of this * New 
Pocket Cabinet ' in other years, and is 
anything known of the " H. James " who is 
named ? W. B. H. 

PEOPLE, BY THE PEOPLE." Does any reader 
know the origin of this phrase ? I have 
been told that it occurred in the preface to 
Caxton's * Wyclif's Bible,' in the preface to 
the Wyclif and Hereford version of Wyclif's 
Bible, or in a pamphlet of the period bearing 
on that version, but it is extremely difficult 
to trace it to its source. I shall be glad 
if any one can shed any light on the matter. 

haps one of your readers can tell me where 
to find the following Swinburnian lines. The 
first line of the stanza is missing : 

' Things that Fate fashions or forbids, 
The Dust of Time-forgotten Kings 
Whose name falls off the Pyramids. 

16 Marlborough Place, N.W. 

Some correspondence recently appeared in 
4 N. & Q.' as to a twin achieving greatness. 
May I ask what instances there are of an 
only child becoming famous, or if the fact 
of having no brothers and sisters usually 
results in the early spoiling of the infant, 
and its subsequent handicap through life ? 

Glendora, Hindhead, Surrey. 

part of the parish of St. Olave, Hart Street, 
was located the hospital for ten aged poor 
persons established in the seventeenth 
century by Paul Bayning, Viscount Sud- 

Devonshire House, Bishopsgate, E.G. 

" DOMUS CRUCIATA." The Cistercian 
Convent of Revesby took over land from 
the Knights Hospitallers of Maltby on the 
condition that the monks maintained a domus 
C:^4ciata on the land. What was a domus 
Cruciata ? W. M. MYDDELTON. 

Woodhall Spa. 

IS.- The precious autograph MS. of the 
original Latin work of Thomas a Kempis, 
* De Imitatione Christi,' dated A.D. 1424, is 
wn to have been preserved in Brussels, 
would be worth while ascertaining 

whether this priceless treasure has been 
removed, or lost, since the war, and what 
library of Brussels (probably the Bibliotheque 
Royale ?) happily owns the MS. Perhaps 
one of your readers may be able to enlighten 
us on this question. H. KREBS. 

DAVID Ross. According to the ' Diet, 
of Nat. Biog.,' xlix. 259, Ross was the " son 
of a writer to the Signet in Edinburgh, who 
settled in London in 1722 as a solicitor of 
appeals." What were the Christian names of 
his father, and who was his mother ? Is 
there anv record of his marriage with Fanny 
Murray ? G. F. R. B. 

one kindly inform me what estates or resi- 
dences were owned by Lord Blantyre in 
Eastern Ross before and after 1846 ? 

M. R. R. M'G. G. 

PER CENTUM : THE SYMBOL %. I shall be 
obliged if any reader of ' N. & Q.' can kindly 
explain the origin arid significance of the 
symbol % to note " per cent." J. 


[This was discussed at 11 S. iv. 168, 238, 272.] 

GREES. (See 8 S. v. 20, 25.) At these 
references in 1894 the death of " Hermen- 
trude " (Miss Emily S. Holt) was announced, 
and a desire expressed that her valuable 
collections of mediaeval pedigrees should be 
preserved by depositing them in some public 
institution where they could be consulted. 
Can any one inform me if they were so 
deposited, and where, or failing this in whose 
possession they now are ? E. A. FRY. 

Thornhill, Kenley, Surrey. 

SHILLETO FAMILY. Could any reader of 
' N. & Q.' give information regarding the 
ancestry of Francis Shilleto of Heath Hall, 
near Wakefield, c. 1585, and state in what 
way he was connected with Francis Shilleto 
of Houghton, who was granted arms by 
Sir W. Dethick, Garter, on Jan. 24, 1602 ? 

61 St. John's Road, Oxford. 

Andrews, in his ' Anecdotes ' (London, 
1789), under ' Heraldry ' cites " a scarce 
treatise in quarto, entitled ' The Blazon of 
Gentrie ' (a book recommended by Peacham 
in his ' Compleat Gentleman')." What is 
the date of publication of ' The Blazon of 
Gentrie,' and is the author known ? 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. i. FEB. 12, me. 



Some years 

ago Dean Church 

published an article in one of the magazines 
on Browning's ' Sordello.' Can the reference 
to it be given ? W. 

OF MONT BLANC, 1847. I should be very 
glad to receive any information about this. 
Please reply direct. 

23 Savile Ro\v, W. 

TIMOTHY CONSTABLE. I shall be glad if 
any reader can give me any information 
relating to the ancestors of Timothy Con- 
stable, who married on Jan. 13, 1736/7, at 
St. James's Church, Westminster, Elizabeth 
Hunting, and who was buried at Melford, 
Suffolk, in March, 1750. The marriage 
certificate reads as follows : " Timothy 
Constable of Bradfield Combust in ye County 
of Suffolk and Elizabeth Hunting of this p. 
L.A.B.C. 1736/7." 

(See 11 S. xi. 150.) 

68 St. Michael's Road, Aider-shot, Hants. 

DORTON-BY-BRILL. The earlier history 

of this village is known to me, but I wish to 

ascertain its present condition and at what 

date its local vogue as a health resort ceased. 


51 Rutland Park Mansions, X.W. 

any instances other than that of Lord 
Scarsdale and Lord Curzon of a father and 
son both being peers, but the son enjoying a 
higher degree of nobility than the father, 
and in the latter's lifetime ? 


known of an artist of this name ? I possess a 
portrait group in oils by him of Sir Charles 
Price, second baronet, \vith his son Sir 
Charles Price, third baronet, signed and 
dated 1851. LEONARD C. PRICE. 

Ewell, Surrey. 

' THE TOMMIAD.' Who were the author 
and subject of this poem, which is described 
on the title-page as "A Biographical Fancy 
written about the year 1842 " ? Whose 
portrait forms the frontispiece ? The poem 
was printed for private circulation in 1882 
(London, Marcus Ward & Co.). 


4 Waring Street, Belfast. 

SCOTT'S ' EVE OF ST. JOHN.' The editor's 
preface to Sir W. Scott's ' Eve of St. John r 
states as follows : " The catastrophe of the 
tale is founded upon a well-known Irish 
tradition." Could any of your readers 
explain what this well-known tradition is. 
and its approximate antiquity ? 


RICHARDSON, c. 1783. Could any one 
please inform me if there were any descen- 
dants of James and Charles Richardson, or 
their married sister Elizabeth, all living in 
1783, the three children of James Richard- 
son and his wife Sarah (who was a daughter 
of Charles Johnston, M.D.), who were living 
in 1732 in the city of York ? 


all heard the tale of how Cleopatra dissolved 
a pearl in vinegar and drank it to the health 
of Mark Antonjr. But will a pearl dissolve 

in vinegar 


JOANNA LA LOCA. Mrs. Ady, in her ' Life ' 
of Christina of Mila.n, states that Joanna la 
Loca was buried at Bruges. Is this a fact ? 

J. D. 

A Mrs. Plunkett, said to have been a cousin 
of Arthur Murphy, the dramatist, is said to 
have made him "an allowance in his later 
years. A Mrs. Arthur Plunkett, who was 
his aunt, also befriended him when he was a 
boy. Can some one tell me the exact 
relationship of the second Mrs. Plunkett 
and Murphy, and also the date of her death ? 
The family was Irish. 


11 S. xii. 481 ; 12 S. i. 55.) It would oblige 
me if (in association with recent correspond- 
ence in your columns as to Walker families 
of Straff ord-le-Bow, Finchley, &c.) any of 
your contributors could inform me who were 
the parents of Andrew W r alker, who carried 
on business in London as a colour or lead 
merchant between 1757 and 1785, and was,. 
I have reason to believe, connected with 

He appears for the first time in the 
'London Directory' for 1757, and then 
resided in Cold Bath Fields. In 1769 his 
name is entered as of Little Warner Street.,. 
Cold Bath Fields, and so continues till 1786 r 
when it disappears from the Directory. In 
his wife's will, made June 1, 1786, and 
proved on June 14, she is described as. 

12 s. i. FEB. 12, ]9i6.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


" Amy Walker of the parish of St. James, 
Clerkenwell [which includes Cold Bath 
Fields], widow " ; so that Andrew, her 
husband, probably died in 1785-6. 

Three of their children appear as baptized 
in St. James's Church in that parish between 
1764 and 1767, but I can find no burial entry 
of either Andrew or Amy Walker, nor any 
will or administration of Andrew Walker, nor 
record of his parents, nor whence he 
came to Cold Bath Fields, London, in 1757. 

C. W. R. 




(12 S. i. 42.) 

TAVOLARA certainly appears to have claims 
to rank with Moresnet as a microscopic 
territory a la San Marino and Andorra, but 
probably, at the best, with not a tithe of the 
diplomatic status and official circumstance of 
these. The existence of Goust appears, on 
the other hand, to rest upon the authority of 
The Pall Mall Gazette for June 5, 1915. 

As regards the former, the dates given in 
The Tablet quotation are no doubt correct : 
"from 1836 to 1886 Tavolara was a tiny 
monarchy." There is not a word about it 
in The Sketch of the Present State of the 
Island of Sardinia,' London (Murray), 1828 
by Capt. W. H. Smyth, R.N., F.S.A., who, 
however, mentions the geological and botan- 
ical features of this island, " the ancient 
Hermsea." In J. W. Tyndale's ' The Island 
of Sardinia,' London (R. Bentley), 1849, 
vol. ii. pp. 19-20, is an account of the genesis 
of the monarchy, which I abridge as follows : 
A shepherd and his family " of most primeval 
and unsophisticated habits have for many 
years been the sole inhabitants of the island." 
When the king came to Tavolara and 
Terranova, the shepherd sent him, as pro- 
visions, a number of the sheep and wild 
goats in which the island abounds. His 
Majesty, who, of course, did not need these, 
in thanking the shepherd of Tavolara, asked 
whether he wished for anything, promising 
to give it him if the demand were reasonable 
and within the royal power. After much 
pondering and debate, a list of household 
articles (not worth 20s.) was decided against 
favour of 1 Ib. of gunpowder. But the 
>yal messenger suggesting that the shepherd 

should ask for something else, he, after 
further deliberation, broke out : 

" 'Oh, tell the King of Terra ferma that I 
should like to be king of Tavolara ; and that if any 
people come to live in the island, that they must 
obey me as the people obey him in Terra ferma.' 
It might be rash [continues Tyndale] to guarantee 
the veracity of the whole of the story, but that 
the greater part is true is very probable from the 
fact that the King of Terra ferma gave a few 

Erivileges to the shepherd as long as he should 
ve and inhabit his sea-girt rock ; a compromise 
between a pound of gunpowder and a regal 

The " King of Terra ferma " was apparently 
Charles Albert of Sardinia (1831-49). 
(Tyndale's book, is, by the by, a most 
interesting and painstaking work. It con- 
tains a transcript of a patent, granted by a 
king of Aragon to the ancestor of a modern 
Sardinian noble of Spanish descent, which 
corrects and supplements the accepted 
pedigree of the house as given by the 
Valencian genealogist Viciana, in unexpected 
fashion. ) 

With regard to Llivia, &c., the theory 
that Gouse is an abbreviation of Saillagouse 
may or may not be correct. But if it be, 
then the republican status of Gouse ( = Sailla- 
gouse) goes by the board. The following 
two notes are from an article by A. Salsas, 
' Consecration de F^glise Sainte Eugenie de 
Saillagouse (3 juin, 913),' in the Revue 
d'histoire et d'archeologie du Roussillon, iii. 
217 (Perpignan), 1902 : 

" Saillagouse, chef- lieu de canton de 1'arrondisse- 
ment de Prades, est mentionn^ pour la premiere 
fois dans le diplome de consecration de la 
cath^drale d'TJrgel en 839, sous le nom de Sallagosa. 
Ce village de"pendait du district de Llivia, pagus 
Liviensi8."P. 225, note 3. 

" Gourguga. Gorguja, hameau dependant du 
territoire municipal et de la province de Llivia 
enclave espagnol)." P. 226, note 4. 

Thus Saillagouse is a chef-lieu de canton of 
the French arrondissement of Prades ; it 
was formerly attached to Llivia, which in 
turn remains a fragment of Spain. 

A. V. D. P. 

12 S. i. 13, 77.) Examples of some famous 
contents bills may be found in certain incidents 
connected with the late James Gordon Ben- 
nett's journalistic career. Here in England we 
sometimes find it difficult to understand, or 
at any rate to appreciate, American news- 
paper methods ; and it is not easy to grasp 
the precise intention of the late James 
Gordon Bennett, when he began a journalistic 
career by attacking the editors of other 
newspapers. James Grant, in his ' History 



[12 S.I. FEB. 12, 1916. 

of the Newspaper Press,' vol. ii. pp. 414-15, 
states that Gordon Bennett calculated that 
" by these means his infant paper [The New 
York Herald] would be brought into notice.' ' 
So fierce were Bennett's attacks on other 
editors that there was nothing for them to 
do but to thrash their assailant. General 
Webb, editor of The New York Courier, was 
the first who resorted to this method of 
reply. The following day Bennett's own 
paper came out with a contents bill printed 
in the largest type the office could produce, 
announcing *' Mr. James Gordon Bennett 
Publicly Horsewhipped." Passers-by could 
hardly believe the evidence of their own 
eyes, and they were obliged to buy the paper 
to get convinced. In a few r days another 
contents bill appeared : " Mr. James Gordon 
Bennett Horsewhipped a Second Time." 
Bennett's contention in what he wrote of the 
affair was that the editorial world of New 
York w r ere jealous of his high position, &c. 

As an instance of a specially sensational 
poster the following from America would be 
difficult to beat : 

A Family Poisoned. 
An Alleged Murderer Arrested. 

A Brother Shoots a Sister. 
A Phil .delphian's Pocket Picked of 8,000 Dollars. 

A Swindler Arrested. 
Wanton Murder by a Young Man in Philadelphia. 

A Bostonian Beats his Mother's Brains out. 
A Policeman Fatally Shot by Burglars in 


Sentence on a Wife -Killer. 
An United States Soldier Shot. 
A Pack Proprietor Shot at a Race. 
Counterfeiters Nabbed in St. Louis. 

Two Murders in Nashville. 
A Forger arrested in Washington. 
Desperate Attempt of a Convicted Murderer to 

Man Murdered in Richmond. 

Lynch Law in Minnesota. 
A Man cuts his Wife's Throat. 

A Coroner Shot. 
Murder by a Negress. 

Was it not a fact that The Times, The 
Morning Post, and The Morning Advertiser 
did not issue contents bills until many years 
after other papers had done so regularly ? 

Among my books, I have a paper-covered 
volume for which I paid a penny at a second- 
hand stall. It is called ' Progress of British 
Newspapers in the Nineteenth Century.' 
On p. 195 of this book there is a passage, in 
the final lines of which I think may be 
detected the origin of the contents bill as we 
now know it : 

The gathering in and transmission of news 
was attended with extraordinary cost and trouble 
in the thirties and before the electric telegraph 
came into vogue. Mounted men, with relays of 
horses, brought intelligence of important events 

from distant parts of the kingdom, and if, as 
was sometimes the case, a good rider got over the 
ground at the rate of twelve miles an hour, the 
circumstance was regarded as being worthy of 
special mention in the columns of the journal 
served by him. On the Derby Day it was one of 
the sights of London to see the couriers of The 
Globe, The Sun, or Bell's Life ride across Waterloo 
Bridge into the Strand, with the names of the 
first three horses, and a brief comment on the 
incidents of the race, in a sealed pouch slung 
round their necks. Thousands of people paid the 
penny toll to go across the bridge and witness ' the 
straight run in ' of the mounted messengers. 
Loud were the cries of the throng as the gates 
were thrown wide open, and the men were seen 
riding furiously up the Waterloo Road. The 
rivalry was very great, and under the stimulating 
influences of the hour, the excitement on the 
Downs fifteen miles away was, in a measure, 
transferred to London. Placards, already partly 
prepared, were then filled up, with the names of 
the first, second, and third horses, and pasted on 
the windows, while tumultuous throngs of sporting 
men surged up, struggling, fighting, roaring, pencil 
and notebook in hand to^copy them." 

187 Piccadilly, W. 

67). It is rather surprising to meet with 
the false quantity Vasconia in the verse of 
so famous a scholar. His son would hardly 
have been guilty of forgetting his Juvenal 
in this way. I have somewhere seen the 
saying " Apud Biscayos bibere et vivere 
idem est " attributed to an emperor. This 
looks like the original of Scaliger's epigram, 
but I cannot remember where I found it. 
Can any one furnish the reference ? 



PATTERSON FAMILY (11 S. xii. 221, 289, 
308). A thin volume, I think 8vo, is 
published on the history of this family. I 
presented a copy to one of the name twenty 
or twenty-five years ago, but cannot recall 
author or publisher. Second-hand book- 
sellers w^ill readily do so. J. K. 

Cape of Good Hope. 

MONERS (US. xii. 501 ; 12 S. i. 36, 57, 96). 
In The Genealogical Magazine, vol. vii. p. 259, 
will be found reproduced, from ' The Blood 
Eoyal of Britain,' a picture of Frances, 
Duchess of Suffolk, elder daughter of the 
Princess Mary (Tudor) by Charles (Brandon), 
Duke of Suffolk, with her second husband, 
Adrian Stokes. Nicolas's ' Synopsis ' re- 
lates that her husband, Henry Grey, Marquis 
of Dorset and Duke of Suffolk, was attainted 
and beheaded in 1554, when all his honours 
became forfeited. JOHN LIVESEY. 

12 s. i. F. 12, 1916.1 NOTES AND QUERIES. 


i. 11, 56). Music and words were published 
in the " Miscellaneous Series of Songs," 
No. 339, ' Cyclopedia of Music,' as given 
below. The heading is ' A Celebrated 
French Song.' The spelling is evidently 
wrong in places ; in one or two, however, it 
may be old spelling. I have copied exactly 
as printed. 

I also wrote to Paris to Mr. Blair 
Fairchild, a well - known authority on 
old French music. He replies that he 
has made full inquiries, and finds that 

the author is unknown. Neither 
Weckerlin nor Larousse gives any name. 
Mr. Fairchild consulted M. Expert (under- 
librarian of the library of the Conservatoire 
de Musique), who, after consulting various 
works, came to the same conclusion as Mr. 

The music and words of the song are 
given below, in case they may be in some 
way a clue. The Catalogue of the British 
Museum gives 1856 as date of publication 
of the Misc. Series. In 1776 Mozart com- 
posed variations on the air. 

MISC. SERIES, No. 339. 


A vous di - rai je, Ma - man, Ce qui can 

mon tour - ment 


de - puis que j'ai vu sil - van-dre me re - gard - er d'un air ten - dre mon cceur 



dit a chaque in - staut peat on vi-vre sans a - mant pout on vi- vre sans a - mint. 


Si je rougis par malheur 
Une soupir trahir mon coeur 
La fripponne avec addresser 
Profitant de m'en faire blesser 
H41as Mama d'une faut pas 
J'allois mourir dans ses bras. 


L'autre jour dans un bosquet 
II m'en fait un jolie bouquet 
II a paru ma hullette 
Et me dise ma belle brunette 
Flora et moins belle que toi 
L'amorer moins tendre que moi. 


Je vous ai jure ma Maman 
De n'avoir jamais d'amant 
Mais silvandre me feu plaire 
II est tendre et sincere 
Silvandre est si charmant 
Puis je force mon serment. 

J. S. S. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. i. FEB. 12, ma 

A PHANTOM PARLIAMENT (11 S. xii. 29, 306). 
On account of the supposition put forth 
by MR. J. H. MURRAY in his reply, viz., 
that the " Phantom Parliament " must refer 
to the vision seen by Charles XI. of Sweden, 
I beg to mention the following : 

The said " vision " has been among the 
most popular of Swedish legends. No less 
than forty-six special editions of it, printed 
between 1817 and 1893, are preserved in the 
Royal Library at Stockholm. The contents 
of the publication,, however, differ essentially 
from the account which MR. MURRAY has 
given of it from the texts quoted by him. 
Thus it was not a session of the Swedish 
Parliament which the King is said to have 
witnessed. What he saw was a young king 
with his councillors ; it w r as not one, but 
many persons who had to put their heads 
under the executioner's axe in the presence 
of them, &c. ; and in the original publication 
there is nothing whatever to be found that 
might be applied to the death of Gustavus III. 
and to the execution of his murderer. 

That this publication is a mere fiction 
needs no proof ; it is supposed to have 
originated about 1740 for the purpose of 
deterring the elected successor, Adolphus 
Frederick, from accepting the crown offered 
to him. The story, again, reproduced by 
MR. MURRAY originates from the celebrated 
French author Prosper Merimee, who, in a 
juvenile work published 1830 in the Revue 
dc Paris, has treated the Swedish anecdote 
in a free way, and adapted it to later events. 
In the same review, in 1833, Count G. 
Lowenhielrn published an article under the 
title ' Dementi donne h un fantome.' 

That the vision referred to by MR. 
PRITCHARD cannot, indeed, be connected 
with " a Prussian sovereign " and " a 
Parliament of about one hundred years 
earlier " is obvious from the fact that the 
Prussian Parliament (Landtag) is not yet 
one hundred years old. 

E. W. DAHLGREN, Director of the 
Royal Library, Stockholm. 

(11 S. xii. 10, 56, 73, 87, 110, 130, 148, 168, 
184, 228, 284, 368 ; 12 S. i. 77). Germanus 
of Auxerre led the band of converts which 
won the Hallelujah Victory in 429 (?). 

The battle of Myton-on-Swale took place 
in 1320. It affords a very remarkable 
example of clerical militancy. An army 
10,000 strong, formed of all sorts and 
conditions of men, was raised by the Arch- 
bishop of York, William de Melton, to 
pursue the Scots, who had menaced his city. 

He himself headed the force, and he had 
the assistance of Hotham, Bishop of Ely. 
Holinshed expresses the opinion that they 
were " much fitter to pray for the success of 
a battle than to fight it." The attempt 
came to grief, and, to quote Whellan'& 
' York and the North Riding,' vol. i. pp. 136, 

" Such a number of ecclesiastics fell (three 
hundred according to Dr. Lingard) that it was', 
says Buchanan, for a long time called the ' White 
Battle,' and is sportively recorded by the Scottish 
writers, under the title of the ' Chapter of 
Myton ' (or Mitton, as they erroneously call it). 
The Archbishop himself had a very narrow 
escape, and had business enough to fill up the 
vacancies in his church on his return." 


(11 S. x. 431 ; 12 S. i. 73, and earlier 
references). At 11 S. viii. 353, H. I. B. 
writes : 

" In the former chapel of St. Mary's Hall (now 
annexed to Oriel College) at Oxford a heart (I think, 

of a former Fellow) is said to be interred During 

the latter part of my undergraduate days at Oriel 
(1897-1901) a nine days' wonder was caused by a 
ghost story to the effect that, just before midnight 
every night, the heart was heard to beat." 
It was, in fact, the clock preparing to strike. 
This forgotten heart was probably that 
of Dr. William King. 

In ' London and Middlesex,' vol. iv., by 
J. Norris Brewer, 1816, p. 341, among 
eminent persons buried at Ealing is 

"Dr. William King, Principal of St. Mary Hall, 
Oxford, whom we have already mentioned as a 
native of Stepney. Dr. King died in 1/64, and 
directed that his heart, enclosed in a silver case, 
should be deposited in St. Mary Hall, and his other 
remains be interred at Ealing." 

The deposit of Dr. King's heart at St. Mary 
Hall is not mentioned in ' Memorials of 
Oxford,' by James Ingram, 1837, vol. ii, in 
that part which concerns St. Mary Hall. 
On p. 7 of that part, in a foot-note, is given 
his long, Latin epitaph, written by himself, 
and " inscribed on a white marble tablet on 
the north side of the chapel, under a small 
vase. ' ' In this the author makes no mention 
of the destination of his heart, or other 
remains. Assuming that the copy given 
by Ingram is correct, it is curious that Dr. 
King, composing his epitaph about eighteen 
months before his death, wrote : " Fui 
Guilielmus King, LL.D. Ab anno MDCCXIX 
ad annum MDCCLXIV Hujus Aulse Praefectus," 
and that, according to the additional in- 
scription in the exergue below the epitaph,, 
he died Dec. 30, 1763 (not in 1764 as stated 
by Brewer see above). Probably when he 

128. I. FEB. 12, 1916. J 



composed his own epitaph he had determined 
to resign his office in 1764. 

It is, perhaps, interesting to note that, 
although when he wrote the epitaph (1762) 
the New Style was not quite ten years old, 
he says that he wrote it " pridie nonas Junii 
die natali Georgii III." (see 10 S. iv. 26, 
173). Presumably the " small vase " men- 
tioned by Ingram, if it still exists, contains 
the heart of Dr. King. 

The ' Dictionary of National Biography ' 
records the deposit of the heart. It also 
says : " There is a striking likeness of King 
in the orator's rostrum in Worlidge's picture 
of the installation of Lord Westmoreland." 
In the said engraving King appears in 
profile, having some resemblance to 
William III. 

Perhaps DR. MAGRATH, or some other 
Oxford correspondent, will tell us whether 
the silver case or vase still exists. 


To the latest reply on this subject it may 
be useful to add by way of record, for it 
must be well known to most of the Fellows 
that a section of the trunk of the great tree 
under which Dr. Livingstone's heart was 
interred is preserved in the museum of the 
Royal Geographical Society at Kensington. 

LYDIARD (US. xii. 442). G. W. Marshall 
in his ' Genealogist's Guide ' mentions a pedi- 
gree of Lydiard of Cheltenham (T. P.), 1865, 
folio page. This perhaps would supply the 
information required. M.A.OxoN. 

SKULL AND IRON NAIL (US. xii. 181, 306, 
389, 409, 490 ; 12 S. i. 77). I should like to 
suggest to L. L. K. that it is possible to put 
the matter to the test, and prove once and 
for all whether or not a wooden peg can be 
driven through the skull in the temporal 
region. I dare say the professor of 
anatomy at some medical school could be 
persuaded to let the test be made. For my 
own part I shall be considerably surprised 
if it is not easy to drive a wooden peg, made 
of some tough wood and only about three- 
quarters of an inch in diameter, right 
through the temporal bones with the help 
of nothing more heavy than an ordinary 
carpenter's mallet. L. L. K.'s reference to 
an abattoir suggests to me that he does not 
ilize that the skull in the frontal region is 
much thicker than it is in the temporal 
?gion in man ; and I believe that in animals 
oxen the difference is greater still. 


If the wooden spike or nail were hardened 
by fire, as probably tent pegs or nails were so 
hardened from earliest times, the point would 
be easily driven through the two temporal 
bones into the ground by means of a hand 
hammer or mallet such as is now use4 to 
drive home tent-pegs. A fire-hardened peg 
or nail made of wood can be driven with 
ease into any kind of timber almost. 


Southfleld, Worksop. 

LEITNER (12 S. i. 48). Mrs. Elizabeth 
Amery, wife of Charles F. Amery, of the 
Pan jab Forest Department, was the sister 
of Gottlieb Wilhelm Leitner, Ph.D., so well 
known at Lahore, where he was for more than, 
twenty years Principal of the Government 
College there ; but the name Leitner was 
I believe assumed, and was not their 
patronymic. F. DE H. L. 

70). St. Medan's Well lies in a cleft of the 
sea-cliff beside the ruins of Kirkmaiden 
formerly a parish church, but at the Re- 
formation the old parish was united to that 
of Glasserton, Wigtownshire. The well 
issues just above high-tide mark, and to 
reach it one has to thrust an arm far into 
the cleft and bring the water out in a cup.. 
It is now known as the Chincough or Kink- 
hoast Well, the water being reputed a specific 
against whooping-cough. The legend con- 
nected with it is too long to repeat here ; 
suffice it to say that it affirms that an Irish 
maiden, Medana virgo, having, towards the 
end of the fourth century, made a vow of 
perpetual virginity, was the object of the 
ardent affection of miles quidam nobilis* 
To escape from his suit, she left Ireland cum 
duabus ancillis arid landed in Galloway, 
where, after many adventures, she built a 
cell, which gave its name to the parish of 
Kirkmaiden, the southernmost parish in 
Scotland (referred to in Burns' s verse " Frae 
Maidenkirk to John o' Groat's"). That 
parish still exists. But, having been followed 
thither by miles nobilis, Medan crossed the 
Bay of Luce on a rock miraculously con- 
verted into a boat, and, cum duabus ancillis,. 
landed on the east side, where she built 
another cell, which gave its name to a 
second parish of Kirkmaiden (now sup- 
pressed). Again her lover overtook her ; 
she climbed into a tree and remonstrated 
with him from the upper branches. He 
declared that he could not resist the at- 
traction of her beautiful eyes ; whereupon, 
eripuit oculos she tore them out and flung 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s.u. FEB. 12, me. 

them down to him. On the spot where they 
fell sprang up the well aforesaid. The story 
is given at length, and in much detail, in the 
' Breviarium Aberdonense,' folios clviii., 
clix. (Banna tyne Club, 1852). The lapse of 
fifteen hundred years has not prevailed to 
weaken the belief of the faithful in the 
virtues of the Chincough Well. The Pres- 
byterian inhabitants of the district still 
resort to it as a prophylactic and remedy. 
Only three or four years ago, the son and 
heir of a great Catholic nobleman being ill 
with whooping-cough in London, I was 
asked to send a bottle of the water, which I 
did, and the child recovered. Quid plura ? 
I need scarcely add that, chemically, the 
water of the Chincough Well does not differ 
appreciably from that of hundreds of other 
springs in the neighbourhood. In the 
Celtic Kalendar St. Medana is allotted 
Nov. 19 as her feast-day. 


HAGIOGRAPHY or CYPRUS (11 S. xii. 460' 
12 S. i. 13). Is not Nikandros for Nikander' 
the name of a Christian soldier living in 
Egypt, who suffered martyrdom, with ten 
companions, under Diocletian ? (" They 
were placed in a sort of walled pound, exposed 
to the full glare of the sun in the hot summer," 
and had to die from thirst.) Their feast, in 
the Greek calendar, is on June 8 (see Rev. 
Alban Butler at June 17, and Baring-Gould, 
vol. June, pp. 39 and 231). 

Is Arkadhi, perhaps, for St. Arcadius ? 
He was living about 260 in the north of 
Africa, and suffered martyrdom by having 
all his limbs amputated ; in art he is re- 
presented as a torso ; his feast, according to 
the Latins, is on Jan. 12 (see Baring-Gould, 
vol. January, p. 162). Arcade is also the 
name of a Greek emperor who may have 
been considered as a saint, but it is hardly 
likely, as he was excommunicated in the 
time of St. John Chrysostomus. 

I should suggest that the translation of the 
names would be of some use, as they may 
have been Latinized by the Western Church. 
Shall I say I understand Akindynos as 
being something like Pacificus ; Arga like 
Clara, Fulgens or Fulgida ; Dryinos for 
Querceus, Quercinus (?), or Robustus 
Phylaxis for Gustos or Janitor; Nipios could 
be Infans or Puer, the child Jesus, or an 
infant martyr. Is Armenios a wrong tradnc- 
tion for Arsenics, a w r ell-known name in the 
Greek Church ? 

By the way, I should be pleased to learn 
from MR. GEO. JEFFERY if there remains any 

tradition about a certain stone said to have 
the curious property of counteracting the 
effect of loadstone on iron : 

Frigida nam chalybi suspendo metalla per auras, 

Vi quadani superans ferrea fata revinco, 

Mox adamante Cypri presente potentia fraudor." 

Aldhelrni yEnigmata, ' De magnete ferrifero.' 

The Bayle, Folkestone. 

GTJIDOTT FAMILY (US. xii. 258, 422). 
The recently issued publication of the 
Southampton Record Soc., ' The Black Book 
of Southampton,' vol. iii., supplies the 
family name of Sir Anthony Guidotti' s wife 
Dorothe : " The son-in-law of Henry Huttoft, 
the builder of the Tudor House, was a 
Florentine, Antony Guidotti " (p. ix) ; and 
further (p. xvii) : " Thus Antony Guidotti, 
who married Huttoft' s daughter, ruined 
himself and nearly ruined his father-in-law." 

On p. 58, n., Henry Huttoft is referred to 
as " sheriff 1521, mayor 1525 and 1534. He 
caused some discontent during his mayoralty 
by making a Florentine merchant a burgess 
without the town's consent." 



THE MORAY MINSTRELS (12 S. i. 10, 54). 
My recollections of this merry band differ 
altogether from those of G. F. R. B. They 
w r ere generally known in earlier days as the 
Jermyn (Street) Band, which met at the 
rooms occupied in that street by Mr. Arthur 
Lewis. Far from being given only to ballad 
and glee singing, they numbered amongst 
their body many amateur instrumentalists 
of distinction. Although I. do not pretend 
to special knowledge, or wish to dogmatize, 
I am inclined to believe that the idea of the 
Arts Club germinated in Jermyn Street. 
Mr. Arthur Lewis was a very accomplished 
water-colour painter, as well as many other 
things, and his rooms were the rendezvous 
of artists of various professions. After his 
marriage with Miss Kate Terry, he took 
Moray Lodge, Campden Hill, on the opposite 
side of the pathway which separated it from 
Holly Lodge, once Macaulay's home. The 
hospitable traditions of Jermyn Street were 
continued for some years, and invitations to 
the concerts were greatly sought after ; but 
family claims at length extinguished this 
Bohemian cenacle. Johnnie Foster, before 
going to Westminster, had been organist and 
choirmaster at St. Andrew's, Well Street, 
and had made that church as attractive by 
its music as by its ornate ritual, which was in 
advance of other churches. L. G. R. 


t2 s. i. FEB. 12, i9i6.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


From Jackson's Woolwich Journal, May, 

" Royal Cambridge Asylum ....The ' Wandering 
Minstrels ' (instrumental), conductor Capt. the 
Hon. Seymour J. Gr. Egerton, and the ' Moray 
Minstrels' (vocal), conductor John Foster, Esq., 
will give a grand concert at St. James's Hall, on 
Monday, May 25th, in aid of the Funds of the 

J. H. L. 

ill S. xii. 478). It should have been added 
that the words quoted by Ben Jonson are 
from Claudian, ' De Laudibus Stilichonis,' 
lib. ii. 317, 318. EDWARD BENSLY. 

50). In Burke's ' Extinct Baronetcies ' no 
mention is made of a clerk in holy orders 
with the Christian name of Marmaduke, but 
two are with the Christian name of Christo- 
pher. A Dr. Christopher Wyvill was Dean 
of Ripon, and died in 1710. He had two sons, 
one William, and the other was Christopher. 
Sir Marmaduke Wyvill married a lady named 
Yerburgh. One son was Marmaduke, who died 
in 1753. He had a brother named Chris- 
topher. His first wife was a Miss Martin 
Leake; their only child was Elizabeth, who 
married the Rev. Christopher Wyvill. Was 
lie the son or grandson of the Dean of 
Ripon ? Christopher married secondly a 
lady named Asty ; they had a son christened 
Asty, sixth baronet. He died unmarried, and 
was succeeded by the Rev. Christopher 
Wyvill. The Rev. Christopher Wyvill, who 
married Elizabeth Wyvill, had no children. 
Burke does not give the name of his second 
wife ; they seem to have had six or seven 
children. ''The Dean of Ripon was the 
seventh son of Sir Christopher Wyvill. 


Sir Marmaduke Asty Wyvill, seventh 
baronet, was succeeded at Constable Burton 
by his brother-in-law and cousin, the Rev. 
Christopher (not Marmaduke) Wyvill, Rector 
of Black Notley, Essex. 

The Rev. Chris. Wyvill was the only son 
of Edward Wyvill, general supervisor of 
Excise at Edinburgh, who in turn was the 
son of D'Arcy Wyvill, second son of Sir 
William Wyvill, fourth baronet. 

Chris. Wyvill had no issue by his first 
wife, Elizabeth, sister of Sir Marmaduke 
Asty Wyvill (whom he married Oct. 1, 1773 ; 
she died July 2 3, 1 7 83 ). He married secondly, 
Aug. 9, 1787, at Fingall, Yorks, Sarah 
Codling, daughter of J. Codling. Vide 
* Diet. Nat, Biog.' 

I should be very glad of any information 
respecting the Codling family, however 

Sarah Wyvill' s sister, Isabella Codling, 
married John Miller, whose family, 
I believe, at one time held considerable 
property in Swaledale. 


The Rev. Christopher Wyvill, who suc- 
ceeded to the estates of his cousin, Sir 
Marmaduke Asty Wyvill, seventh baronet, 
in 1774, was son cf Edward Wyvill (died 
1791), who was second son of D'Arcy Wyvill 
(died 1734), the next brother of the fifth 
baronet. The Rev. Christopher was, after 
his father, the next heir male of the 
family in England, and, but for the existence 
of an American branch descended from 
William, the eldest son of D'Arcy Wyvill, 
would have been entitled to the baronetcy. 
Some particulars of this American branch 
are given in G. E. C[okayne's]' Complete 
Baronetage,' i. 104-5. * W. D. PINK. 

According to G. E. C., Sir Marmaduke Asty 
Wyvill, seventh baronet of Constable Burton, 
co. York, died at Bath, Feb. 23, 1774, and 
the estates passed at his death to his only 
surviving sister (of the half blood), Elizabeth, 
the first wife of the Rev. Christopher Wyvill, 
Rector of Black Notley, Essex. She died 
without surviving issue, and her husband 
appears to have succeeded to the estates. This 
Christopher Wyvill was the great-grandson 
of D'Arcy Wyvill, second son of Sir William 
Wyvill, fourth baronet ; and though the 
baronetcy is no longer assumed, it is clear 
that it is not extinct. F. DE H. L. 

442, 488). He was appointed Chaplain of 
H.M.S. Jupiter, by warrant, in 1796 
(Admiralty Commission and Warrant Book, 
P.R.O. ; Rev. A. G. Kealy, ' Chaplains of the 
Royal Navy, 1626-1903,' p. 75). 

It is probable that he was transferred to 
the Suffolk, then the flagship of the Cape 
and East Indies Station, upon his arrival at 
that station in the Jupiter. 


ANN COOK (12 S. i. 30). If it is any 
satisfaction to PTE. BRADSTOW, I am 
able to inform him that, after searching The 
Methodist Magazine to which he refers for 
the year 1821, I find no mention therein of 
Ann Cook. I have also searched The 
Primitive Magazine without success. 


14 Dean Road, Willesden Green, N. W. 



[12 s. i. FZB 12, me. 

AUTHOR WANTED (12 S. i. 10). In reply 
to C. B.'s inquiry, which I have just seen, 
the following are in full the lines which he 
asks for : 

A friend of mine was married to a scold 
To me he came and all his grievance told 
Says he " She's like a woman raving mad " 
" Alas " said I " that's very bad " 
" No not so bad " said he " for with her true 
I had both lands and houses hard cash too " 
Said I " My friend then that was well for thee " 
" 'Twas not so well " said he 
"For I and her own brother 
Agreed to go to law with one another 
We did so I was cast the suit was lost 
And every single penny went to pay the cost " 
" That was bad " said I 
" Well not so bad " said he 

" For we agreed that he the lands should keep 
And give to me four score of Yorkshire sheep 
Fair fat and fine they were to be " 
" Well surely that " said I " was well for thee " 
' 'Twas not so well for when the sheep I got 
They every single one died of the rot " 
" That was bad " said I 
" Well not so bad " said he 

" Into an oaken vat I thought to scrape the fat 
And melt it for the winter store " 
" Well surely that " said I " was better than 

before " 
' 'Twas not so well for having got a clumsy 


To scrape the fat and melt it into tallow 
Into the seething mass the fire catches 
And like brimstone matches burns the place to 

ashes " 

" That was bad " said I 
" Well not so bad " said he 
" For harkee what was best 
My scolding wife was burnt among the rest " 

I have no idea who was the author and 
have never seen the piece in print. I have 
known it for over forty years, as an old friend 
of ours used to recite it to my brother and 
myself when w r e were boys. I have found it 
on several occasions a useful encore recita- 
1 ion ; it is always appreciated, and is new 
to all who hear it. 

The reference to matches points to its not 
being more than a century old. 


[Mil. H. DAVEY and E. R. supply versions of the 
story differing in expression in numerous places.] 

' THE MAGICAL NOTE ' (US. xii. 400). 
A friend now tells me he thinks this little 
book has reference to some trouble with the 
Duke of York and a Mrs. Clarke ; and he has 
shown me an old Sussex newspaper which 
refers slightly to the matter. Perhaps this 
may furnish a clue. 

Whitehall, Stratford, E. 

[An account of Mary Anne Clarke and her relations 
with the Duke of York will be found in the 

48). Perhaps British Herb, or Herb Tobacco r . 
was an English-made imitation of what is 
mentioned below. According to a quotation 
from Joseph Price's ' Tracts,' vol. i., 1782, 
p. 78, given in ' Hobson-Jobson ' by Yule 
and Burnell, new edition edited by William 
Crooke, 1903, s.v. ' Hooka,' the composition 
smoked in a hooka (or hookah) was a 
" mixture of sweet-scented Persian tobacco,, 
sweet herbs, coarse sugar, spice, &c." 

If I remember rightly, I was told many 
years ago that rose petals were used in the 
composition for smoking in the hookah r 
riarghilly, or hubble-bubble. According to 
' The Oriental Interpreter,' by J. H. 
Stocqueler. 1848, s.v. ' Hookah-burdar,' the 
preparation was made by 

" chopping the tobacco very small, then adding ripe 
plantains, molasses, or raw sugar, together with 
some cinnamon, and other aromatics ; keeping the 
mass, which resembles an electuary, in close vessels. 
When about to be used, it is again worked up well ^ 
some at that time add a little tincture of musk, or 
a few grains of that perfume ; others prefer pouring 
a solution of it, or a little rose-water, down the 
snake, or pliable tube, at the moment the hookah 
is introduced. In either case, the fragrance of tlie> 
tobacco is effectually superseded." 

The preparation was, I suppose, the 
work of the hooka.h-burdar, who had also 
to place burning charcoal on the top of the 
composition, when in the bowl of the pipe,. 
for his master to smoke. Probably there are 
no, or very few, Europeans in India now who- 
smoke goracco (guracco) the name given to 
the composition by Stocqueler. 


The leaves of the common coltsfoot 
(Tussilago farfara) form the basis of the 
British herb tobacco ('Wild Flowers.... 
and their Medicinal Uses,' a handy book of 
wild flowers, Ward, Lock & Co.) ; the dried 
leaves are mixed with yarrow, rose-leaves,, 
and some sweet herbs, and this herb tobacco 
is said to be useful in cases of asthma (' Old 
English Wild Flowers,' W r arne & Co.). The 
smoke from the burning roots is employed 
for driving away gnats C Wild Flowers,' 
G. Routledge & Sons). Indian tobacco is 
Lobelia inflata. Mountain tobacco is Arnica 
montana. QUILL. 

Seventy years ago both men and 
women smoked as tobacco a mixture com- 
posed of coltsfoot flowers and leaves dried in 
the sun, then cut and shredded. Many 
smoked the mixture alone, others filled 
the pipe with this and tobacco crammed 
into the pipe bowl in alternate layers. 
It was mingled with dandelion flowers, 

J2 S. 1 FEB. 12, 1916 ] 



the two together being especially liked. 
I have gathered foal-foot flowers with stalks 
-and leaves for my father's use in the pipe, and 
his opinion was that foal-foot improved the 
tobacco weed, and that it acted as a tonic 
to the system. The gipsy folk, as we called 
them, also smoked various kinds of dried 
herbs in their pipes, and the chewing of 
bitter herbs was very common. " Foal-foot" 
was the usual name for colts foot. 

GEORGE INN, BOROUGH (12 S. i. 90). 
Drawings of the George Inn, Southwark can 
be seen in the Victoria and Albert Museum. 
References to these are given in Philip 
Norman's ' Drawings of Old London,' pub- 
lished by H.M. Stationery Office, price 6d. 
The drawings are described as follows : 

8. The George Inn, Southwark, 1884; also seven- 
teenth-century Trade Token issued from here 
<Black and White) (13 in. X 9| in.). 

9. Interior of Taproom, George Inn, 1886 (Black 
and White) (7 in. x 10^ in.). 

The George Inn, or what is left of it, stands 
between the sites of the Tabard and the White 
Hart It seems to have come into existence in 
the early part of the sixteenth century, and is 
mentioned by the name of " St. George " in 1554 : 

St. George that swinged the Dragon, 
And sits on horseback at mine hostess' door. 

The owner in 1558 was Hnmfrey Colet or Collet, 
who had been member of Parliament for South- 
wark. In 1034 a return was made l hat the inn had 
been built of brick and timber (no doubt rebuilt) in 
1622. Soon after the middle of that century, in a 
book called 'Musarum Delicia?, or the Mrues' 
Recreations,' compiled by Sir John Mennes (admiral 
and chief controller of the navy) and Dr. James 
Smith, appeared some lines "upon a surfeit 
caught by drinking bad sack at the George Tavern 
in Southwark." Perhaps the landlord mended his 
ways ; in any case the rent was shortly afterwards 
150?. a year, a large sum for those days. Two 
seventeenth-century trade tokens of the house 
exist ; an illustration of one is given, which reads 

thus : 

Anthony Blake, Tapster, Ye George 
South warke. 


R. (No legend.) 

Three tobacc )-pipes and four 

In 1670, Mark Wayland and Mary his wife held 
the George at a rent of 15(M. a year. It was then 
partly burnt down, and Wayland rebuilt it. In 
consequence his rent was reduced to 8QL and a 
sugar-loaf. In the Great Southwark Fire of 1676 
the house was totally destroyed, and was again 
rebuilt by tha tenant, a further reduction of the 
rent and an extension of the lease being granted. 
The present structure dates from this rebuilding. 
It was a great coaching and carriers' inn ; only a 
fragment, but a picturesque one, now exists, the 
rest having been pulled down- in 1889-90. The 
yard is used for the purposes of the Great Northern, 
'the Great Central, and the Great Eastern Railway 


Historical incidents likely to be interesting 
to the ordinary reader appear to be scanty 
in the case of the George Inn, or St. George 
Inn, as it seems to have been styled in the 
days of old. In a lecture on ' Some of the 
Ancient Inns of Southwark,' by Mr. Geo. R. 
Corner, F.S.A., read before the Surrey 
Archaeological Society in Southwark, May 12, 
1858, the author states that it is mentioned 
under the latter name in 1544 (34 H. VIII.), 
as being situate (as it is) on the northern 
side of the Tabard. It is also named by 
Stow (' Survey,' p. 415, Kingsford's ed. ii. 62), 
but without comment. The nexfc known 
reference is furnished by two tokens now in 
the Beaufoy Collection at the Guildhall 
Library. One of them was issued by '' Anthony 
Blake. Tapster. Ye George in Houthwark," 
and on the reverse are three tobacco-pipes ; 
above them, four beer measures. The other 
token is inscribed : " James Gunter. 16 [?]," 
St. George and Dragon in field. Reverse, 
" In Southwarke " : in the field, " L. A. G." 

Some lines from the " Musarum Deliciae, 
or the Muses' Recreations,' 1656, upon a 
surfeit caused by drinking bad sack at 
the George Tavern in Southwark, have come 
down to our days, and are quoted in Walford's 
' Old and New London,' vi. 85, so they need 
not be repeated here. 

Iri 1670 the inn was in great part de- 
molished bya serious fire which then happened 
in the Borough, and it was totally destroyed 
by the still more severe conflagration in 
1676, when upwards of five hundred houses 
were burnt. From the records of the 
Parliamentary inquiry into the latter mis- 
fortune, still preserved at Guildhall, it 
appears that the owner of the George at 
that time was John Sayer, and the tenant, 
Mark Weyland. The fire was finally stopped 
by the substantial building of St. Thomas's 
Hospital, then recently erected ; and a tablet, 
now, I believe, removed to the new hospital 
at Lambeth, commemorates the event. 

In the year 1739 the George Inn was the 
property of Thomas Aynescomb, Esq., of 
Charterhouse Square, from whom it des- 
cended to his granddaughter, Valentina 
Aynescomb, who married Lillie Smith, Esq. 
In 1785 the inn, with considerable other 
property, was sold under an Act of Parlia- 
ment by the trustees to Lillie Smith 
Aynescomb, Esq., of Thames Street, 
merchant ; and early in the last century it 
was purchased by "the trustees of Guy's 
Hospital. In the" conveyance of 1785 the 
inn is described as having been formerly in 
the occupation of Mary Weyland (probably 
widow of Mark Weyland, who was host in 


NOTES AND QUERIES. 112 S.I.FK.. 12.191* 

1676) ; afterwards of William Golding ; and 
then of Thomas Green, who, in 1809, was 
succeeded by his niece Frances and her 
husband, Westerman Scholefield, after whose 
death his widow actually remained in charge 
of the inn until her death in 1859. 

Although the house has been considerably 
altered since then, and is now promoted to 
the rank of e,n hotel, a portion of the old 
yard and galleries on one side of it have 
survived, and it is still worth a visit. 


MB. MATZ might consult Timbs's ' Curio- 
sities of London,' under Southwark inns ; 
Burn's ' London Tradesmen's Tokens ' ; and 
A. St. John Adcock's ' Booklover's London.' 

I recommend MB. MATZ to take an early 
opportunity of lunching at this old tavern. 
The manageress, Miss Murray, will be able 
to give him a good deal of information, and 
there are always present a few clients who 
have patronized the place for many years, 
and who are well up in its history and 
associations. REGINALD JACOBS. 

I presume that MR. MATZ is familiar with 
* The Inns of Old Southwark.' by Rendle and 


ROSICRUCIANS (12 S. i. 70). Traces of 
these mysterious philosophers are to be 
found in other parts of England. There is in 
a churchyard at Honor Oak the tomb of 
Robert Wentworth Little, who was Supreme 
Magus, 1866-76 ; and in the church at Bear- 
stead, Kent, that of Dr. Robert Fludd, 
who died in 1637. In common with the 
inquirer I should be glad to learn more of the 
present-day Rosicrucians and their connexion 
with the earlier body. H. MASSON. 

32 Hazeldene Road, Chiswick, W. 

See ' The Real History of the Rosicrucians,' 
by Arthur Edward Waite (Geo. Redwaj^ 
1887). A. R. BAYLEY. 

259, 487 ; 12 S. i. 59). I am indebted to 
MR. MAURICE JONAS for pointing out my 
slip in the ' Shakespeare Bibliography,' 
w r hich shall be corrected in the forthcoming 
Supplement to that work. On p. 429 therein 
I stated " three copies of the 1599 issue are 
known to survive." It should be two 
only ; and of the 1612 issue two copies are 
now recorded, instead of one. 

On account of the recently discovered 
copy of 1612 having passed privately to 
America, no record appears to have occurred 
in the usual bibliographical quarterlies. After 

some search I discovered a mention of it 
in the columns of our faithful ally The 
Athenceum for Jan. 11, 1908, p. 42, which says 
'The Passionate Pilgrim,' 1612, "obtained 
2,000/. by private sale twelve months ago." 

If Swinburne were alive it would be 
engaging to hear him reconcile this astound- 
ing price (the highest yet paid for a separate 
piece of Shakespeare's) with his judgment 
of the book, which runs, if I remember 
aright, thus : 

" A worthless little volume of stolen and 
mutilated poetry, patched up with dirty and 
dreary doggrel, under the senseless and prepos- 
terous title of ' The Passionate Pilgrim '. . . .the 
gabble of geese or chatter of apes." 

After this " exhaust of steam " it is 
refreshing to hear MR. JONAS describe it as 
" a rare bibliographical treasure." 

WM. JAGGARD, Lieut. 

GENERAL JOHN GUISE (12 S. i. 45). Is 
this the general whose epitaph is said to 
be : 

Here lies Sir John Guise, 
No man laughs and no man cries ; 
Where he's gone and how he fares, 
No man knows and no man cares ? 

H. A. ST. J. M. 

There is a house with this sign at 328 Gray's 
Inn Road, W.C. W. B. S. 

I am told by a collector of signs that this 
sign is a very rare one ; the only example he 
knows is to be seen (or was till lately) in t he- 
Gray's Inn Road, W.C. 


xii. 15). ' Miscellanea Invernessiana,' by 
John Noble, 1902, gives many particulars 
about the Barbour-Stuart marriage ; and 
' Letters of Two Centuries,' edited by 
C. Fraser M'Intosh (1890), p. 193 or so, says 
the lady had a son. M. R. R. M'G. G. 

REGIMENTAL NICKNAMES (12 S. i. 30, 74). 
By way of supplementing the bibliography 
already mentioned on this subject, I may 
say that a long list of regimental nicknames 
appeared in The Sporting Times of Feb. 22, 
1879. This list was reconstructed and 
supplemented in order to adapt it to the new 
territorial arrangement in the same organ 
of March 10, 1900. 


MR. J. M. BULLOCH would find a mine of 
information in * Nicknames and Traditions 
of the British Army,' published by Gale & 
Polden, Amen Corner, E.C. SwITHIN . 

128. 1. FEB. 12, 1916.] 


JOHN TBEVISA (11 S. xi. 148, 198). Some 
valuable biographical particulars are given 
in the Rev. H. J. Wilkins's ' Was John 
Wycliffe a Negligent Pluralist ? also 
' John de Trevisa : his Life and Work ' 
(1915, pp. xii and 113). In this Dr. Wilkins 
has gathered new material, and presents 
reliable evidence for the date of Trevisa' s 
death being 1402, and not as variously 
stated by other writers. He also places the 
year of Trevisa's birth as about 1322. 



58, 94). When the 6th Lancers were in 
India in the sixties the regiment had a tame 
bear. It was taught to waltz, and, with a 
woman's bonnet put on its head, it used to 
perform with one of the troopers of the 
regiment for a partner, and I believe was a 
most comical exhibition. 


Windham Club. 

'THE VICAR OF BRAY' (11 S. xii. 453; 
12 S. i. 12, 72). From MR. PIERPOINT 
saying that " none of the dates. . . .fit in 
with a vicar alleged to have lived temp. 
Charles II. to George I.," he has evidently 
not read the inscription on Dr. Carswell's 
tombstone, which I quoted in my previous 
communication. Had he done so, he would 
have seen that Dr. Carswell was Chaplain 
to Charles II., and died in 1 709. He therefore, 
as I said before, is contemporaneous with the 
song. G. H. PALMER. 


Runic and Heroic Poems of the Old Teutonic 
Peoples. Edited by Bruce Dickins, Allen 
Scholar, sometime Scholar of Magdalene College 
(Cambridge University Press, Qs. net.) 
THREE Runic poems, severally Anglo-Saxon 
Norwegian, and Icelandic ; four precious frag- 
ments of heroic verse, namely, ' Waldhere,' 
' Finn,' ' Deor,' and ' Hildebrand ' ; English 
translations ; concise notes ; copious biblio- 
graphies, and engravings of five of the best-known 
Futhorcs all this goes to make up a volume 
which its author modestly describes as a " little 
one." " Small herbs have grace," however, anc 
Mr. Bruce Dickins's work has a full share of both 
gracefulness and utility. His choice and treat 
ment of material are well directed, and they 
recall to mind the remark of the Rev. Daniel H 
Haigh, who was the first to print ' Waldhere ' anc 
' Hildebrand ' in England, and who said of the 
latter that it " is the only relic in a foreign dialect 
worthy to be placed side by side with ' Beowulf, 
the ' Fight at Finnesham,' the ' Lament of Deor, 
and the fragments of the ' Saga of Waldhere ' ' 
' The Anglo-Saxon Sagas : an Examination o 

heir Value as Aids to History,' 1861, p. 149.) 

Daniel Haigh was no mean judge of these spirited 

Id poems, and when Mr. Dickins tells us that 

Finn ' is the fine flower of Anglo-Saxon heroic 

Doetry, and that it is one of the most vivid 

Dattle-pieces in any language, he appropriately 

reflects his predecessor's enthusiasm. 

Mr. Dickins's particular bibliographies are full 
of research. His ' General Bibliography,' too,, 
will be found to be very helpful. Nearly one 
hundred and fifty works are enumerated, and it is- 
surprising to find that no fewer than sixty of 
these have appeared in the last fifteen years. 
This output indicates an enormous amount of 
iabour, and, unfortunately, of overlapping 
drudgery as well. The prospect is disquieting, 
and the wide divergences of opinion and results 
which characterize the criticism of Anglo-Saxon 
poems prompt the questions : Are we moving 
along right lines ? and Have we a clear perception, 
of the ends we ought to have in view ? 

Mr. Dickins expresses regret that grammarians 
have neglected the Anglo-Saxon Runic poem.. 
But the text has not been recovered. Despite 
all his own industry and painstaking com- 
parisons, he admits that seven of the twenty-nine 
head-words in the poem are incomprehensible.. 
The grammarian would long ago have availed 
himself of this poem, and to the fullest extent r 
no doubt ; but what could he do with such a 
phrase, for instance, as " Eolhx seccard haefj) " ? 
And what trust can we now be expected to place 
in the judgment even of such scholars as Grimm, 
Grein, and Rieger, who, having emended the 
passage in various ways, tell us that " sedge- 
grass " makes a " ghastly wound " ? 

In the text of ' Waldhere,' at 1. 18, there is a 
misprint. In note 26 to ' E'inn ' we read of the 
" confusion " of Sige and Sa? in proper names. 
But this feature is not confined to Anglo-Saxon 
writers : we may find it on early Swedish coins 
and in the lists of Visigothic kings. In the notes 
to ' Deor ' the equation of Widga with Widigoia 
is hazardous, and the possibility that the 
Mserings over whom Theodric ruled were the 
Merewioings of ' Beowulf ' has escaped attention. 
The dialectal equations in note 19 to ' Deor ' 
require elaboration. With respect to Meran 
(really Daknatia) W. Grimm is a better guide 
than the investigators who find the Meranare 
(i.e., the Gothi) in the Tyrol. Mr. Dickins has 
handled ' Hildebrand ' in a very interesting way, 
and its obscurities and linguistic impossibilities 
are treated with judgment and discretion. 

The rare combination in one scholar of critical 
knowledge of Old High German, Anglo-Saxon, 
Norwegian, and Icelandic prompts the expression 
of the hope that Mr. Dickins will add a working 
knowledge of Old Welsh to his other attainments,, 
so that, when the time arrives, he will be prepared 
to play the fullest part possible in the elucidation 
of that wondrous palimpsest, the map of Anglian 
Britain the most wonderful racial document in 
the world. 

WhitaJcer's Almanack, 1916. (12 Warwick Lane,- 

B.C., 2.8. Qd. net.) 

Whitaker's Peerage, 191G. (5s. net.) 
THE ' Almanack ' is late in appearing this year, 
owing to difficulties in collecting some of the 
material consequent upon the war. We find that,- 
while the usual subjects are in their accustomed 
places, the Navy and Army lists are curtailed,. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. L F D . 12. iwe. 

'*' little information being available in either case." 
Among fresh subjects treated are British and 
Enemy Trade, the National Dye Scheme, Labour 
and the War, War Medals, and a Table of Navy 
Losses. Among notable names in the Obituary are 
Father Benson, founder of the Cowley Brother- 
hood ; Miss Braddon (Mrs. John Maxwell) ; Dr. 
Cummings, Principal of the Guildhall School of 
Music, long a contributor to ' N. & Q.' ; Bertram 
Dobell ; Maarten Maartens (pen-name of Joost 
M. Van der P. Schwartz) ; Admiral Mahan, the 
naval historian ; and Sir James Murray, chief 
editor of the ' Oxford Dictionary.' 

' Whitaker's Peerage ' is increased by over 
twenty pages, and chronicles all the changes 
consequent upon the war to the date of going to 
press. Among the large numbers of new honours 
that have been conferred in recognition of gallant 
services, we note that our brave ally, the King of 
the Belgians, has been made a Knight of the 
Garter, as well as Kitchener of Khartoum and 
the Earl of Derby. Those who have been agi- 
tating for the removal from the Peerage of 
foreign princes who are now fighting against this 
country may find, under Forfeiture of Nobility, 
the difficulty of such removal. Forfeiture can 
now only take place through attainder or death, 
though in the reign of Edward IV. a Duke of 
Bedford was deprived of his rank by an Act of 

Bulletin o/ the John Rylands Library, Manchester, 
Vol. 2, No. 4. (Manchester, University Press. 
London, Longmans and Quaritch, 6d.) 

WE have in this number the third list of con- 
tributions to the new library for Louvain. 
Already upwards of five thousand volumes have 
been either received or promised. This is an 
-excellent beginning, but much more must be 
done if the work of replacement, which the Rylands 
Library has inaugurated, is to' be accomplished, 
for the collection destroyed numbered a quarter 
of a million of volumes. 

It is good news to hear that three of the publica- 
tions of the Library, which have taken several 
years to prepare, are now published : Dr. Hunt 
has completed the catalogue of Greek Papyri ; 
Mr. Bedale has transcribed and translated the 
Sumerian tablets from Umma ; and Mr. Campbell 
Dodgson has written a description of eight wood- 
cuts of the fifteenth century in the Library, which 
have been reproduced in facsimile, two of them 
' St. Christopher ' and ' The Annunciation,' in 
the colours of the originals. 

Other contents include Prof. Tout's lecture on 
' A Medieval Burglary,' in which he gives details 
of the burglary of the King's Wardrobe within 
the precincts of Westminster Abbey on April 24, 
1303. For the purpose of the investigation, he 
was afforded an opportunity of inspecting the 
crypt under the chapter-house, which he found 
to be quite complete. The walls are some thirteen 
feet thick, so that, although there are numerous 
windows, the light is not very abundant. There 
is only one means of access to it, and that is from 
the church itself. 

The classified list of recent additions to the 
Library occupies fifty pages of the Bulletin. 
Amongst them are the first two fasciculi of 
M. Paul Vitry's magnificent work, ' La 
Cath^drale de Reims : Architecture et Sculpture.' 

It will contain 225 plates, reproduced in helio- 
gravure, accompanied by an historical introduction 
and a bibliography. Fortunately the collection 
of materials had been completed before the 
Germans began to bombard the city. 

A PHOTOGRAVURE of ' April Love,' by the Jate 
Arthur Hughes, forms the frontispiece of the 
February number of The Burlington. The aged 
Pre-Raphaelite died in December of last year, 
and Mr. R. Ross contributes a short appreciation,' 
which may be added to the. critical accounts of the 
painter mentioned ante, pp. 70, 98. Some ' Notes 
on the Museo Nazionale of Florence,' by Signer 
Giacomo de Nicola, discuss the works of Gian- 
francesco Rustici. The glazed terra-cotta ' Noli 
Me Tangere ' of the Convent of Santa Lucia is 
here first ascribed to this artist, being considered 
the missing work of that title mentioned by 
Vasari, and sought for many years by experts. 
The tondo of the Arte della Seta which has for 
subject ' Our Lady and Child with St. John the 
Baptist,' and which has hitherto been ascribed 
to Andrea Ferucci, is also now from internal 
evidence given to Rustici. Reproductions of both 
these beautiful works accompany the article. 
Mr. Andreas Lindblom describes the cope recently 
discovered in the parochial church of Ska, in the 
diocese of TJpsala, an important specimen of opus 
annlicanum of the second half of the thirteenth 
century. A number of illustrations accom- 
panying the article show the dramatic power of 
the artist. The author considers that the figure 
scenes on this cope can be traced to designs by the 
same hand that drew those of the famous 'cope 
of St. John Lateran ; and he suggests London as 
the home of the school of embroidery that gave 
it birth. Mr. Lionel Cust continues his ' Notes on 
Pictures in the Royal Collections,' chiefly referring 
to Franz Hals and his portrait sketch of a voun" 
man, now in Buckingham Palace. 


WE regret to hear of the death, on Feb. 4, of 
Mr. William Percy Addleshaw, who had been in 
bad health for many years. He was educated at 
Shrewsbury and Christ Church, Oxford, was 
called to the Bar at the Inner Temple, and went on 
the Northern Circuit. Of recent years he had been 
a J.P. for Sussex. He published a volume of verse 
entitled 'The Happy Wanderer,' and a book of 
short stories, called 'Out of Egypt,' under the 
nom de guerre of Percy Hemingway. He also wrote 
a life of Sir Philip Sidney and did some other 
literary work in his own name. 

JEbitas to CrrrmpontonfsL 


ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

EDITORIAL communications should be addressed 
to " The Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' "Adver- 
tisements and Business Letters to "The Pub- 
lishers " at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery 
Lane, E.C. 

12 8.1. FEB. 19, 1916.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 




"NOTES : Contributions to the History of European 
Travel, 141 Children's Books in " the Thirties," 144 
Inscriptions in St. John's Church. St. John's Wond Road, 
145 ' La Perouse ' ' Book of Almanacs, 1 146 Hieremias 
Drexelius : his Translator's Words " Hie" Currency 
Notes Tavern Signs : King John Album Lines by J. 
Sheridan Knowles, 147. 

QUERIES : Svnodal Statutes of Bishop Fulk Basset of 
London Author of Quotation Wanted Romans in Kent 
William Dunlap York Minster : Religious Dances 
Warren Hastings Chantrey's Bust of Sir Isambard 
Brunei Newcome's School, Hackney, ar>d Lord Chan- 
cellors Hardwicke, 148 Sir Donald Stewart's Afghan 
Adventure Chimney-Sweeps : "Lucifer" Match Fac- 
toriesThe Mass : Famous Englishman's Chanee of View 
'Pinafore' and Tennis " Terra rodara " "Pedestres." 
149" Hacfcney "The " Fly " : the " Hackney " -Female 
Novelists Biographical Information Wanted Louisa 
Parr Ralph Lambert, Bishop of Meath 'Lines to a 
Watch' P. B . Translator of Minucius Felix -Novel of 
the Seventies. 150-" Blighty" " Burd" George White- 
field A 11s worth. Artist, 151. 

REPLIES : Maria the Jewess, 151 Queen Anne's Three 
Realms, 152 The Two Ryhopes, co. Durham Sticking- 
Plaster Portraits Contributions to the History of 
European Travel : Busino 'Observations on the Defence 
of Great Britain.' 153 Folk-Lore at Sea Peter Joye 
The Shades. London Bridge, 154 'The Ladies of Castell- 
march' Marquess of Carnarvon Female Novelists, 155 
"Dringer" at Harrow Stuart, Count d'Albanie Col. 
John Pigott Allen and Ferrers, 156 -Dr. Johnson on 
Fishing Death Warrants, 157 Richard Wilson Bio- 
graphical Information Wanted Methods of Waking a 
Sleeper J. G. Le Maistre, Novelist- Regimental Nick- 
namesHeraldry, 159. 

-NOTES ON BOOKS : Survey of London : The Parish of 
Hammersmith' 'The Study of Shakespeare.' 

OBITUARY : Canon Ellacombe. 

Notices to Correspondents. 


(See ante, pp. 61, 101.) 


Tier husband from Brussels into Italy in 
164950. The journey, a honeymoon trip, 
-ended tragically. On the return journey 
Tier ladyship contracted fever at Padua, and 
died there. The Whetenalls were accom- 
panied by Richard Lassels, a Catholic divine 
and an experienced traveller ; and, at Lady 
Catherine's request, a journal was kept 
"by him, which is preserved at the British 
TMuseum (Add. MS. 4217), and has not been 
published. Lassels is best known by his 
interesting and curious ' Voyage of Italy,' 
published in 1670, two years after his death. 
He acted as tutor to several persons of 

distinction, with whom he made various jour- 
neys in France, Italy, Flanders, Germany 
and Holland. For further particulars con- 
cerning him see ' D.N.B. ' and ' N. & Q.,' 
3 S. iv. 516. 

From his ' Voyage of Italy ' (ii. 433) we 
learn that Lady Catherine was a " daughter 
of the late Earl of Shrewsbury," and that 
she was buried in the Church of the Ora- 
torians, called the Church of St. Thomas of 
Canterbury, at Padua, "in a vault made 
for the nonce covered with a white marble 
stone." Her epitaph was written by her 

Lady Catherine Whetenall and her husband 
were married at the church of the English 
nuns at Louvain, on Sept. 5, 1649. 
Husband and wife then proceeded to Mechlin, 
which they found to be a neat, level, and well- 
paved town, where was " a great begginage, 
or house of Beggins, woemen liveing together 
without being religious and without vows." 
They then proceeded to Antwerp, which is 
described as one of the handsomest towns 
in Europe, well fortified e/gainst attack 
by the " strong hands of nature, arte, and 
the King of Spayne." The ramparts, planted 
with six rows of high trees, were so broad 
that six coaches could drive on them abreast. 
The travellers visited the great Church of 
Our Lady, with its vast white steeple, seen 
all over the country, the Jesuits' Church, 
the Imprimery of Plantin, and the Bourse. 
Lassels was much impressed by the fine 
streets, but seems to regret that so much 
of the town should be given over to trade ; 
and he had no taste for the national beverage, 
for " in all this fine towne," he writes, " the 
best of the people are but Marc hands, the 
best of their language but Dutch, and the 
best of their drinke but beere." Ghent 
was reached next. A hundred years before, 
the town had risen against Charles V., and 
in return was forced to pay an indemnity, 
and to send its magistrates with ropes round 
their necks to ask pardon. Now the people 
were kept in order by a castle (citadel), built 
at the back of the town, " like the rodd at 
the back of the child." Bruges is described 
as an ancient and well-built town, famous 
at that time only for its fat capons a 
speciality which had been noticed by 
Roger Ascham a hundred years earlier. At 
Nieuport the Governor, Don Antonio Pimen- 
tallis, was visited, and is described as " the 
most civill and sweet behaved man that 
ever I saw of his nation." Here the tra- 
vellers obtained passes, and having added a 
drummer to their retinue (the country being 
very unsafe at that time), they proceeded 



by canal in the direction of Fumes and 
Dunkirk. They certainly ran considerable 
risk. Some Dutchmen, passing that way two 
days later, were robbed and stripped ; and, 
notwithstanding the drummer, it was only 
her ladyship's undaunted courage which 
presented a like fate befalling her party. 
She seems to have been a forceful lady, and 
spoke sharply to the rogues, and scorned 
their threats to shoot her and her com- 
panions, so that in the end they abated 
their demands, and, instead of receiving 
six pounds, they departed content with 
" something to drinke." 

From Dunkirk the travellers took ship 
to Calais, but were becalmed, and had to 
board a Holland boat, and spend the 
night there in the company of a boorish 
captain. The next morning one of the 
party waded ashore, and fetched a cart, 
in which they all entered Gravelines in a 
very triumphant manner. On the road 
from Gravelines to Calais the travellers 
encountered twelve soldiers bound thither, 
and, having accepted their offer of an escort, 
found themselves obliged to pay twice as 
much as was strictly due, the ordinary rate 
being 12 pence per man. On parting with 
them Lassels sagely remarks that, having 
discharged one escort, the party was in no 
danger of further brigandage until they met 

From Calais they proceeded by coach 
to Paris, where they found twice as many 
people as there was room for.* Six days 
later, her ladyship having visited the 
Louvre, the Luxembourg, the Bastille, the 
Bourse, and other buildings and churches, 
they set out by coach for Lyons. At 
Essonnes a visit was paid to the house of 
M. Essolin, whose wonderful water-works 
both surprised and delighted them. From 
a brook close by the water was conveyed 
into the house by means of pipes and cocks, 
and carried into the buttery, the kitchen, 
the chambers, the bathing rooms, and the 
gardens, where it scattered itself into twenty 
" knotts or bedds."f At Fontainebleau, in 
the ponds and moat, was a store of huge 

* Lassels does not say where they stayed 
probably it was in the Faubourg St. Germain, 
where most strangers lodged in the sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries. At a later date (1697-8) 
there were between fifteen and sixteen thousand 
strangers in this Faubom-g, and thirty-six thousand 
at the commencement of 1699. J. P. Marana, 
' Lettre d'un Sicilien a un de ses amis,' Paris, 
1883, p. 15. 

t Described at length in the ' Voyage of Italy,' 
1670, vol. i. p. 25. 

carps, some said to be over 100 years old.* 
Eleven days later they reached Lyons, f 
Here her ladyship saw little but a " great 
towne full of busy people and traffick." j 

From Lyons they followed the post road 
over Mont Cenis to Turin. At Lansle- 
bourg, a town which drove a great trade in- 
providing chairs for people crossing the- 
mountain, her ladyship and her husbsnd 
obtained chairs, and were carried over by; 

" that is men who have no other trade but to 
carry men in a chaire made for the purpose up- 
and downe that hill, fower to every chaire, two 
rest and guide the chaire while the other two 
beare the burthen, they have irons in the midst 
of their shoe soles which hinder them from slipping,, 
and they are soe used to that trayde that they 
will carry you safe where anybody else would be 
afraid to goe." || 

The rest rode on mules to the top, and then 
dismounted and descended on foot. 

At Turin they found the Duke's great 
Palace not quite finished. Lassels omits to 
mention in this narrative, but describes in 
his ' Voyage of Italy ' (i. 76), the curious 
invention by which the Duchess conveyed 
herself to her bathing - place, which seems 
to have been a kind of primitive lift worked 
by a pulley and swing. From . another 
traveller^ we learn that the lift was in the 

* Compare letter of Ed. Browne to his father, 
July 13, 1665 (Sir Thomas Browne's ' Works,' 
1836, i. 109) : " In the fish ponds I saw some of 
the greatest carpes that ever I beheld and which 
followed us when wee whistled." See also 
' Voyage of Italy,' 1670, pp. 30-31. 

t The diligence from Paris to Lyons made the 
journey in five days in 1691 (Furetiere, ' Dic- 
tionnaire,' 1691), but in the meantime there had 
been a considerable " speeding up " of traffic by 
the introduction under Louis XIV. of caches 
volants. Babeau, ' Les Voyageurs en France/ 
Paris, 1885, p. 11. 

J "It stands upon the rivers Saon and Rhone, 
and intercepting all the merchandize of Burgondy, 
Germany and Italy, it licks its fingers notably and 
thrives by it." ' Voyage of Italy,' 1670, vol. i. 
p. 33. 

" The ordinary post route, and I think the 
easiest way of all the rest." Id., 66. 

|| For a representation of one of these carrying- 
chairs see the frontispiece to Coryat's ' Crudities.' 
According to Rd. Symons the charge for carrying" 
down on the Italian side in 1649 was 5s. (Rd. 
Svmons's note-books, quoted in Mundy's ' Travels ' 
[Hakluyt Society, 1907], vol. i. p. 114). Edward 
Browne, in 1664, was carried down with much 
confidence and speed, though in rainy w'eather r 
two leagues in less than two hours. Letter,. 
Nov. 5, 1664 (Sir Thos. Browne's ' Works,' 1836 r 
i. 72). 

If ' Relation de Sebastien Locatelli,' ed. A.. 
Vautier, Paris, 1905, p. 4. There was a lift, 
probably of the same kind, in the Palais Mazarin. 
at Paris. 

12 S. i. FEB. 19, 1916.] 



form of a cage, capable of holding one person 
standing upright, by means of which you 
could ascend or descend. The lift itself 
was covered with green velvet, and the ropes 
were made of silk. 

Passing on to Genoa by road, the travellers 
were by no means at their ease. They were 
among people lately ruined by war and in 
great straits, and in a country famous for 
bandits. At the inns folk would come to the 
chamber doors and stand gazing at the 
travellers and their baggage. Their fears 
were already aroused by the story of a 
" fresh robbery committed att a little towne called 
Altare [which they passed through] by a dozen 
or sixteen bandits, who had murdered and robbed 
some Germaine noblemen passing that way : the 
blood was yett to bee scene upon the place." 

At Mulisan (Millesimo), which had once 
been a town, but was then in ruins, having 
been recently burnt by the Spanish soldiers, 
they could only find " halfe an Inne " to 
dine at. Here an escort was obtained, and 
the journey continued to Savona without 
further mishap, the travellers having nothing 
to fear except from their own guards, who 
looked very needy people. 

At Savona they hired a felucca to carry 
them to Genoa. Here they found the town 
made free by the Spanish, but the French and 
Spanish factions very jealous of each other. 
The inhabitants inclined to Spanish fashions 
in their apparel, both men and women, espe- 
cially those of quality, " broad hatts without 
hat bands, long doubletts, narrow britches, 
girdles with broad buckles, short close shoes," 
being as much in fashion there as in Madrid. 
The ladies of fashion went bare-headed 
and bare-necked, their guardinfantas* " a 
faddome thicke upon the hippe," which, 
having been brought there some years before 
from Spain, so pleased the ladies that 
" neither the ugliness of the fashion, nor the 
cumbersomnes of it in Litters, chayres and narrow 
passages, nor the invectivenes of the preachers 
could make them abstaine from it. They looke 
just as if they had a hobby-horse under their 
coates, and two of them in the narrow streetes of 
G-enua are able to stop the streetes and make as 
great an embarras as two Loads of hay would 
doe in Paternoster Row." 

One lady, having a son of 19 condemned to 
death, visited him in prison, and, taking 
him up "under her cotes," conveyed him to 

The travellers were struck by the sumptuous 
buildings and the churches, the Church 

* " Guardinfantas " Lassels describes in a note 
as " vast great farthingales stickinge out on both 
sides of a woman as f arr as shee can reach w th her 

of the Annunciation, then not finished r 
passing without contradiction for the- 
" gallantest little Church in Europe." The 
arena, or quarter where the palaces were 
built along the seashore for half a mile 
together, looked like one great enchanted 
castle. The travellers dared scarce bless 
themselves lest the wonderful vision should 
vanish away. The streets are described as 
too narrow for coaches, only "litters and 
seddans " being used. Strangers were 
much observed, and could not lodge any- 
where without a billet, which had to be~ 
renewed frequently ; and no one was allowed 
to wear a sword except by licence. 

Ten days later they set out again for Milan, 
with an escort of ten horsemen armed with 
carbines and pistols, and " themselves the 
most famous bandits and rogues of the- 
country." Bologna was reached next, and 
then Florence, where the well-paved streets 
and the Duke's Palace, not yet finished, 
greatly pleased the travellers. From 
Florence they set out for Rome by way of 
Sienna and Acquependenta, in some trepida- 
tion, as only a week earlier there had been a 
notable outrage on the road, the carrier 
from Genoa having been robbed of 8,OOOZ. 

Rome was reached in safety on Dec. 24, 
in time for the Jubilee celebrations of 1650. 
Her ladyship visited a number of churches, 
and had an audience with the Pope. Three 
days later the Pope's " sister-in-law, Donna 
Olympia," sent her a present of fish, fruit, 
and sweetmeats, " as much as twelve men 
could bear in great silver chaires." A visit 
was also paid to the Jewish synagogue, but 
her ladyship, seeing the men pray without 
kneeling or putting off their hats, went away 
disgusted at their " clownish devotion." 
Strangers were well looked after at Rome 
at this time. Police agents were active, and 
every precaution was taken to preyent their 
being " couzened." Should a stranger pur- 
chase a piece of meat, inquiry would 
frequently be made as to how much he paid ; 
and if he had been deceived in the matter 
of weight or price, " the buyer has his meat 
for nothing, and the seller forfeits a good 
round sum." The inns were carefully 
regulated; and justice, in short, was so 
exact that 

" the last Prince of Conde being in Rome said 
he w'ondered exceedingly at one thing, to witt, 
soe many men goe out of theire howses in the 
morning and returne againe to dinnar without 
being imprisoned." 

The nobility and gentry are described as 
civil and grave, offering no man any affront, 
and not gazing or staring at strangers. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. i. FEB. 19. 1916. 

"They appear to have been meticulous in 
the * ordering of their households, and could 
tell you to a brick how many bricks they 
had in their chamber floors. 

From Rome the travellers reached Venice 
by way of Loretto and Ancona. At Ferrara 
the inn was so bad, and the room so full of 
bugs,* that her ladyship and her husband 
preferred to sleep in the hayloft ; and the 
next day they embarked for Venice. Here 
the gondolas and the fine ladies and gentle- 
men delighted the travellers. Many of the 
ladies wore masks and hats with large 
feathers, but in Lassels's opinion they overdid 
it with " theire painting, theire false haire, 
&c. : there must," he thinks, " be much 
Venus in Venice." Leaving again, they 
returned to Padua, where one of her lady- 
ship's waiting -women fell ill of the fever. 
Lady Catherine refused to leave her, and, 
falling ill herself, died on July 6, 1650. 



IT may be of interest to some if I place 
on record the principal children's books on 
which I was brought up. First there was 
" Infantine Knowledge, a spelling-book on 
a popular plan, by the author of the Child's 
Grammar, &c., 4th ed., with numerous 
engravings. London : John Harris, St. 
Paul's Church-yard, 1835." The copy of 
this book, which afforded primary instruction 
to six of us, but which became sadly dilapi- 
dated in the next generation, is now before 
me. It contains the alphabet, and then 
progressive spelling and reading lessons, 
from " ab, eb, ib," &c., and " An ant, a cat, 
a hat," &c., to the Church Catechism. The 
latest spelling lessons were words of five 
syllables, but we got beyond these, and 
could spell " in-com-pre-hen-si-bi-li-ty " as a 
" show-piece." The later reading 'lessons 

* Sir John Reresby, who was in Italy in 1667, 
preferred to lie on forms or tables to protect 
himself from the vermin which swarmed in the 
beds ('Travels,' " Dryden House Memoirs," 89); 
while a German merchant, Balthasar Paumgarten, 
who travelled in Italy at the close of the sixteenth 
century, was reduced to beg lodgings from his 
acquaintance on account of the filthy condition 
of the inns. Writing to his wife from Bologna, 
he says : " Allhiebin ich in des Hans Oesterreichers 
hausz, behilff mich also des bettels soviel kan 
nun damit ich ab den losen welschen wyrtts- 
hausern, inn denen alle bett voller wantzen seind, 
khomme." ' Briefwechsel Balthasar Paumgarten, 
1582-98,' Bibliothek des Litt. Vereins in Stuttgart, 
,1895, p. 43. 

are interesting stories about children and 
animals ; conversations between " Mr. Love- 
child " and " Augustus," ; and between 
"Mrs. Primrose " and "Eliza," on various 
subjects, such as numerals, the watch, the 
days of the week, the months, &c. ; and 
" Select Poetry," simple compositions such 
as " How doth the little busy bee," ' The 
Danger of Falsehood,' . &c., followed by 
verses on the kings of England, which 
afforded one's first knowledge of many 
historical facts, such as the curfew, the death 
of William Rufus by an arrow aimed at a 
deer, and of Henry, the fine scholar, by a 
surfeit of lampreys. I can just remember 
that there was no verse for Queen Victoria, 
and that, when I pointed out the deficiency, 
my father made one, and pasted it in. I 
regret that four pages, including that inser- 
tion, are now lost. But I remember the 
verse, which was 

Since this book was printed, King William has 


Without leaving a son to be placed on his throne ; 
So Victoria his niece is our Lady and Queen, 
Our Sovereign beloved, and the best we have seen, 
And long may she govern, enioying her right 
In one thousand eight hundred and thirty eight. 

The ' 'Pictures " are twenty-four in num- 
ber, corresponding with the letters of the 
alphabet, each occupying a page divided into 
six compartments. Thus Picture I. includes 
acorn, ape, antelope, anchor, arrow, and axe, 
but Picture XXIV. only Zany, Zealander, 
and zebra, with figures and numerals 1-6 
and 7-12, and a large ampersand. We used 
to laugh at the Zany, with his fool's cap and 
bauble, kicking books about. 

Another of our earliest books was ' The 
Peep of Day.' This has been given away 
or lost, and my recollections of it are not very 
distinct. I think it dealt with elementary 
religious truths, and the leading events 
in the Gospels, described in very simple 

Then we had ' Mamma's Bible Stories,' 
and a book of other simple stories, which we 
could understand, and which appealed to 
our ordinary perceptions rather than to our 
imaginations ; also, a book called ' Chick- 
seed without Chic kweed,' of which I remember 
nothing but the title and the green cloth 
cover, and that I overheard it recommended 
to my father by Mr. R. T. Cussons, then a 
bookseller in Hull. The title has " stuck " 
ever since. We were not brought up on 
fairy tales, but were not wholly without 
food for the imagination in ' The House 
that Jack Built,' ' Mother Hubbard and her 
Wonderful Dog,' ' The Life and Death of 
Cock Robin,' and ' Little Red Riding Hood,' 

S. I. FEB. 19, 1916.] 



with crudely coloured but telling illustrations. 
We had also a ' Book of Trades,' uniform 
with these last, each trade described in verse, 
with a woodcut coloured as above. For 
instance, ' The Mill ' : 

Blew, wind, blow, and go mill, go, 

That the miller may grind his corn, 

That the baker may take it, and into rolls make it, 

And bring us some hot in the morn. 

This we associated with three windmills 
then daily going within a mile, but now 
extinct, and Mr. Winn, the baker, bringing 
hot rolls for breakfast, well wrapped up in 
green baize, in a large square basket. Alas ! 
we never see such " hot rolls " now. 

A little later came ' Elements of Practical 
Knowledge,' in the form of question and 
answer, from which I learned many things 
that I have never forgotten ; and a little later 
still, perhaps, it was that a kind uncle gave 
me ' Peter Parley's Tales about Animals,' 
published by Thomas Tegg, 7th ed., 1838, 
with really good woodcuts. From this 
book I got my first ideas of animals with 
which I was not otherwise acquainted. 
The ' Tales ' are not stories, but excellent 
descriptions, with anecdotes where they 
would best come in. Thus, under " The 
Tiger," we have not only a most lifelike 
illustration of the prowling beast, but two 
anecdotes, with woodcuts, one of a lady 
having the presence of mind to frighten 
a tiger away by suddenly pushing open her 
umbrella " when he was about to spring." 
" The animal," it seems, " shrunk back in 
fear, and disappeared in the forest, thus 
leaving the affrighted company in safety." 
We are also told how a tigress that had 
escaped from a menagerie sprang upon the 
horses of the mail coach on Salisbury Plain, 
but was driven off, and afterwards secured. 
The woodcut is very lifelike. There is also 
a striking picture of a leopard about to be 
caught in a trap " baited " with a mirror. 
Thus we were agreeabty led on from the 
lion to the polypes. We formed an early 
acquaintance with some parts of the Bible 
itself, as well as with the Prayer-book, and 
the hymn-book then used at church. ' Robin- 
son Crusoe ' interested me about this time. 
I must not forget to mention that, at a very 
early period, I got to know the successive 
styles of Church architecture, from " Early 
English " or " Lancet " to " Perpendicular." 
We had plenty of real " Lancet," and of the 
earliest forms of tracery, as well as two fine 
windows of " Flowing Decorated," in the 
church. And in my father's study, which 
was our school-room, still hangs a ' West 
Elevation of York Minster.' There I noted 

" Geometrical " low down, " Flowing " higher- 
up, and " Perpendicular " at the top. We 
had " Saxon " in the church steeple here,, 
but I did not make acquaintance with 
" Norman " till later. 

I was very early interested in both garden 
and wild flowers, and knew many by name. 
Once I picked up a clean sheep's skull in a 
field, and took it to my father, who showed 
me the holes where the optic, auditory, and 
olfactory nerves went through to the brain ; 
indeed, he taught us to find many " books," 
besides those that were in print, and now, 

Whatever way my days decline, 
I felt and feel, though left alone, 
His being working in mine own, 

The footsteps of his lite in mine. 

'In Memoriam,' Ixxxv. 

J. T. F. 

Winterton, Lines. 

[Some interesting particulars relating to ' Chick- 
seed without Chickweed' are supplied at 11 S. x. 
366, 418.] 


ABSTRACTS of the inscriptions marked with 
an asterisk have already been given in? 
' A Topographical and Historical Account 
of the Parish of St. Mary-le-bone (1833),' 
by Thomas Smith ; but as that work is not 
accessible to every one, and as the compiler 
does not always give full details, they are 
repeated here. He also gives the names 
of many persons buried in the adjoining 
cemetery, with the year of burial. Nos. 16 
and 37, being placed high up in a bad light,, 
I could make nothing of, but the inscription 
of No. 37, is taken from Mr. Smith's book. 
He, unfortunately, does not give No. 16. 
These abstracts were made in July, 1911. 


1. John Josiah Holford, Esq., of York Place, 
Portman Square, and Kilgwyn, Carmarthen, 
d. July 29, 1836, a. 71. Jane Margaret, his wife, 
d. Jan. 6, 1830, a. 61. Four of their children 
and two of their grandchildren, who died in 

nfancy, are buried in the same vault. Their 
second son, John J. Holford, jun., B.N., is 
juried in the Protestant burying-ground in Genoa. 
Arms : Quarterly, 1 and 4, a greyhound 
aassant ; 2 and 3, a lion rampant regardant. 
3n an escutcheon of pretence : On a chevron 
Jetween three (lions' ?) heads erased, three 
roses ?). Crest : A greyhound's head couped. 

2. Susannah Maria, wife of the late Lieut-Col. 
Flint of the 21st Begiment of Foot, d. Feb. 18, - 
1825, a. 63. Erected by her only surviving son- 
and daughter. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. i. FEB. 19, me. 

3. Benjamin Bond, Esq., d. Mar. 18, 1834, 

A. 68. Charles John Bond, Esq., son of the above, 

d. Feb. 19, 1830, a. 24. Wm. Shaw Bond, 

second son of the above Benjamin, d. Nov. 26, 

1867, and is buried at Kensal Green. 

Arms : On a chevron three roundles, impaling a 
.chevron between three lozenges ermine. 

*4. John Farquhar, Esq., of Fonthill Abbey, 
Wilts, and of this parish, d. July 6, 1826, a. 76. 

Arms : Arg., a lion rampant sable between 
.two sinister hands couped in chief gules, at middle 
base a crescent of the (second?). Crest: an 
eagle rising proper. There is a portrait medallion. 

* 5. Augustus Frederick Pieschell, Esq., late of 
Wandsworth Common and of Ballards, Surrey, 
d. Dec. 15, 1822, a. 50. This tablet is placed next 
to that to his departed relative [see 7] by the 
wishes of his surviving mother, brothers, and 
isters, at Magdeburg, in Germany. 

Arms : A chevron between three Wheatsheaves. 
Crest : A demilion rampant holding in dexter 
paw a bunch of wheat. 

6. In memory of Ellen Powell, whose remains 
rest at Kensal Green, and whose husband, 
Richard Powell, is buried near this spot, this 
tablet is erected bv her children, Henry, Frederick, 
and Ellen. Born Jan. 21, 1816, d. Feb. 3, 1860. 

* 7. Charles Aug. Godfrey Pieschell, Esq., of 
.New Norfolk Street, St. George's, Hanover Square, 
d. April 6, 1821, a. 70. His liberal contributions 
during his life to the numerous charitable institu- 
tions of this country, his munificent bequests 
at his death for their support, and the establish- 
ment of an asylum in his native city of Magdeburg 
for the education of poor boys and girls, are 
lasting records of his benevolence. 

8. Mary, dau. of the late Thomas Hall, Esq., 
.of Irwin, Jamaica, and wife of Ric. James Law- 
rence, Esq., of Fairfield in the same island, d. 
Jan. 20, 1815, a. 67. The above R. J. Lawrence, 
d. Nov. 8, 1830, a. 85. James, their eldest son, 
,d. Sept. 17, 1840, a. 67. Frederick Augustus, 
-their fifth son, d. at Carlsbad, Sept. 20, 1840, a. 60. 
*9. Charles Binney, Esq., formerly of Madras, 
d.Feb. 2, 1822, a. 74. 

Arms : Arg., a bend sable, in sinister chief a 
fleur-de-lis of the second. 

10. William Richardson of Great Portland 
Street, Esq., d. Dec. 19, 1838, a. 84. Ann, his 
wife, d. June 4, 1825, a. 71. Ann Garner Richard- 
son, one of their grandchildren, d. Nov. 25, 1825, 
a. 16 months. 

*11. Robert Woodmass, Esq., of Montague 
Square, d. Jan. 28, 1820, a. 66. Ann, his wife, 
d. April 8, 1840, a. 70. 

Arms : Sable, a tree uprooted argent between 
two cross-crosslets fitch^es or, impaling Sable, a 
fesse chequee (or?) and gules. Crest: a tree 
uprooted vert. 

12. Anne, relict of Patrick Bartlet, Esq., of 
Nottingham Place, d. May 21, 1844, a. 67. 

13. Patrick Bartlet, Esq., formerly of Carriacou, 
West Indies, late of Nottingham Place, d. Aug. 5, 
1830, a. 79. Placed by his stepdaughter. 

*14. Isabella, wife of Patrick Bartlet, Esq., 
d. Feb. 8, 1821, a. 72. Erected by her husband 
and daughter. 

15. Francis Anthony Morris, Esq., of Hyde 
Park Gardens, second son of Charles Morris of 
Portman Square, d. Dec. 8, 1842, a. 50. Erected 
t>y his widow. 

16. Lieut.-General Sir John Murray and the 
Jlon. Dame Anne Elizabeth Cholmley Murray. . . . 

17. Beneath this chapel is the burial vault of 
Robert and Anne Agnes Gillespie of York Place, 
where rest the remains of their children : Grace 
Elizabeth, d. Feb. 3, 1832, a. 14; Mary Anne, 
d. Dec. 28, 1832, a. 12 ; Catherine, d. May 19, 
1833, a. 7. 

G. S. PABBY, Lieut, -Col. 

17 Ashley Mansions, S.W. 

(To be continued.) 

' LA PEBOUSE.' (See ante, p. 3.) I should 
like to say how much interested I was in 
West's print illustrating the cutting of the 
Baddeley cake which appeared in the first 
number of * N. & Q.' for this year. That 
chimpanzee from ' La Perouse ' in the fore- 
ground had for me quite a pathetic signi- 
ficance. There must have been rivers of 
English tears shed over this play. Nothing 
since its time, save perhaps the ' Uncle 
Tom's Cabin ' dramas in the Northern States 
about the Secession War period, has ever 
equalled it in this respect. People in Eng- 
land wept over the dark, mysterious fate 
of La Perouse, as they did later over that 
of poor Marie Antoinette herself. His ill- 
starred expedition was so English in in- 
ception and design as to exhibit a palpable 
touch of that tiniest form of flattery, 
imitation ; and, though at the outset a little 
jealousy may have been felt by us, all this 
was quickly forgotten in the presence of the 
tragedy in which the incident closed. In 
the dark days of .Revolutionary horrors 
later, and for years afterwards, the story of 
La Perouse' s abortive voyage of discovery, 
" a noble but unsuccessful effort to turn the 
French mind in a new and better direction,' 1 , 
was like a grateful oasis in a horrid waste, 
where wearied memory loved to linger and 
think of what " might have been." Even 
Carlyle, in his ' French Revolution/ has a 
sentimental line or two about this brave 
adventurer's undertaking in the hapless 
Louis's earlier days, which " also shall not 
prosper" ; and now here, in this cutting of 
Baddeley 's cake, we are reminded once more 
of it all, and how long the sad incident re- 
mained a dramatic inspiration for our for- 
bears. One would like to come across a 
copy of that play in which West's chimpanzee 
figures. MONA. 

' BOOK OF ALMANACS.' The notice of 
Fry's 'Almanacks for Students' at 11 S. 
xii. 312 suggests the thought that De 
Morgan's ' Book of Almanacs ' is not now 
easily accessible. It is an oblong octavo, 
published in 1851 jby Taylor, Walton & 
Maberly. ...It contains 37 almanacs, of which 

12 s. i. FEB. 19, 1916.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Xo. 36 contains only fixed days of saints, 
<fec., and Ao. 37 new and full moons ; these are 
preceded by tables, and an explanatory in- 
troduction. It is intended (among other 
things) " to enable any one to place before 
himself the almanac of any year of old style, 
or any year of new style from A.D. 1582 to 
A.D. 2000." E. H. BBOMBY. 

University of Melbourne. 

[A third edition of De Morgan's 'Book of 
-Almanacs,' revised by E. J. Norman, appeared in 
1907 (Cambridge, MacTnillan & Bowes ; London, 
iVlacmillan & Co.). This retained the oblong form.] 

TOB'S WOBDS. In " The Angel - Guardian's 
Clock Translated out of latin into English At 
Rouen of the impression of Nicolas Courant in 
the streete of the poterne neere to the Pattace," 
which on p. 21 bears the date in the words : 
"Monachium, Michelmasday 1621. Yours in 
Christ lesus. Hier. Drex.," the word-booker 
observes these sixteen expressions : 

Banket-maker, p. 223. . . .these cup-bearers, and 
as it were Danket-makers of God came to couer a 
table before their Lord. 

- Bounder, 70. The bounders ot his life are 

Country-smle, -222 let it not be troublesome 

to thee, to change thy country-soile for banish- 

Ferveniness, 193 and temper the coldnesse 

of our prayers, with the fire and feruentnesse of 


. Hart-feeling, 174.... and beheld it with teares 

in his- eies, and a hart-feeling of the case. 

Glewie, 182 and retaines, as though it had 

glewie hand?. 

' Hungerly, 185. And while we greedily harken 
to a musieall consort, and our eares listen hungerly 
.after it. 

Tmpoure, 264. Behold these heauenly Princes do 
-after a sort- impoure themselues. 

Malice,. 119. .'. .yet with all this if thou malice 
but euen one creature, thou hast giuen nothing. 

May-game, 85. .. .what a play arid May-game 
js any thing which is said to be in this world ! 

Oppugner, 275 a disenherited heyre of 

heaueh, and an oppugner of the celestiall Spirits 
.and Saints. 

' Overbnthc, 224. For when our LORD at mount 
Oliuet, euen before his Crosse and whippes. was 
-all ouerbathed with a sweat of bloud. 

Submisse, 264.... they became more submisse 
after their LORD had humbled himself so low. 

Sicag, 270.... his iawes began to drie . . . . his 
armes to swagg. 

Lyndon, 225 they shew his syndon, and the 

Hnnen, wherein he had bene wound. 

Table-book, 274 who iust as thy Angel- 
guardian keepes account of thy good deedes, so 
doth he enter into his table-bookes, what thou 
dost, in swearing or forswearing. 

"Country" is here used in the sense of 

. The ' Oxford Dictionary ' quotes " impoor " 
only once, arid that from the year 1613. 

Drexelius fills so much space in the Cata- 
logue of the British Museum that it would 
be interesting to learn who translated his 
' Clock ' into English. 


The Oxford Union Society, Oxford. 

" Hie." In the recent hearing of the 
Ferrars peerage claim on the part of the 
Council of Privileges,, the learned counsel 
declared that he was unable to say what the 
word " Hie " meant placed opposite names 
of peers in the Parliamentary Roll. It 
may be worth recording that this word is 
an abbreviation of " Hiccius," meaning 
' here *' or "at this place." 

The words " Parliamentary Pawn," used 
in connexion with records of writs, also 
came in the same case, I cannot find any 
instances of this ; would the word " pawn " 
here mean " pledged " t 


CUBBENCY NOTES. As the fortunate 
possessor of a ten-shilling note may I make 
a note of it 1 It bears the curious and 
comforting words, " Ten shilling Currency 
Notes are Legal Tender for the payment of 
any amount." One-pound notes are to the 
same effect ; but why spend a sovereign 
when ten shillings will do t Is not this a 
new way to pay old debts t Lucis. 

the many public-house and hotel signs, I 
have only once come across King John, and 
by a coincidence or intention it is situated 
not far from Denver (Norfolk), and between 
it and the Wash. The house is reported to 
be a very old one, and to have borne the 
name " for centuries." This I can neither 
confirm nor deny. L. G. R. 

Bo urnemo uth . 

KNOWLES. James Sheridan Knowles and 
his wife spent nine weeks at Trefriw, 
Carnarvonshire, in the spring of 1 846. Ere 
leaving, the dramatist was constrained to 
pen the ^following lines in a lady's album. 
As I am unaware they have appeared in 
print, I have pleasure in quoting them : 


Love is not a plant that grows in the dull earth 1 
Springs by the calendar ! must wait for sun, 
For rain ! matures by parts must take its time 
To stem, to leaf, to bud, to blow ! It owns 
A richer soil, and boasts a quicker seed ! 
You look for it and see it not, and lo ! 
E'en while you look the peerless flower is up 
Consummate in the birth ! 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. i. FEB. 19, me. 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

BASSET OF LONDON. A friend lately brought 
me a small quarto parchment volume, much 
battered, mutilated, and injured, asking for 
some information as to its contents. It was 
clearly a thirteenth-century MS. in three 
different handwritings, and could be gener- 
ally described as a commonplace book of 
theological topics. A closer examination 
showed me that among its contents are two 
sets of statutes ascribed to F. Bishop of 
London. The only person whom this date 
will fit is Fulk Basset (1242-59), and internal 
evidence shows that they must have been 
promulgated not earlier than 1250. With 
my friend's consent I have transcribed all 
that now remains of two very interesting 
documents, which 1 hope the Canterbury 
and York Society may consent to print ; but, 
unfortunately, there is a large gap four 
pages, I believe in the second document, 
and I should be glad to ascertain whether 
any other copy is known, so that, if possible, 
the portion missing may be supplied. 
Wilkins, whose ' Concilia ' contains many 
sets of statutes and constitutions, knows not 
these, nor can I trace any mention of them 
elsewhere. Still, as the Bishop's final order 
was that the archdeacons were to supply 
copies to the rural deans, who were to instruct 
the rectors, vicars, and chaplains of the 
diocese in their contents, many copies must 
have been made, and some perhaps besides 
this mutilated one may be extant. I 
should, be very grateful for information 
which might enable me to supply this sad 
hiatus. CECIL DEEDES. 


may lines be found which begin : 
Poor sinners below, acquainted with Woe, 
How heavily once with our loads did we go ! 
Who was the author ? They are quoted in a 
sermon delivered in London, 1796, by John 
Pawson, minister of the Gospel. 


THE ROMANS IN KENT. What are the 
best authorities (in English) to consult as 
to the Romans in Kent, their towns, roads, 

Glendora, Hindhead, Surrey. 

WILLIAM DUNLAP. I am preparing a 
dissertation at Columbia University OBL 
William Dunlap. At present I am investi- 
gating the material in the various libraries 
of New York City. If any of your readers 
can refer me to other material, such as 
diaries, letters, and manuscripts, or to any 
source of information, I shall be glad to- 
have them communicate with me. 

O. S. COAD. 

419 West 118th Street, New York City. 

Can any reader kindly refer me to any 
account of the religious dances formerly 
celebrated in York Minster, and state when, 
they were discontinued ? 

Chancellor of York Minster* 

WARREN HASTINGS. At what places did 
he reside in England while his trial was 
pending ? C. P. M. 

ISAMBARD BRUNEL. Where is this to b& 
found now, and at what date was it exe- 
cuted ? C. P. M. 

contain but the briefest of references to this 
one-time celebrated school, the two Hoadlys 
being the only names of notable pupils given- 

In a volume of matter relating to plays 
performed at the school I find a note, which 
I quote in full below, evidently written in 
reply to a query addressed to some one by 
the Rev. James Plumptre, a former pupil at 
the school : 

Girls' School, by Mrs. Salmon. 
Mr. Samuel Morland. 
Mr. Henry Newcome, son of Peter Neweome, Vicar 

of Hackney, &c., married Miss Morland, 1714,. 

died October 23rd, 1756. 

Mr. Peter Newcome, resigned 1765 to his brother. 
Mr. Henry Newcome, resigned 1789. 
Mr. Richard Newcome. 

Local tradition says that Samuel Mor- 
land' s School was in Hackney, but in th& 
article in the ' Dictionary of National 
Biography ' on the first Earl of Hardwicke 
it is said that this Lord Chancellor was 
educated at Samuel Morland' s School in 
Bethnal Green. That several members of 
the Yorke family, including the other Lord 
Chancellor Hardwicke, were educated at 
Newcome' s School, as were Henry Cavendish,, 
the natural philosopher, and the fifth Duke 
of Devonshire, there is no doubt whatever- 
What is at present lacking is data showing: 

12 s. i. FEB. 19, i9i6.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


ie situation and continuity of the school 
>r schools known as Miss Salmon's (at which 
" The Matchless Orinda " was educated), 
Samuel Morland's, and the Hackney School 
under the head-masterships of the several 

If any readers possess information bearing 
on the point in question, I should be glad if 
they would communicate the same, either to 
' N. & Q.' or to me direct. Information 
about pupils of Newcome's School, the 
records of which are unfortunately lost, will 
be equally welcome. 

Newcoroe's School apparently became 
defunct when the building was demolished 
early in the nineteenth century, in order to 
secure a site of the required size for the 
London Orphan Asylum, part of the latter 
building being now known as the Congress 
Hall of the Salvation Army. 

T. ALDRED Chief Librarian. 

Hackney Public Libraries. 

TURE. A reviewer in The Times Literary 
Supplement of Jan. 20 says " there are good 
military authorities " who hold that Sir 
Donald Stewart's march from Kandahar to 
Kabul was " more memorable " than Lord 
Roberts's march from Kabul to Kandahar, 
though the 4i latter dwells in all men's 
memories, whereas the former is well-nigh 
forgotten." The late Sir Charles Euan- 
Smith is cited as one of these " good military 
authorities." Who are the others ? 

123 Pall Mall, S.W. 

FACTORIES. I should be glad if any 
medical correspondent could refer me to any 
recent publications giving the latest avail- 
able data as to the prevalence of chimney- 
sweeps' cancer among chimney-sweeps, and 
as to sickness and mortality among the 
manufacturing hands in lucifer match 
factories. Can it be shown that the latter 
has now been overcome ? R. K. H. 

CHANGE OF VIEW. Can you indicate in 
what author's writings may be found an 
assertion, concerning some one famous in 
English literature, to the effect that, when 
sojourning abroad, he thought at first with 
surprise and scorn of the congregations 
assisting at Mass " to see a priest bow and 
wipe a cup "but that after a time observa- 
tion and experience led him to realize that 
there is much more than that to be found in 

the Blessed Sacrament ? I have a notion 
that Carlyle was the person referred to, but 
I am now unable to locate the passage, as a 
long time has passed since it came under my 
eye, and my memory serves me but im- 
perfectly. J. FRANK BUXTON. 
21 Farndon Road, Oxford. 

AND TENNIS. What was the date of the 
production of * H.M.S. Pinafore ' by Gilbert 
and Sullivan ? My recollection is that it 
appeared about 1878, but Madame de 
Hegermaim-Liridencrone, in her book ' In 
the Courts of Memory,' speaks (p. 374) ol 
having sung " some of the songs from the 
' Pinafore,' " on board a German man-of-war 
lying at Cuba in the spring of 1873. 

Also, when was lawn tennis first played ? 

1 think it was about 1877, but the same lady 
mentions (p. 384) " tennis, a new game," as 
being played at Johannisberg by Prince 
Metternich in July, 1874. 

' In the Courts of Memory ' consists of 
" contemporary letters," and the extracts 
referred to occur, the one in a letter written 
from Cuba in 1873, and the other in a letter 
written from Germany in July, 1874. 



" TERRA RODATA." Isaac Taylor, in his 
'Words and Places' (p. 329 of the 1885 
edition), defines the word " royd," so well 
known to students of West Yorkshire place- 
names, as " land that has been ridded of 
trees," and states that it is represented in 
Low Latin by terra rodala. I have consulted 
Ducange and Spelman, and gone through 
several collections of ancient charters, but 
so far have not had the good fortune to come 
across the expression. I believe that it 
must occur somewhere, otherwise Isaac 
Taj^lor would not have quoted it. I should 
be^much obliged to any of your readers who 
would furnish me with a reference to some 
passage in which the expression is to be 
found. C. J. BATTERSBY. 


" PEDESTRES." What is known of the 
author of " A Pedestrian Tour of Thirteen 
Hundred and Forty-Seven Miles through 
England and Wales, by Pedestres and Sir 
Clavileno Woodenpeg, Knight of Snowdon," 

2 vols. (Saunders & Otley, 1836) ? The 
book is a whimsical and learned narrative of 
a journey supposed to be taken by a man 
with a wooden leg and a walking-stick. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 112 s. i. FEB. 19, we. 

" HACKNEY." When the letter H section 
of the * New English Dictionary ' went to 
press I do not know, but it must have been 
some little time ago. It is there stated 
that the origin and meaning of the word 
" Hackney " are still unknown. 

Has any light been thrown on the subject 
since then ? WILLIAM MAIN. 

THE " FLY " : THE "HACKNEY." I under- 
stand that a " fly," the vehicle, is the same 
as a " four-wheeler," but several good books 
of reference do not enable me to decide the 
matter, e.g., the ' Concise Oxford Diet.' says 
it is a " one-horse hackney-carriage," but 
forgets to define " hackney-carriage." 


FEMALE NOVELISTS. (See ante, p. 111.) 
1. Can any readers give me information 
concerning the Mrs. Barnby who published 
novels in 1803, 1804, and 1808 ? The first 
was a translation from the French called 
' Kerwald Castle; or, the Memoirs of the 
Marquis de Solanges,' but the others are un- 
known to me. Who was her husband ? 

2. Who was the husband of Mrs. A. M. 
Bennett, the novelist, who died in 1808 (cf. 
European Magazine, liii. 156) ? Is it possible 
to learn her age at death ? Does either of 
these particulars appear in Miss Matilda 
Bet ham's ' Biographical Dictionary of the 
Celebrated Women,' 1804 ? E. C. 

I should be glad to obtain further informa- 
tion about the persons hereafter named : 
(1) Christian Hooper, who was admitted to 
Westminster School in Jan., 1741/2, aged 
12 ; (2) William Hooper, admitted June 27, 
1785 ; (3) William Ernest Anderson Hooper, 
admitted Jan. 27, 1858 ; (4) Edward Hope, 
who matriculated at Oxford from Ch. Ch., 
Aug. 22, 1661, aged 19 ; (5) John Horden of 
Ch. Ch., Oxoii, M.A., who was appointed 
Rector of Niton in the Isle of Wight, Feb. 1, 
1578 ; and (6) Thomas Home, Canoneer 
Student of Ch. Ch., who graduated M.A. at 
Oxford, 1731. G. F. R. B. 

LOUISA PARR. I am wondering whether 
any of your readers know where Mrs. Louisa 
Parr, the novelist, was buried, what her age 
was at death, or where she was born ? She 
lived and died at 18 Upper Phillimore Place, 
Kensington, her death occurring on Nov. 2, 
1903. F. A. Cox, Librarian. 

London Institution, Finsbury Circus, E.G. 

1726-31. To what family did this prelate 
belong, and what were the arms of that 
family ? D. K. T. 

' LINES TO A WATCH.' Until about 
twenty years ago I had had in my possession 
for many years, inside the cover of an old 
watch, a round piece of fine silk on which 
had been stamped a verse entitled as above. 
As well as I can remember, the lines ran as 
follows : 

Could but our (actions?) (conduct?) work (?) like 

this machine, 

Not urged by passion nor delayed by spleen, 
But, true to Nature's (?) regulating power, 
By virtuous acts (?) distinguish (?) every hour ; 
Then life (?) would (?j follow as (it?) (they?) 


The laws of motion and the laws of thought, 
Sweet health (?)... . (?) o're, 
And endless joys when time shall be no more. 

I am not sure about the words that I have 
queried, and I may be wrong as to some 
others. Can and will any reader set me 
right, and, if possible, name the author of 
the verse ? I lost the piece of silk some 
years ago. It was then over a hundred years 

14 Old Square, Lincoln's Inn, W.C. 

I should be glad to know the name of P. B., 
whose translation of the only work of 
Miriucius and of Tertullian's ' Apology ' (in 
one small volume) was " printed for B. 
Barker, at the White Hart, and C. King, at 
the Judges-Head, both in Westminster Hall, 
1708." The book does not appear in the 
British Museum Catalogue ; nor is it men- 
tioned in the very elaborate bibliographical 
list of editions, translations, and criticisms 
that is prefixed to J. P. Waltzing's 1903 
edition of Minucius. The Preface begins 
thus : 

" It is thought necessary to acquaint the Reader, 
that the Translator of these Excellent Tracts, is a 
Gentleman of Condition, and not a Mercenary Pen, 
He conceals his name, and therefore hopes for no 
reward ; not so much as a barren Praise : Nor can 
he hope for any, who goes put of'the road, and en- 
tertains none of the prevailing Passions of the age." 

That is all that P. B. has to say about him- 
self : it is almost as much as is known of 
Minucius. His easy style, and his rather 
careless scholarship, which often takes refuge 
in paraphrase, certainly do suggest " a 
gentleman of condition." But who was he ? 

B. B. 

I am anxious to discover the name and 
author of a novel published in the seventies 
I fancy in one of the monthly magazines, 
but of this I am riot certain. 

It dealt with two cousins both named 
Marguerite, but one called Daisy. The hero 

12 S. I. FEB. 19, 1916.] 



proposes, and is accepted by No. 1 by 
mistake. She goes abroad and is supposed 
to be drowned. He marries Marguerite 
No. 2, and then No. 1 turns up again, 
like Enoch Arden. The man, I fancy, was a 
journalist, and lived on Netting Hill. 

Can any one identify the story by this 
slight sketch ? WILLIAM BULL. 

3 Stone Buildings, Lincoln's Inn, W.C. 

"BLIGHTY." 'What is the origin, of this 
word as a synonym for England ? It is used 
commonly by our forces in France. One 
poem I have recently seen begins : 

Oh, send me back to Blighty. 
Zs it derived from an Indian word ? 

Is there a list of words and phrases of the 
strange language that has grown up at the 
front ? It is a sort of lingua franca, between 
the English soldiers and the French in- 
habitants. I am told that it is even spoken 
between the French themselves at times. 
tTwo examples are " Bombardier Fritz " for 
" pommes cle terre f rites," and " Rude boys " 
for " Rue du Bois." 


" BURD." What is the meaning and 
derivation of this word used as a prefix to a 
woman's name in old ballads ? 



[Of obscure origin, says the ' N.E.D.,' and identi- 
fied variously with "bird" and with "bride." 
Neither is satisfactory the latter somewhat the 
.more likely. It is found in Layamon ; subsequently 
in Northern writers for the most part. 1 

GEORGE WHITEFIELD. Tyerman, in his 
"Life' (i. 505 n.) of Whitefield, refers 
to " Oliphant's ' Whitefield,' Edinburgh, 
1826." I have failed to find any mention 
of this in the usual books of reference ; 
apparently it is not in the British Museum, 
and inquiry has been made in Edinburgh 
Without result. Whitefield's Journals were 
reprinted as one of the series entitled 
"Autobiography," and the volume con- 
taining these is dated 1826, but there is no 
indication as to the editor. Reference to 
any source mentioning this life by Oliphant 
will oblige. ROLAND AUSTIN. 


ALLS WORTH, ARTIST. Is anything known 
of an artist named Allsworth, of Camden 
Town ? I possess three portraits in oils by 
him of the Rev. Ralph Price of Lyminge, 
Kent, his wife, and Charles Price, Esq., of 
anon Gate, Hythe, signed and dated 
Allsworth, Camden Town, 1854. 

Ewell, Surrey. 



(12 S. i. 70.) 

THE principal book in which information as 
to this character is found is Ferdinand 
Hoefer's ' Histoire de la Chimie,' vol. i. 
pp. 282-4, Paris, 1866. The details given by 
Hoefer in his judicious and profound work 
have been epitomized in a paragraph in Prof. 
John Ferguson's ' Bibliotheca Chemica,' 
Glasgow, 1906, vol. ii. p. 78, a most valuable 
bibliographical book. 

By some Maria, or Maria Prophetissa, is 
identified with Miriam, the sister of Moses ; 
but by others she is described as a Jewess 
who was trained in Egypt, was skilled in all 
learning, and, together with Pammenes, was 
found in the Temple of Memphis by Demo- 
critus. Pammenes revealed the mysteries 
of alchemy too freely, but Democritus and 
Maria concealed the processes, and thereby 
gained renown. Maria gets the credit of 
having invented or introduced the use of the 
water bath, which is known as the " Balneum 
Mariae " or " Bain Marie." Maria is quoted 
as an authority by Stephanus Alexandrinus. 

There are various obscure and scarce 
books which deal further with Maria the 
Jewess. One of the chief collections of 
standard early alchemical authors is the 
' Artis Auriferse,' Basel, 1610. The reference 
to Maria is in vol. i. p. 205. Hermann 
.Fictuld's ' Probier-Stein,' 1753, p. 112, 
identifies her with Moses's sister. Fictuld's 
book sets out to be a series of biographies of 
true and false alchemists, but it is an un- 
reliable work. 

Other books which may be referred to are 
Pizimentius, * Democritus Abderita de Arte 
Magria,' 1573, p. 59 ; Borel, ' Bibliotheca 
Chemica,' 1654, p. 154 ; L. Dufresnoy, 
' Histoire de la Philosophie Hermetique,' 
1742, vol. i. pp. 26, 460 ; vol. iii. pp. 11, 12, 
17, 37, 44, 45 ; and Schmieder, * Geschichte 
der Alchemie,' 1832, pp. 48-50. In Kopp's 
two books, (1) * Beitrage zur Geschichte der 
Chemie,' 1869, and (2) ' Die Alchemie,' 1886, 
will be found further references, and also an 
exhaustive discussion of all that has been 
said of Democritus in this connexion. For 
details of editions of Democritus, see Prof. 
Ferguson's papers in the Proceedings of the 
Philosophical Society of Glasgow. Kopp 
considers the inclusion of Maria among the 
alchemists as by no means modern. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. i. FEB. 19, wie. 

The full passage from Hoefer's book 
(' Histoire de la Chimie '), which is epitomized 
above, is so valuable and so much to the 
point that I beg permission to quote it : 

" Nous n'avons aucun renseignement certain 
sur la vie et les travaux de Marie la Juive, dont 
le nom se rencontre si souvent dans les Merits 

" Georges Syncelle, historien du VHIe siecle, 
dit, dans sa { Chronique,' que Dernocrite d'Abdere, 
dont nous venons de parler, fut initie par Ostane 
dans le temple de Memphis avec d'autres pretres 
et philosophes, parmi lesqucls se trouvait aussi 
Marie, savante juive, et Pammene. Si ce te"- 
moignage est vrai, Marie tait contemporaine de 
D^mocrite et de Zosime. Mais comnie Syne^sius, 
le commentate ur de D6mocrite, nous apprend, dans 
le passage rapporte" plus haut,* que D^mocrite 
fut initie^ dans le temple de Memphis, en com- 
pagnie avec des pretres de I'l^gypte, et qu'il ne fait 
aucun e mention de Marie ni de Pammene, le 
tempignage de Syncelle, qui n'a fait d'ailleurs que 
copier Synesius, a 1'exception de ces mots : parmi 
lesquels se trouvait anssi Marie, &c., perd beaucoup 
de son autorite. 

" Quant A 1'opinion que Marie la Juive tait 
sceur de Moi'se, il faut la mettra au nombre de ces 
fables qui attribuent au roi Salomon et a Alexandre 
le Grand les traites sur la pierre philosophale 
qui portent leurs noms.f 

" En parcourant les fragments de Marie, 
.conserves dans les manuscrits qui traitent de 
1'art sacre", nous avons pu constater que tous ces 
pr^tendus Merits de Marie ne sont que des extraits 
Jaits par un philosophe chretien anonyme. D'ail- 
leurs aucun des philosophes de 1'art sacre ne fait 
mention des ecrits de Marie sur la pierre philoso- 
phale. Le fragment de Zosime (p. 270), qui 
rapporte une parole de Marie, est un extrait fait 
par ce meme philosophe chretien. 

" En songeant aux pe"ripe"ties de cette grande 
lutte entre les philosophes pai'ens et les neophytes 
Chretiens, lutte dans laquelle chaque partie se 
reprochait des emprunts r^ciproques, on est porte 
a se demander si le nom de Marie n'aurait pas 
e^te 1 mis en avant par quelque chretien, pour 
1'opposer au nom sacr6 d'Isis, la vierge des 
astrologues et la source divine des connaissances 
naturelles, et particulierement de 1'art sacre, 
selon les croyances 4gyptiennes. C'est une con- 
jecture que nous livrons aux meditations des 
e>udits. Voici 1'un des Extraits du philosophe 
Chretien anonyme : ' Intervertis la nature, et 
tu trouveras ce que tu cherches. II existe deux 

* " Voy. p. 277 [of Hoefer's book]." 
t " Excerpta ex interlocutione Marise prophet- 
issse sororis Moysis et Aaronis, habita cum 
aliquo philosopho dicto Aros, de excellentissimo 
opere trium horarum (' Theat. Chim.,' t. vi. p. 479). 
Ce dialogue est reproduit dans ' Artis aurifer, 
quam Chemiam vocant ' (Bale, 1610), sous le 
titre : ' Practica Maria3 prophetissae in artem 
alchimicam.' L'auteur pseudonyme d^daigna la 
chronologic, car il fait parler la sceur de Moi'se de la 
philosophic des stoiciens." 

"Manuscrit 2251. ' Discours de la tres- 
savante Marie sur la pierre philosophale.' Ce 
discours n'est qu'un chapitre du ' Traite" du 
philosophe chretien.' " 

combinaisons : 1'une appartient a 1'action de? 
blanchir, 1'autre a 1'action de jaunir. II existe- 
aussi deux actions de blanchir et deux action* 
de jaunir : 1'une se fait par la trituration, 1'autre 
par la calcination. On ne triture saintement,. 
avec simplicity, que dans la niaison sacre ; 1^. 
s'opere la dissolution et le d^pot. Combines 
ensemble, dit Marie, le male et la femelle, et vous> 
trouyerez ce que vous cherchez. Ne vous 
inqui^tez pas de savoir si 1'ceuvre est de feu. Lea 
deux combinaisons portent beaucoup de noms,- 
comme eau de saumure, eau divine incorruptible r 
eau de vinaigre, eau de Vacide du sel marin, de 
1'huile de ricin, du raifort et du baume ; on. 
1'appelle encore eau de lait d'une femme accouched 
d'un enfant male, eau de lait d'une vache noire,, 
eau d'urine d'une jeune vache ou d'une brebis r 
ou d'un ane, eau de chaux vive, de marbre, de 
tartre, de sandaraque, d'alun schisteux, de nitre, 
de lait d'anesse, de chevre, de cendres de chaux z 
eau de cendres, de miel et d'oxymel, de fleurs 
d'arctium, de saphir, &c. Les vases ou les 
instruments destines a ces combinaisons doivent 
etre de verre. II faut se garder de remuer le 
melange avec les mains ; car le mercure ^est 
mortel, ainsi que 1'or qui s'y trouve corrompu.' " 
Hoefer's ' Histoire de la Chimie,' Paris, 1866,. 
pp. 282-4. 

In the scientific world the discovery of 
hydrochloric acid is attributed to J. R^ 
Glauber about 1648. Priestley was the first 
to isolate it in the gaseous condition, and Sir 
Humphry .Davy in 1810 showed that it 
contained hydrogen and chlorine only. Up 
to that time it had been considered to 
contain oxygen. A. L. HUMPHREYS. 

187 Piccadilly, W. 

91). Why should not the three realms be 
England, Scotland, and Ireland 1 Before the 
accession of Charles II. the sovereign was 
styled on the Great Seal King (or Queen) of 
England, Scotland, France, and Ireland. 
Afterwards Great Britain was substituted 
for England and Scotland. 

In John Chamberlayne's ' Present State 
of Great-Britain,' 1708, p. 68, we read : 
" Her Majesty now Reigning is, Anne, by 
the Grace of God, of England, Scotland,. 
France and Ireland, Queen." 

Lower down she is described as " from the 
Union of England and Scotland the 6th 
Sovereign Prince of Great Britain and 

Is it not a common practice now to speak 
of the three kingdoms 1 


May one not supplement this question by 
asking : What were King James I.'s " threa 
kingdoms " when he reproached the fly for 
entering his royal eye "i 


128. 1. FEB. )9, 1916] 



After the Act of Union in 1707, Queen 
Anne's three realms were, undoubtedly, 
Great Britain, France, and Ireland. 'The 
Rape of the Lock,' " an heroi-comical 
poem," was published in 1712. Another 
line of Pope's, 

Yet ne'er looks forward farther than his nose, 
was the subject of a little conversation 
between Boswell and Johnson just after they 
had left the house of Lord Monboddo 
(Hebrides, Aug. 21) : 

" I objected to the last phrase, as being low. 
Johnson : ' Sir, it is intended to be low : it is satire. 
The expression is debased to debase the cha- 

Perhaps the answer to THIN. COLL., 
CAMB.'S query might be : The word " obey " 
is intended to be hyperbolical ; it is an heroi- 
comical poem. The expression is satirical 
to satirize the shadowy claim to the crown 
of France. B. B. 

In spite of the facts that ' The Rape of the 
Lock ' appeared in its first form in the 
' Miscellanies ' published by Lintot in 1712, 
and that the Parliamentary union between 
England arid Scotland was achieved in 1707, 
I think there can be little doubt that Pope 
alludes to the three kingdoms of England, 
Scotland, and Ireland in this line. 


This expression means England, Scotland, 
and Ireland. On p. 38 of vol. iv of that 
interesting novel * The History of Two 
Orphans,' by William Toldervy (London, 
1756). your correspondent will read : " (for 
he had been cured of that cursed distemper 
gaming, in the very gay kingdom of Ireland). 1 " 
Until the end of the eighteenth century such 
a term would be usual. 


THE Two RYHOPES, co. DURHAM (12 S. i. 
49, 98). I am afraid I did not make the 
query about the two Ryhopes as clear as it 
ought to have been. 

Durham historians quote two Ryhopes as 
forming part of King Athelstan's grant, yet 
describe the two places as one. 

Stranger still, Bishop Pudsey's ' Survey ' 
of the county, some two hundred years later 
than Athelstan, refers to one Ryhope, yet 
mention is made of the two Birdens and 

Do any of your readers agree that one of 
these Saxon tuns was one of the two 
Ryhopes, or can they account for their riot 
being included in the Athelstan grant ? 


Castle Eden. 

109). We possess several silhouettes of 
ancestors, but they do not appear to have 
been cut out in black court-plaster. Cer- 
tainly the artist who deftly executed one's 
portrait at the old " Polytechnic " in Regent 
Street, say fifty years ago, did not employ 
that method. Maybe Thackeray used the 
expression in a playful fashion. 

Junior Athenaeum Club. 

I recollect small square photographs, a 
little larger than an ordinary postage stamp,, 
with adhesive gum at the back of them, being 
in use in Norwich about fifty years ago. It 
was the custom with some people at that 
time to affix the photograph to the end of a 
letter, instead of a signature, and I saw such 
a letter only a year or so ago. 


10 Essex Street, Norwich. 

I beg to correct a slight error here. There is- 
no canton of Rapperschwyl, nor was there 
ever one. At the time referred to Rap- 
perschwyl was a " Schirmort " (Protectorate),, 
together with Gersau and Engelberg. 



GREAT BRITAIN' (12 S. i. 90). ' A Bio- 
graphical Dictionary of Living Authors,' 
1816, has: 

' Glenie, James, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., formerly 
an officer in the Royal Artillery and Engineers. 
This gentleman, a native of Scotland, born about 
1747, is one of the ablest mathematicians of the 
present day, and is said to have put to rest, in a 
paper read bei'ore the Royal Society in 1811, the 
long celebrated problem respecting the quadrature 
of the circle, the impossibility of which he there 
demonstrated. He is the author of some papers 
in the Phil. Trans., and of. the following works t 
' History of Gunnery,' 8vo. 1770 ; * The Doctrine 
of Universal Comparison and General Proportion,' 
4to, 1739 ; ' The Antecedent**! Calculus, or 
Geometrical Method of Reasoning without any 
consideration of motion or velocity, applicable 
to every purpose to which fluxions have been 
or can be applied,' 4to, 1703 ; Observations on 
Construction,' 8vo, 1793 ; ' Observations on the 
Defence of Great Britain and its Principal Dock- 
yards,' 8vo, 1807." 

W. B. H. 

The only details I can add to those already 
known are that the above book by James- 
Glenie was published in London and is 
8vo in size. It is mentioned in ' D.N.B, r 
and Watt's " Bibliotheca Britannica.' 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. i. FEB. 19, me 

FOLK-LOBE AT SEA (12 S. i. 66). It would 
not be courteous to disregard Y. T.'s appeal, 
though, much to my regret, I am unable to 
give any certain clue to the mysteries which 
he desires to penetrate. I am a 'prentice, 
.and can only guess out of my crudeness. A 
master of folk-lore conjectures with circum- 
stance, and supports his surmises by ap- 
parent testimony from far-off centuries, 
from divers peoples, from east, west, north, 
and south. All that gives confidence to his 
readers ; and yet there is no manner of 

I think it would be a thing to wonder at 
if the seas and all that in them is " the 
tinnimies " which the inland old woman 
wished to see had not evoked superstitions, 
.and if those who braved the waves for liveli- 
hood had not had rules of etiquette which 
might give none occasion to the powers, 
chiefly malign, who were masters of their 
fate. Ashore they would be careful to 
observe all signs vouchsafed to betoken 
coming ill-luck. An inverted loaf of bread, 
an overturned bowl how could anything 
or anybody foreshow more plainly an upset 
boat ? If a hare, wherein a witch was so 
often incorporate a pig, reminiscent of the 
bevy which had perished in the Galilean 
Sea crossed their path as they went to 
embark, what wonder the fishermen drew 
back at the warning ? The parson was, 
perhaps, a man like unto Jonah, who was 
better overboard ; and the woman might 
have an evil eye, if she were not actuallv a 
witch. It is always well to be on the safe 

Rabbits, which are of the same family as 
hares, must suffer the penalty of the rela- 
tionship. Indeed, their burrowing habits 
justify those who regard them with sus- 
picion. It is curious to find that Mr. Thorold 
Rogers thought rabbits were but recently 
introduced in the thirteenth century, in the 
latter half of which one of them would sell 
for one-third of the price of a wether (' Six 
Centuries of Work and Wages,' p. 84). This 
makes it possible that Brother Rabbit is not 
at home in the earliest folk-lore of these 
isles. At present, however, he is a subject 
tabooed aboard ship, as Y. T.'s example 

Fife fishermen, it is noted in ' County 
Folk-Lore,' vol. vii. pp. 124, 125 (F. L. S.), * 
" won't speak about pigs, and if any one was to 
mention pork on board it would be sure to bring 
on a storm. Rabbits are the same. I have heard 
them tell of a boat's crew Who landed on the 
Hay, killed some rabbits, and started for home, 
but were lost on the voyage. It was the 

It is plain that it does not do to injure the 
bodies in which strange spiritual powers 
take up their abode, and that it is dangerous 
to speak of them lest words should offend. 
There may be telepathic communication of 
which we are little aware ; but, at any rate, 
we know that if we talk of the devil we may 
expect to see him. 

It is not unlikely that fishermen object to 
speak of the giving out of anything whatso- 
ever. In Shetland formerly 
" they never mentioned the end of anything. 
To be lost was expressed as having ' gone to 
itself,' broken, ' made up ' ; and the end was 
called the damp." Spence's ' Shetland Folk- 
Lore,' p. 120. 

The men had a vocabulary of Norse words 
which they used to indicate things and 
conditions relating to their occupation, and 
applied to sundry needs of life ashore. Mr. 
Spence gives interesting lists of these terms. 

Possibly some spirit of tree-worship dimly 
survives in the dislike to stick a knife into 
wood or to look through a ladder, but I 
seem to have met with a better explanation 
of the last scruple than any I am now able 
to offer. ST. SWITHIN. 

PETER JOYE (12 S. i. 110). Information 
was desired about Peter Jove's son James. 

Thomas Hearne spent Sunday evening, 
Aug. 18, 1723, with Mr. Thomas Serjeant arid 
Mr. Charles and Mr. James Joye. He notes 
that " the two Joyes are Brothers, and very 
lich." Another mention of James Joye, 
under Aug. 21 of the same year, and two 
short letters from him to Hearne, and a reply 
of Hearne's, show that James was a book- 
collector and a subscriber to Hearne's 
publications. See the Oxford Hist. Soc. 
edition of Hearne's ' Remarks and Collections,' 
vol. viii. pp. 79, 108, 317, 318. 

This is merely given at a venture, as 
G. F. R. B. does not date his Peter Joye. 

110). Although he does not refer to it, MR. 
REGINALD JACOBS is, I am confident, 
familiar with the description of these in- 
teresting vaults in Herbert's ' History of 
St. Michael's, Crooked Lane,' part ii. p. 106. 
Richard Thomson no doubt again mentioned 
the Shades in ' Tales of an Antiquary,' first 
series, 1827, second series, 1839 ; and some 
useful references would occur in the records 
of the Fishmongers' Company. 

In 1827, when Thomson's "' Chronicles of 
London Bridge ' were published, the premises 
were occupied by Wooding & Son. 


12 S.I. FEB. 19, 1916.] 



xii. 360, 407, 487 ; 12 S. i. 53). MB. JOHNSON 
says that " Hell's Mouth, Forth Neigwl, or 
Port Nigel are all one and the same." No one 
denies it. Of course they are, but what 
I do deny is that Castellmarch is situated on 
Forth Nigel, which is a very different matter. 

.My statements are based, not only on per- 
sonal knowledge, but on the British Ordnance 
map of the district, and a glance at this 
"" will convince the most sceptical," and I 
hope your correspondent also. 

Forth Neigwl or Nigel is a deeply indented 
foay some four miles long on the west of 
Cilan Head. It derives its name from that 
"hero of romance and history, Sir Nigel de 

' Loring, who was granted the neighbouring 
lands in reward for his war services. When 
driven into this bay by a gale or contrary 
winds, it is very difficult for a vessel to beat 
out again ; hence there have been wrecks, 
and the natives have christened it, as they 
^christen all such bays, Hell's Mouth. (There 
is another Hell's Mouth near Cemaes in 

On the east side of Cilan Head, and divided 
.from Forth Neigwl by this large promontory, 

'is -the* bay on which the village of Abersoch 
and the house of Castellmarch are situated. 
It would be absurd to call this bay Hell's 
Mouth, as there is good anchorage near 

"St. Tudwal's Islands a short distance out. 

' Hence the bay is marked St. Tudwal's Road 
on the Ordnance map, and is generally called 
Abersoch Bay by the public. 

If the German map referred to connects 
this bay with Forth Neigwl or gives them 
Tjoth the same name, then it is hopelessly 


Apparently there has only been one Mar- 

: .quisate of Carnarvon in the English peerage 
-ever created. James Brydges, already Vis- 
count Wilton and Earl of Carnarvon (so 
-created Oct. 19, 1714), was created Marquis 
of Carnarvon and Duke of Chandos, April 29, 
1719, and these titles were inherited by his 
-son Henry Brydges, 1744-71, and by his 
grandson James Brydges, 3rd Marquis of 
Carnarvon and 3rd Duke of Chandos from 
1771 to 1789, when they became extinct. -g? 
There have been $j three Earldoms of 

./Carnarvon. (1) Robert" Dormer, 2nd Baron 
Dormer of Wenge, co. Bucks, was created 

' Viscount Ascott and Earl of Carnarvon, 
Aug. 2,. 1628, by King Charles I,, titles which 

r^^ame extinct in 1709 on the death of his 
Charles Dormer, the 2nd Earl. (2) James 

Brydges, 9th Baron Chandos of Sudeley 
Castle, co. Gloucester, was created Viscount 
Wilton and Earl of Carnarvon, Oct. 19, 1714, 
by King George I., titles which becamo 
extinct, as above stated, in 1789. (3) Henry 
Herbert, 1st Baron Forchester of High 
Clere, co. Southampton, was created, July 3, 
1793, by King George III., Earl (of the Town 
and County) of Carnarvon a title held by 
his descendant, the present and 5th Earl. 

F. DE H. L. 

This title was bestowed upon Jame g 
Brydges, who, having succeeded his fathe r 
as 9th Baron Chandos oi Sudeley Castle, o^ 
Oct. 16, 1714, was, three .days later, created 
Viscount Wilton and Earl of Carnarvon, 
which peerage was one of the fourteen con- 
ferred by George I. on the occasion of his 
coronation. On April 29, 1719, the Earl 
was advanced to the dignities of Marquess of 
Carnarvon and Duke of Chandos. This 
nobleman died Aug. 9, 1744. His only 
surviving son, and heir male, Henry, suc- 
ceeded him, and deceased Nov. 28, 1771, 
leaving an only son and heir, James, who 
passed away Sept. 29, 1789, s.p.m., when 
all the above honours became extinct in the 
Brydges family. 

The title of Marquess of Carnarvon has 
never since been revived. 

Fuller particulars concerning the above 
three Marquesses will be found in Doyle, 
' Official Baronage of England,' vol. i. 
pp. 339, 355-8 ; and Gibbs, ' Complete 
Peerage,' vol. iii. pp. 45, 129-33. 


8 Lansdowne Road, East Croyden. 

James Brydges, 9th Baron Chandos, 
1st Viscount Wilton, and 1st Earl of Carnar- 
von, was created Marquess of Carnarvon 
and Duke of Chandos April 30, 1719. His 
grandson James, 3rd Duke and Marquess, 
died without male issue Sept. 29, 1789, 
when his titles became extinct. 


Southfield Mount, St. Leonards-on-Sea. 

[MR. A. R. BAYLEY and G. F. R. B. thanked for 

FEMALE NOVELISTS, 1785-1815 (12 S. i. 
111). 3. Mary Ann Cavendish Bradshaw 
was the eldest daughter of James St. John 
Jeffreyes of Blarney Castle, co. Cork, arid 
niece of John, first Earl of Clare, Lord 
Chancellor of Ireland. She married in 1784 
the seventh Earl of Westmeath, and was 
the mother of the eighth Earl, who became 
in 1822 Marquis of Westmeath. She was 
divorced jri October, 1796, and married, in 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. i. FEB. 19, me. 

the following month, the Hon. Augustus 
Cavendish Bradshaw, son of the first Baroness 
Wate.park and sometime M.P. for Castle 
Rising. Under the name of Priscilla Par- 
lante, she published ' Memoirs of the Countess 

10. Mrs. Byron. In the ' Biographical 
Dictionary of Living Authors,' 1816, this 
lady is stated to be the daughter of an 
attorney, and the widow of a physician of 
eminence at Hull. W. H. DAVID. 

4. Mrs. Bridget also wrote ' The Baron of 
Falconberg, or Child Harold in Prose,' 1815. 

6. The name of the authoress of ' The 
Cave of Cosenza,' 1803, was Eliza Nugent 

9. Mrs. H. Butler also wrote ' Count 
Eugenio,' 1807. G. F. R. B. 

" DRJNGER " AT HARROW (US. xii. 473). 
The pleasant addition of a strawberry cream 
ice to a dish of strawberries and cream was a 
well-known luxury at Winchester in the 
early fifties. But my recollection is that it 
was then an expensive form of enjoyment. 
The ice alone cost sixpence, and another 
sixpence was involved in the purchase of 
strawberries and cream. The modest Wyke- 
hamical purse of those days did not always 
suffice for this indulgence. 


STUART, COUNT D'ALBANIE (12 S. i. 110). 
I may mention that I have several letters of 
this nobleman, all signed " The Count 

He was Charles Edward Stuart, and great- 
grandson of the Young Pretender. His 
likeness to his ancestor Charles I. was most 
striking (sec ' Beresford of Beresford,' 
part iii. p. 85). 

He was evidently an authority on, and 
collector of, aims of offence, such as guns, 
swords, &c. CHARLES DRURY. 

12 Ran moor Cliffe Road, Sheffield. 

COL. JOHN PIGOTT, D. 1763 (12 S. i. 69). 
According to the Blue-book of Members of 
Parliament, John Pigott, Esq., was M.P. 
for Banagher in the 1761-8 Parliament, 
end not earlier. In that Parliament Sir 
John Meade, Bart., was elected in place of 
John Pigott, deceased (refer to Corrigenda, 
p. xl). John Pigott (perhaps the same) was 
elected for Mary-borough in the 1727-60 
Parliament in place of William Wall, 
deceased, but Bartholomew William Gilbert 
was elected in place of John Pigott, ** not 
duly elected." The dates, other than those 
of the Parliaments, are not given. '*:,.< 

The above does not prove that 
WM. JACKSON PIGOTT is mistaken, as there- 
can be little doubt that the Returns of the 
Parliaments of Ireland in the Blue-book are 
not perfect ; witness the fifteen pages of 
Addenda and Corrigenda. 


ALLEN AND FERRERS (12 S. .i. 84). May I 
make a correction in the interesting article 
at this reference by pointing out that there 
is no connexion between Beoley, a village- 
2-J miles north-east of Redditch, and the- 
market town of Bewdley, about 3 miles from 
Kidderminster ? Beoley has never been 
known as Bewley, but Bewdley was an- 
ciently Beaulieu, and, like Beaulieu in Hants,, 
may have been pronounced Bewley. 

Beoley was the home of the once important 
family of Sheldon, and what is still known 
as the Sheldon Chapel, on the north side of 
the chancel of the church there, contains a 
number of monuments to members of the 
family, including that of William Sheldon,, 
who 'fought for Richard III. at Bosworth 
Field, and the brass of Francis Sheldon,, 
ob. 1631. The remains of many of the 
Sheldons lie in a vault beneath the chapel,. 
which was restored in 1891. 

It is curious to recall, in connexion with 
the narrative of Richard Allen, who died at 
Grantham in 1559, two tragedies that un- 
doubtedly occurred. On Nov. 6, 1468., 
whilst John Brome was assisting at Mass in. 
the Church of the Whitefriars, he was called 
out by Richard Herthill, and stabbed by^ 
him in the porch of the church. 

In 1471 Nicholas Brome (the father of 
Constance Brome, who in 1497 became the- 
wife of Edward Ferrers) avenged his father's 
death. Some time during that year he met 
Richard Herthill, his father's murderer, and 
in Longbridge field, near Warwick, he " sett 
upon him and in a duel slew him." For this- 
crime- as the result of an arbitration at 
Coventry on March 18, 1471/2 Nicholas; 
Brome was directed to find a priest to say 
mass daily for two years in the church of 
Baddesley" Clinton for the souls of John. 
Brome and Richard Herthill, and to pay 
HerthiH's widow 33s. 4d. 

The impetuous character of Nicholas; 
Brome led him later into graver crime than, 
that committed at Longbridge, for it is 
highly probable that, in a moment of passion,, 
he murdered his chaplain in the hall at 
Baddesley Clinton. A royal pardon off 
Henry VII., dated Nov. 7, 1496, is evidence- 
of some great crime or misdemeanour com- 
mitted bv him before Nov. 7, 1485. Henry 

128. 1. FEB. 19,1916.] 



Ferrers (born in 1549, and known as '* The 
Antiquary ") states that Nicholas Brome 
obtained the Pope's pardon, and that the 
towers of Baddesley Clinton and Packwood 
Churches are monuments of his penance. 
He died on Oct. 10, 1517, and was buried 
beneath " the blue marble stone at the 
entrance " of Baddesley Church. The story 
of both the crimes to which I have referred 
lias often been told, and they are recounted 
at length in ' Baddesley Clinton, its Manor, 
Church, and Hall,' by the late Rev. Henry 
Xorris, F.S.A., published in 1897. 

A. C. C. 

Reference is made to " Beoley or Bewley 
{now Bewdley), Worcestershire." If I am 
not mistaken, the Beoley referred to is Beoley, 
near Redditch, where are the monuments of 
many generations of Sheldons in their 
chantry chapel on the north side of the 
chancel. The writer recalls one inscription, 
.striking in its terseness and simplicity : 

Quondam Randulphus Sheldon : 
Nunc cinis, pulvis, nihil. 

S. T. H. P. 

DR. JOHNSON "ox FISHING (US. xii. 462 ; 
12 S. i. 18, 98). I have to thank MB. 
DUGDAI.E SYKES for his quotation from 
Hazlitt, which is certainly sufficiently serious. 
Still, if the distinguished essayist were 
challenged for his authority, one "feels con- 
fident he could offer nothing better than 
use and wont among those who loved to 
have a fling at anglers and their pastime. 
That Johnson, like any other sound moralist, 
'would be quick to emphasize his disapproval 
of any man wasting his time and money in 
the constant pursuit of any form of sport 
one can easily understand, but to express his 
-contempt for angling as such is quite another 
thing, and the presumption against his doing 
Anything of the kind seems to me ex- 
ceedingly strong. 

Johnson read Walton's book, and was so 
inuch pleased with it that he expressed his 
intention of writing a biography of the 
-author. There is at this moment a copy of 
' The Compleat Angler ' in existence, on the 
fly-leaf of which is written in Johnson's -hand- 
writing : "A pretty book, a very pretty 
book" ; and I think it may be fairly said that 
it is in the highest degree improbable, to 
say the least of it, that he would have written 
this if he entertained that contempt for the 
subject-matter of the book which the tradi- 
tional saying attributed to him implies. 

Johnson was delighted with the delicate 
and gentle flavour of the good Royalist and 

Churchman which breathes in Walton's 
masterpiece, in spite of the writer's care to 
avoid anything in the least degree contro- 
versial, and Johnson was just the man to 
speak tenderly of the favourite pursuit of a 
man he liked. Reading between the lines, 
I am convinced Johnson angled himself. I 
have neither Boswell nor anything of 
Johnson at the moment by me, but any 
angler can see at a glance, as I did myself 
years ago, that in his Highland tour" the 
Doctor was delighted when he came across 
the natives trout-fishing ; heartily entered 
into the spirit of the w T ork that was toward ; 
applauded Boswell' s own prowess with the 
rod, which, indeed, the latter displayed on 
Johnson's urging him to show what he 
could do and, if my memory does not play 
me false, the old man most certainly had a 
try himself. All this, of course, does not 
exactly prove the negative, but it certainly 
justifies one in insisting on something more 
convincing than we now have before ac- 
cepting the old sneer at the angler and his 
art as Johnson's. MONA. 

DEATH WARRANTS (12 S. i. 49, 111). 
MR. ERIC WATSON raises an interesting 
question. Apparently, the King personally 
did not sign the " Recorder's Report." A 
copy of the * Report ' on the case of Henry 
Fauntleroy, the forger, appeared in Belfs 
Weekly Messenger during December, 1824 : 

" To the Sheriffs of the City of London and the 
County of Middlesex, and also to the Governor of 
His Majesty's Gaol of Newgate. 

" This day was reported to the King in Council 
the following persons [the names are given in the 
Recorder's Report] capitally convicted at the 
October Sessions of the General Gaol Delivery 
of Newgate now it is His Majesty's pleasure that 
execution be done on Henry Fauntleroy, on 
Tuesday next, Nov. the 30th. 

" This is to command you that execution be 
done on the body of the said Henry Fauntleroy 
on Tuesday next. 

" NEWMAN KNOWLYS, Recorder. 

" London, Nov. 24, 1824." 

According to a newspaper paragraph this 
' Report ' was sealed w T ith a black seal, and 
it was occasionally referred to in the daily 
press as " a warrant." King George IV. is 
said to have been present at a meeting of the 
Privy Council when the fate of Fauntleroy 
was determined. 

In former days, however, there seem to 
have been instances when the sovereign did 
actually sign the death warrant of important 
prisoners. Froude gives a circumstantial 
account of the signing of the warrant for the 
execution of Marv, Queen of Scots, by Qu.een 
Elizabeth (' History of England,' xii. 323-4). 


NOTES AND 'QUERIES'. [12*. i. FEB. 19, 

In 'The Pictorial History of England,' by 
George L. Craik and Charles Macfarlane, ii. 
f>17, it is stated that Queen Mary signed the 
death warrant for Lady Jane Grey. Harri- 
son Ainsworth was a learned antiquary, and 
is generally correct upon important details of 
this kind. It would be interesting to have 
more information on the subject. 


RICHARD WILSON (12 S. i. 90). The 
following extract, da.ted about 1815, would 
seem to apply to the Richard Wilson in- 
quired about : 

" Wilson, Richard, Esq., a magistrate for the 
county of Tyrone, and some years ago member 
of Parliament for the borough of Barnstaple in 
Devonshire. He was bred to the bar, and prac- 
tised some time in the Court of Chancery ; but 
some disputes, and a separation from his wife, 
who was the daughter of the late Lord Rodney, 
occasioned his retirement into Ireland, where he 
now resides." 

Crosby's ' Contested Elections,' 1838, gives 
Richard Wilson as successful at Barnstaple 
in 1796, and defeated there in 1790 and 
1802. W. B. H. 

(12 S. i. 49). (1) Joannes Funccius, flor. 
1550. A life of Johann Funck, the celebrated 
Protestant divine, is given, one may be sure, 
by the ' Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie,' a 
work on the reference shelves of the British 
Museum Reading Room. But one has only 
to dip into books that deal with the history 
of the sixteenth century in Germany to glean 
particulars of his career. He was born in 
1518 at Werden, near Niirnberg, married a 
daughter of the famous Osiander, and ac- 
companied his father-in-law to Prussia, then 
a duchy under its first secular ruler Albrecht, 
ft vassal of Poland, the Albrecht whose 
features are familiar to many from the title- 
pages of publications of the University of 
Konigsberg and from Carlyle's sketch: 

"A man with high bald brow ; magnificent 
spade-beard ; air much pondering, almost gaunt, 
- gaunt kind of eyes especially, and a slight cast 
in them, which adds to his severity of aspect." 

By Albrecht, Funccius was appointed 
Court preacher and, after he had recanted 
Osiander' s heresies, a ducal councillor. But 
politics proved his undoing. A prolonged 
dispute between Albrecht and the majority 
of his subjects resulted in a visit from a 
Polish commission, and Funccius, with two 
other " Rathe," was executed at Konigsberg 
on Oct. 28, 1566. Carlyle ('Frederick,' 
bk. iii. chap, vi.) has a brief reference to 
"one Funccius, a shining Niirnberg immigrant 
... . .who from Theology got into Politics, had a^ 

last (1564 [this should be 1566]) to be beheaded 1 
old Duke Albert himself ' bitterly weeping T 
about him ; for it was none of Albert's doing." * 

De Thou, ' Hist.,' lib. xxxviii. vol. ii. p. 475 r 
ed. 1733, gives an account of the transaction,. > 

One of the charges brought against 
Funccius was that he had urged his sovereign: 
to take refuge with his kinsmen in Germany,. 
as he could trust none of his Prussian sub- 
jects : 

" Funccio crimini inter alia datum, auod sent 
principi stolidi juxta et perniciosi consilii auctor , 
fuisset, ut, quando neminem in Borussia fidura. 
subditum haberet, ad gentileis suos in Germaniam 
se reciperet." De Thou, loc. cit. 

Bayle, in his * Dictionnaire,' has a short but 
characteristic article on Funccius, in which 
he deals out corrections of Moreri and Vossius 
and Melchior Adam, who " s'est eloigne de 
1' exactitude." The couplet referred to iir 
Bayle, and said to have been composed by 
Funccius shortly before his death, as a- 
warning not to meddle with what lies outside 
one's own sphere, is given by Pieter 
Burman the younger in his commentary 
on the ' Poemata ' of P. Lotichius Secundus,. 
lib. i. viii. 11 : 

Disce meo exemplo, mandate munere fungi, 
Et fuge, ceu pestem, ri)v TroXi'Trpayfj-oa-vvriv. 

Burman refers to Melchior Adam, ' Vitae- 
German. Theologorum.'p. 197. 

Funccius was the author of commentaries 
on Daniel and the Apocalypse, and a, 
' Chronologia ' and ' Commentarii Chrono- 
logici,' which, according to Bayle, started 
from the Creation and extended to A.D. 1552. 
In the ' Secunda Scaligeraiia ' we have the 
terse sentence : " Funcius. On fait estat d& 
lui, il est uii des meilleurs, mais cependant il 
est plat." EDWARD BENSLY. 

University College, Aberystwyth. 

(12 S. i. 11, 94.) 

(5) and (6). M.A.Oxox. may like to know- 
that Foster's 'Judges and Barristers' was 1 
never published. G. F. R. B. 

xii. 440, 489). Apart from the reference to 
the legendary harp that woke King David 
every morning at daybreak, recorded in 
Chagiga, the only reference resembling in; 
some regards that ciled by your learned 
correspondent J. T. F. is to be found in 
Tamid, 27b and 28a, but the waking of the 
slumberer was by no means gentle. Every 
night (so runs the statement there) a special 
officer, accompanied by orderlies bearing 
torches, went the rounds of the city to 
discover whether the guards were at their. 

12 S. I. FEB. 19, 1916.1 


posts. If one failed to answer the greeting, 
" Peace be with thee," smartly, the orderlies 
beat him, and if that did not rouse the man, 
they set fire to his tunic. Probably that 
was the passage your esteemed contributor 
had in mind. At any rate, I can trace no 
other in the pages of the Gemara. 


J. G. LE MAISTRE, NOVELIST, 1800 (11 S. 
xii. 480 ; 12 S. i. 14, 54). I find in The Gentle- 
man's Magazine of December. 1840 (p. 672), 
the following notice : " Nov. 4, at Chelten- 
ham, aged 71, J. G. Lemaistre, esq." In The 
Times of Nov. 7, 1840 : "At Cheltenham, 
on the 4th inst., John Gustavus Lemaistre, 
Esq., in the 72d year of his age." 

You will note that in both cases, as on the 
title-pages of his books, the name is given as 
Lemaistre, not Le Maistre. 


Yale University Library. 

138). The nickname of the A.S.C. that will 
arouse the liveliest emotions of anger is not 
" Ally Sloper's Cavalry," but " Pickford's 
Hussars." A simple experiment will de- 
monstrate my accuracy. W. 

HERALDRY (12 S. i. 50). Consulting 
Papworth, the coat I find most like that 
blazoned by COL. W. H. CHIPPINDALL is : 
" Argent, on a fess sa. a mullet or ; Kighley 
or Kightley, co. Lancaster, and Keighley, 
co. York." E. LEGA-WEEKES. 


London County Council : Survey of London.* 
Vol. VI. The Parish of Hammersmith. (P. S. 
King & Son, 11. Is. net.) 

ALTHOUGH the records of Hammersmith are not 
so full of general interest as those of Chelsea and 
some other parishes, yet the reader will find in 
this volume, quite apart from its stores of his- 
torical research, much that will attract him. 

It was not until 1834 that this parish 
was separated from Fulham, and the fact that 
in 1630 it had only a chapel of ease suggests 
that the various parts of the district were hardly 
joined in a single community, so that it is doubt- 
ful within what limits the name Hammersmith 
should be properly applied. There have been 
some fantastic suggestions as to the origin of 
the name ; but Mr. Norman tells us in his Pre- 
face that " its derivation is obscure, and so far 
no serious attempt has been made to collect all 
the forms which it has taken in the past. In 
' The Encyclopaedia Britannica ' we are told that 
the name appears in the early form of Hermodes- 
wode. This, however, which occurs in Domes- 
day, represents the modern Harmondsw^orth. 
Later in the same article it is added that Hammer- 

smith probably means Hamer'shythe, or haven r 
in which case it might have become Hamersy 
or Hamerithe, but certainly would not have 
assumed its present form." Mr. Norman sets- 
aside Faulkner's attempt to derive the name 
from Hamhythe, and thinks that the derivation 
from Hamers Mythe, though rejected by the 
Rev. J. B. Johnston in his ' Place-Names of 
England and Wales,' 1915, is the true one. 
" Hamers," Mr. Norman contends, " is doubtless 
the genitive singular of a personal name, spelt 
Hamer in Domesday Book, which occurs, with, 
slight variations, in several Northern languages. 
At present the form Hamersmyth has been traced 
no further than the reign of Edward II." 

The two most important houses in the district 
were Butterwick's (near the church) and Palings- 
wick (Ravenscourt) Park. These are fully de- 
scribed by Mr. W. W. Braines.who has bestowed 
much pains on his researches. Hammersmith, 
like all modern suburbs, has suffered from 
" developments." The beautiful houses of the 
Upper and Lower Malls " have been gradually 
disappearing," and " the last relics of a peaceful 
and picturesque hamlet are seriously imperilled." 
Bradmore House (formerly Butterwick), w j ith its 
orchards, gardens, beautiful trees, and lovely 
walks, has disappeared, and the land is now in 
the occupation of the London General Omnibus- 
Company. However, the architectural main 
features of the frontage have been preserved, 
and the fine decorative woodwork of the principal 
room has been refixed in the billiard-room specially 
built to receive it. This woodwork is the property 
of the London County Council. On the first 
Monday of every month the public are admitted 
to the room from 10 A.M. to noon. Sir Elijah 
Impey was born in this house on June 13, 1732, as 
recorded by MR. WILMOT CORFIELD at 11 S. xi. 
394. Palingswick (Ravenscourt Park Manor House} 
is now the public library. 

Other houses of special interest include Fair lawn,-' 
where Dr. Burney had a school (his classical library 
is now in the British Museum) ; the Vicarage 
containing fine examples of Adam fireplaces, 
and full of beautiful architectural detail of the 
period ; and The Seasons, No. 17, and The Doves 
Inn, No. 19 Upper Mall the former named after 
Thomson's poem, which, according to local 
tradition, was partly written there. Sussex 
House is said to have obtained its name as an 
occasional residence of the Duke of Sussex (1773- 
1843), but the editor considers it to be more 
probable that it merely commemorates his associa- 
tion with the locality. He laid the foundation- 
stone of Hammersmith Bridge in 1825. The parish 
church, dedicated in the name of St. Paul, was 
erected in the years 1882-91. It has a, peal of eight 
bells, three of which bear the inscription, " Ex Dono 
Nicolai Crispi Armigeri Deo Ecclesise, 1639." 
The pulpit, the gift of Prebendary Ingram, is a 
beautiful example of work in the style of Grinling^ 
Gibbons ; it was formerly in the church of All 
Hallows, Thames Street, now demolished. 

Modern Hammersmith will for ever be associated, 

with the name of William Morris, for, as all know, 

i it was at Kelmscott House, No. 26 Upper Mall, 

that he lived from 1878. In 1890 he founded 

i the Kelmscott Press, which he set up at Sussex 

j Cottage, within a few yards of his dwelling. 

' Early in the nineteenth century Sir Francis 

Ronalds lived in this house, and a tablet on the 

wall records that he, with the assistance of Sir 



[12 S. I. FEB. 19, 1916. 

Charles Wheatstone, then a boy of 14, invented 
the electric telegraph. In the garden he laid 
eight miles of cable, fragments of which were dug 
up in 1871, and are preserved in the Pavilion 
Museum at Brighton, and at South Kensington. 
From 1868 to 1877 the house was occupied by 
George Macdonold, and was then known as The 
Betreat. Morris renamed it after his beautiful 
old home in Oxfordshire, " and he liked to think 
that the water which ran under his window at 
Hammersmith had passed the meadows and grey 

Another well-known Hammersmith resident 
was Frederic George Stephens, who lived until 
his death in 1907 at 9 Hammersmith Terrace. 
He was the art critic of The Athenceum from 1861 
to 1900, and was the model for the head of Christ 
in Madox Brown's ' Christ washing Peter's 

The plates and plans in the volume (121 in 
number) are, as in the previous sections of the 
Survey, beautifully executed, and too great praise 
can hardly be accorded to the careful work of the 
joint editors, Mr. James Bird and Mr. Philip 

The Study of Shakespeare. By Henry Thew 
Stephenson. (Bell & Sons, 4s. 6d. net.) 

THIS is a manual for students, written in rather 
abrupt, careless Knglish, full of lively ideas, and 
eagerly suggestive. The weakest part of it is the 
biography of Shakespeare with which it begins. 
We were nearly " put off " the book altogether by 
it ; but, persevering, found ourselves rewarded. 
The dissertation on the Elizabethan stage is both 
entertaining and useful. Prof. Stephenson makes 
out a very good case for the idea that they were 
able, at the Globe, to darken the stage. His 
theory of the " hut " is that it Was the receptacle 
for the rollers of those painted cloths whence they 
were let down as wanted to form the background 
of the inner scene. We think he is right in giving 
the Elizabethans credit for ingenuity enough to 
stage their plays at least as effectively as a 
tolerably resourceful amateur troupe can do nowa- 
days ; and he supports his opinion by giving the 
reader lists of stage properties, &c., of which we 
have the actual detail. 

Eleven of the plays are subjected to more or less 
close discussion. In these, we think, Prof. 
Stephenson does not quite keep clear of the 
common mistake of over-rating the subtlety and 
comprehensiveness of Shakespeare's intention, 
and under-rating his luck. But he points out 
well the true bearings of construction, and has 
some excellent things to say concerning the rela- 
tion of the plays to Elizabethan commonplaces of 
thought and custom, especially so in regard to 
'The Taming of the Shrew.' The "study" of 
Romeo and Juliet,' again, is an acute and care- 
fully worked out piece of criticism ; so is that of 
the function of the ghost in ' Hamlet.' On the 
character of Hamlet (though we agree with him 
in thinking that Hamlet was neither mad nor yet, 
accurately speaking, philosophical) we found him 
less satisfactory. In fact, as to character, one of 
the chief impressions left with us by the book as 
a whole is that of a curious incompatibility 
between the Elizabethan and the American 
temperament. Shakespeare's men and women 
seem to suffer a sort of transposition from one 
key to another at the hands of their trans- 

atlantic critics. We do not mean this as dis- 
paragement, for no doubt it is what a Crusader 
would feel if he heard a modern European reckon- 
ing up the abilities of Coaur-de-Lion or Louis IX., 
or, in general, of the men who meet us in the 

Where, in this dealing with Shakespearian 
characters, the divergence begins is, perhaps, in 
a tendency to over-define this or that aspect. 
Something of the same sort may be observed in 
Prof. Stephenson's description of Shakespeare's 
London, where several things such as the 
hospitals, the schools, the life of the merchants 
and the wealthy are lightly touched on, oromitted 
altogether, while great emphasis is laid on the 
gutters, the noises, and the overhanging gables. 

The chapters on the Plays are Written as a 
running commentary, supposed to be read with a 
text in one's hand. Without subscribing to 
every word of it, we should certainly recommend 
the book to the attention of those who may have 
the idea of reading the plays again after having, 
perhaps, neglected them, or only read them in 
youth, and more or less unguided. 

OUR readers will regret to hear of the death of our 
old and valued correspondent Canon Ellacombe ot 
Bitton. His contributions to our columns, though 
somewhat intermittent, range over a long period of 
years; and preceding his name in the Indexes we 
have that of his father. This succession occurs 
also in the main business of his life, for in 1850 he 
succeeded his father as Vicar of Bittori, near 
Bristol, and inherited likewise the vicarage garden, 
which, through his enthusiasm and skill, has 
become so well known tot amateur horticulturists. 
Evidences of his work and knowledge as a gardener 
are to be found in * N. & Q.,' but he wrote also on 
ecclesiastical and literary subjects. 

NEW HAVEN, CONN. Forwarded to MRS 

MR. A. COLLINGWOOD LEE. Letter forwarded to 

MR. M. L. R. BRESLAR ( " Parallel between 
Goethe and Shelley "). Probably the lines sought 
are those of the harp-player's song in ' Wilhelm 
Meister's Lehrjahre,' book ii. xiii. " Wer nie sein 
Brod mit Thranen ass," &c. 

MR. APPERSOX (" Village Pounds "). COL. 
FYNMORE refers to 5 S. vii. 400 for a note about a 
pound at Leeds : " Impounded in the Pinfold, 
Edward Street, Leeds, a brown mare," mentioning 
bhat in this case the impounder appears to be called 
the " Pinder." 

CORRIGENDUM. E. B. DE C. writes : " I beg, 
with permission, to correct an unfortunate slip in 
proof-correcting on p. 125, col. 2, line 32. The 
Jacomb coat is : Per chevron az. and erni., in chief 
two lions' heads erased arg. (Herald's Coll. 1672). 
'\.. heads erased of the second ' is another version). 
The Alley ne coat is as stated : Per chevron gu. and 
erm., in chief two lions' heads erased or (Herald's 
Coll.) 1769." 

128. I. FEB. 26, 1916.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



CONTENTS.- No. 9. 

NOTES : The Culfus of King Henry VI., 161 Some Notes 
on " Canions," 162 English Books Reprinted Abroad, 
164 The Sawing-Horse Family of J. M. W. Turner 
"Csesar gloriosus es " Mack Surname -" Harpastum ": 
Football, 165. 

QUERIES : David Martin, Painter, 1737-98 - Joseph 
Bramah Corbett of Hanford, Staffs- " Monialis" 
'Anecdotes of Monkeys '-St. Mary Cray (Sudcrai) The 
Knave of Clubs in Churches -Rev. Matthew Drift of 
Lavenham Jane Butterfield. 16^ ''By the skin r>f his 
teeth" 'Lor- don Directory,' 1677 Disraeli and Mozart 
Two Oil Paintings Wanted Lawrence : Gedding 
Battersea Training College, 167 Thomas Holcroft's 
Descendants ' On the Banks of Allan Water' " Trefira 
Saracin" " Battels" F^ulke Salusbury " Boniface," 
an Innkeeper Author Wanted Descendants of Anne 
Askew, 168 ' Supplement to Munchausen's Travels' 
Orange Lodge Apron Claverhouse Powdered Glass 
" L'hy vet " The Sussex Ironworks Hayler, the Sculptor 
Wright, Payne, and Wilder Families A Jewish History 
of England James Bentham : Portrait Wanted, 169. 

REPLIES : Gunfire and Rain : a Retrospect of the 
Autumn Manoeuvres of 1873. 170' De Imitatione Christi ' : 
Autograph MS., 171 Clockmakers : Campigne " Colly 
my cow ! "Statue of Maximilian Rushton, 172 Father 
Christmas and Christmas Stockings, 173 George Inn, 
Borough Allan Ramsay 'The Tommiad' The Black 
Hole of Calcutta Author of French Song Wanted, 175 
Recruiting for Agincourt in 1415 -Rebellion at Eton 
English Prayer Book printed at Verdun, 176 Cruelty to 
Animals Memory at the Moment of Death, 177 Shrines 
and Relics of Saints " A stricken field "Authorized 
Version of the Bible Thunder Family, 178. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : ' The Peace of the Augustans.' 
Curiosities of the Seventeenth Century. 
Notices to Correspondents. 


THE cult of King Henry VI., than whom, 
says Polydore Vergil, " there was not in the 
world a more pure, more honest, and more 
holy creature, '* widely assumed a formal 
character and definite proportions that are 
far more distinct, and that longer persevered, 
than is usually supposed. In spite of 
Bacon's flippancy, and Hall's cheap sneer 
that expense deterred Henry VII. from 
pursuing the cause at Rome, there can be no 
possible doubt that it was the chaotic up- 
heaval of the Reformation which alone 
prevented an official canonization. Already 
had Blakman, the Carthusian, collected 
, authoritative evidence of sanctity, an im- 
portant treatise, ' De Virtutibus et Miraculis 
Henrici VI." And so in "The English 

Martyrologe. Conteyning a summary of the 
lives of the .... Saintes of the three kingdomes 

by a Catholicke Priest (I. W.), J! 8vo, 

1608, a book attributed to John Wilson and 
also to John Watson, under May 22 we 
find .: 

" At Windesore the deposition of holy K. Henry 
the sixt of that name of England, who being a 
most vertuous and innocent Prince, was wrong- 
fully deposed by King Edward the 4, and cast 
into the tower of London, where a little after 
he was most barbarously slayne by Richard 
Duke of Glocester, in the year of Christ one 
thousand foure hundred three score and eleven. 
His body was buryed in the Monastery of Chertsey, 
where presently it begun to doe miracles, which 
being seene, it was. with great solemnity and 
veneration, translated to Windesore, and there 
honourably interred in the Chappell of S. Gregory, 
whereat also it pleased God, in witnesse of his 
innocent life, to worke many miracles. Moreover 
it is recorded that his Velvet Hat,* which he 
used to weare, being put on men's heads, that 
were troubled with the head-ake were presently 
cured. He builded the famous schoole of Eaton, 
and was the founder of the King's Colledg in 
Cambridge. King Henry the seaventh dealt 
which [sic] Pope Julius the second about his 
canonization, but by reason of both their deaths 
the same was broken off." 

'N. & Q.,' 2 S. i. 509 (June 28, 1856), has 
already given us a note with reference to 
this subject, and quotes two short Latin 
prayers "made by K. Henri VI.,' 1 as well 
as a prose, invocation, and collect of the 
King. These two prayers composed by the 
King, together with the prose, &c., have been 
printed in various editions of the ' Horse in 
usum Sarum.' With regard to the cult, 
the two short prayers, beautiful in them- 
selves, are of course nothing to the point, but 
the invocation (*' V. Ora pro nobis Denote Rex 
Henrice. R. Ut per te cuncti superati 
sint inimici") is highly important, a detail 
which should have been more clearly brought 
out when it was previously quoted. In a 
fifteenth-century 'Horse B.M.V.' (Stowe 
MSS. 16) we find written in a very late 
fifteenth- or early sixteenth-century script 
entirely differing from the rest of the 
' Horse,' which are in an earlier and better 
character an antiphon and collect affording 
certain evidence of a regular cult : 

" Rex Henricus pauperum et ecclesiae defensor, 
ad misericordiam pronus, in caritate feruidus, in 
pietate deditus, et clerum decorauit, quern Deus 
sic beatincauit. 

" [F.] Ora pro nobis beate seme Dei Henrice. 

" [.R.] Ut digni efficiamur [promissionibus 

" Oremus. 

* Blakman specially notes that Henry VI. 
always preferred clothes " pulli coloris." 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. i. FEB. 25, im. 

" Deus qui beatum Henricum Begem tuum 
sanctum militem, ecclesiae Defensorem et paupe- 
rum amicum in omnibus aduersis perfectae 
caritatis amore decorasti : praesta quaesumus ; 
ut eius exempla, tarn in mundi pros- 
peris quam in aduersis perfecto corde tibi 
uiuamus. Qui uiuis in gloria regnas cum 
potensia moderans saecula cuncta. Amen." 

In a Roll of Prayers (late fifteenth century), 
formerly belonging to Coverham Abbey, we 
have the same collect, such variants as the 
omission of " pauperum " and the reading 
" quam in eius aduersis " being rather errors 
of the scribe than any real divergence. 
This roll further gives us an illumination 
representing Henry VI. Though not very 
pertinent, it is perhaps worth noting that in 
an exquisite illumination in Henry VI.' s 
own Psalter, now one of the most precious 
treasures of the British Museum, the boy 
king appears kneeling before Our Lady and 
Child. This youthful figure has sometimes 
been mistaken for Richard II. Henry VI. 
is depicted in the ' Horse in usum Sarum,' 
Paris, 1530, where the collect to him is also 
given. It would be interesting to know 
if there are any instances where he is shown 
with the aureola of a saint, or, more properly, 
with the rays of a beato. 

The most important representation, how- 
ever, of Henry VI. in this connexion is that 
on a panel of the rood-screen at Whimple, 
Devon. Here, without any differentiation, 
he stands on an equality with seven popular 
and famous saints St. John Baptist, 
St. Sebastian, St. Barbara, St. Apollonia, 
St. Clement, St. Sidwell, St. Roch. The 
rood-screen has long since been destroyed, 
but the panels were discovered turned 
upside down, and doing service as pulpit 

When we consider that this devotional 
painting of King Henry is to be seen in a 
Devonshire village, that Coverham Abbey 
used his collect, that a proper antiphon and 
prayers are to be found in MS. Horae and 
Psalters, not to mention the local cult at 
Windsor and the general fame of the 
miracles, it is impossible to subscribe to the 
statement that " Henry VI. was originally 
canonized by the apocryphal press of 
Wynkyn de Worde, and some foreign 
heretical printers, who copied after him li 
(' N. & Q,, s 2 S. i. 509). On the contrary, we 
have every indication of a flourishing and 
vigorous cult, suppressed only by the 
Reformation, and doubtless revived under 
Queen Mary I., a cult whose memory was 
green in the late days of James I. 



As a query which I submitted to ' N. & Q/ 
re the subject of the following notes elicited 
no answers, I venture to forward in more 
or less connected form the results of my 
own independent studies, in the hope they 
may be of use. I may say that M. Maurice 
Leloir, president of the " Societe de 1'Histoire 
du Costume " of Paris, is in agreement with 
my views on the point. Should any of 
your correspondents care to bring to my 
notice any further evidence on the subject,. 
whether confirmative or antagonistic to 
my theory, I can only be grateful. 

Canions (later form canons}: French: 
canons (de chausses). Spanish : canones, 
muslos (de calcas), caraguelles. Italian r 
cannoni, cosciali, ginocliielli.* 

The original " canions " (of breeches), so 
commonly mentioned by Elizabethan and 
Jacobean writers, were, in the opinion of 
Planche and Fairholt, ornamental rolls at 
the breecnes' knees, sometimes slashed, such 
as occasionally appear in contemporary 
prints, &c. Every subsequent writer and 
lexicographeri has docilely adopted this 
quite gratuitous assumption, apparently 
without troubling to verify it from first- 
hand sources. I have been unable to find 
a shred of evidence to support this explana- 
tion ; indeed, all the evidence points to an 
entirely different explanation. Although 
the " canions " are sometimes mentioned 
in connexion with the knees, there is nothing 
to suggest " ornamental rolls." The pri- 
mitive English forms of the word sufficiently 
betray the n (= ny) of the Spanish original, 
canon, which implies an object more or less 
tubular; and Minsheu's ' Ductor,' 1615, 
expressly asserts that the " canions of 
breeches " were named from their resemblance 
to " cannons of artillerie, or Cannes, or pots." 
Note first, that they seem to be invariably 
associated with short, wide breeches of the 
" trunkhose " class, e.g. " round," " French, ' T 
or " paned ' ' hose (Co varrubias, in his ' Tesoro,' 
1611, defines the canones as " los q' se pega 
en las calcas sueltas.") Secondh r , that 
they were a marked (and cosmopolitan) 

* Cotgrave, 1611; Percyval, 1591 ; Minsheu r 
1615 ; Cesar Oudin, 1607 ; Vittori, 1609 ; Florio, 
1598 ; Torriano, 1659 ; Oudin Covarrubias,. 
1675 ; Ant. Oudin, 1643. For variant English, 
forms of the word see the ' N.E.D.' 

t Even the ' N.E.D.' obediently follows suit. 
The latest edition of Nares's ' Glossary,' while 
abstaining from any exact definition, is careful 
not to stand committed to Planch e's rendering- 

['28. I. FEB. '26, 1916.] 



feature in the fashions of civilized Europe. 
The illustrations given in Planche's ' Cyclo- 
paedia ' almost certainly show the rolled tops 
of stockings.* I pass over Quicherat's 
definition of the term, because he has 
neglected to quote evidence in its support : 
too common an omission in his otherwise 
sound and erudite treatise. 

There is, however, a mode which appears 
in portraits, prints, &c., French, Nether- 
landish, German, English, Italian, and 
Spanish, just about the period when the 
canions are first noticed by writers. This is a 
fashion of short, sheath-like continuations 
(resembling the legs of our knee-breeches) 
covering the lower thighs and knees, and 
attached to the short trunks. Their 
ostensible purpose would seem to be, as 
Quicherat asserts, to fill up any hiatus 
between the trunks and the long stockings, 
where the latter were not sewn directly to 
the former.f Like the word canions (which 
I believe to describe them), they are of 
constant occurrence at this period. The 
stockings are indifferently drawn up and 
gartered over or inside these " canions," 
which are shown as plain, or ornate, slashed, 
embroidered, &c. This portion of attire, I 
submit, comes much nearer both Minsheu's 
explanation and the locus classicus (see 
below) from Stubbes, and accords better 
with the following quotations. Against 
Planche's conclusion, too, it may be urged 
that the canions were evidently a much 
more obtrusive and characteristic feature 

* See the two well-known sixteenth-century 
French paintings in the Louvre of balls at the 
Court of Henri III., where the rolls below 
the knees agree in colour and texture with 
the stockings, and not with the breeches, which are 
usually of a different tint. H. Estienne's ' Deux 
Dialogues,' &c., 1579, confirms this difference. 

f The " long-stocked hose " or trunks and 
stockings joined together were known in French 
as chwsses s'entretenans, in Italian as calze intieri, 
and in Spanish as calyas enteras. .See, besides the 
dictionaries of C. Oudin (Spanish-French, 1607) 
and H. Vittpri (Spanish-French-ltalian, 1609), 
Torriano's edition of Florio, 1659, and Howell's 
' Vocabularie,' 1659. They are illustrated in 
Vecellio's ' Habiti,' and more clea.rly in plate 21 
of J. T. and J. I. de Bry's ' Emblemata 
Bfecularia,' 1596, which satirically shows several 
women fighting for a pair lying on the ground, 
complete with codpiece and points. A Flemish 
satirical print of a similar subject is reproduced in 
J. Grand-Carteret's ' La Femme en Culotte.' 
Peacham, in his ' Truth of our Times,' 1638, 
speaking of Elizabethan modes, mentions : 
"... .round breeches, not much unlike St. Omer's 
onions, ichereto the long stocking ivithoitt garters was 
joined, which was then the Earl of Leicester's 
fashion and theirs who had the handsomest 

of Elizabethan a>nd Jacobean dress than 
the little " ornamental rolls " which, in- 
cidentally, were a characteristic of the " lands- 
knecht " type of costume so generally in 
vogue c. 1510-40. These latter Fairholt,. 
apparently relying on an equivocal line from 
Wynkin de Worde, calls bulwarks (see his 
' Glossary ' ). 

1583. Stubbes, 'Anatomy of Abuses,' 
speaks of " French Hose," excessively 
abbreviated and scant, " whereof some be 
paned, cut and drawn out Mdth costly 
ornaments, with canions annexed reaching 
below their knees." 

1585. Higins's ' Nomenclator,' " Subligar : 
Brayes, Slops or breeches without canions 
or netherstocks." Cf. (s.v. Subligar) 
Thomasius's * Dictionarium,' 1596, and 
Welde's ' Janua Linguarnm,' 1615. 

1593. Will of Sir Henry Widdrington 
(Surtees Society's ' Durham Wills '), " j pair 
of French hose with crimson satten carry ons " 
(sic : whether an ignorant transcriber's 
error ?). 

1598. Henslowe's ' Diary,' " A payer of 
round hosse of paynes of silke layd with 
sylver lace and caneyanes of cloth of sylver."" 
" A bugell doublet and a payer of paned 
hosse of bugell panes drawne out with cloth 
of sylver and canyons of the same." 

Antoine Oudin, in his ' Recherches,' 1643, 
translates cosciale as ' ' canons de chausses ' ' ; 
and the Delia Cruscan ' Vocabolario ' of 1612 
defines it as "a covering for the thigh of 
any sort, whether armour or dress." See 
the " coscialetti " worn by the " Burgundian 
Noble" in Vecellio's 'Habiti' of 1589. Cf. 
Covarrubias's ' Tesoro,' 1611, s.v. muslos de 

1611. Cotgrave defines " Chausses a queuer 
de merlus " as " round breeches with straight 
canions," &c. 

The canions were a sufficiently prominent 
portion of attire for the word, by trans- 
ference, to be applied sometimes to the 
breeches themselves; e.g., Middleton, 'More- 
Dissemblers besides Women,' " 'Tis pity 
thou wast ever bred to be thrust through 
a pair of canions" ; 1611, Robt. Richmond,. 
Prefatory Verses to Cory ate' s ' Crudities,' 
" For nought fears he backbiters' nips in 
doublet or in commons." The word is used 
figuratively, by analogy, in Dekker and 
Webster's ' Xorthward Hoe ' : " the bragging 
velure-canioned hobbi-horses." 

The plain canions are seen in the full- 
length triptych portrait of Sir Percyval 
Hart and sons at Lullingstone, Kent, dated 
1575 (left-hand figure); the portrait of Sir 
Walter Raleigh (with his little son), 1602,. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. i. FEB. 20. wie. 

at Wickham Courb ; the progress of Queen 
Elizabeth to Blackfriars, 1601, at Sherborne ; 
and the portrait of Essex, c. 1594, at Woburn. 
Richly decorated specimens appear in 
portraits of Sir Jerome Bowes, 1583, at 
Charlton Park, nsar Malmesbury ; of Sir C. 
Hatton at Ditchley, c. 1580; of the Earl of 
Essex, 1594, penes Lord Verulam ; and of 
Ratcliffe, Earl of Sussex, 1594, penes H. 
Harris, Bedford Square, W. The slashed 
variety is exemplified by Hilliard's miniature 
of Si/C. Hatton, 1577, at South Kensington 
(Salting Bequest), and Lord Dillon's three- 
quarter portrait of Sir H. Lee, by M. Ghee- 
rardts, at Ditchley, c. 1595. 

Something analogous, if not identical, 
would seem to be implied by the terms 
scalings, skabilonians, scavilones, &c. Note 
how, like the canions, they seem regularly 
associated with breeches of the trunk-hose 

A MS. letter at Corpus Christi College, 
Cambridge, dated 1570, censures Nicolls 
and Browne, " regents," for affecting " great 
galligaskins, and barrelled hooes stuffed 
with horse tayles, with skabilonians and 
knitt netherstocks." 

1577. ' Eccl. Proc. of Bp. Barnes ' (Surtees), 
. " Great britches, gascoigne hose, scalings, 
and other like monstrous and vnsemely 

1577. 'Art. Enq.' in J. Raine, 'Vestments,' 
&c. (1866), "Great bumbasted breches, 
slcalinges, or scabulonious[?]clokes or gownes 
after the laie fashion."* 

1598. A list of stage dresses in the hand 
of Edward Alleyn, printed in W. W. Greg's 
* Henslowe Papers,' gives under the heading 
of " frenchose " the following entries : 

" Blew velvett emb d with gould paynes, blew 
sattin scalin." 

" gould payns with black stript scalings of 

" red payns for a boy w* yelo scalins." 

" silver payns lact w* carnation salins lact over 
w* silver." 

A plate in Pluvinel's ' Manege Royal,' 1624, 
representing the habit a la Pluvinel, shows 
a pair of paned trunks (chausses a bandes), 
with canions (or scalings) attached. 

Later about the middle of the seventeenth 
century we seem to have adopted the 
French form canons. But the word now 
applies to a variety of adjuncts to costume. 
The dictionaries of Richelet (1680) and 

* I have not been able to verify the original 
text, but feel tempted to conjecture that' we 
have here an incorrect transcription, and that it 
should read : " ... .bumbasted breches, skalinges 
or scabulonions, clokes or gowns...." 

Furetiere (1690) comprehensively define 
these newer canons.* 

The terms now signify (1) A "boot 
hose top," i.e., a footless overstocking drawn 
up over the knee. 

(2) The wide-spreading top of a long 
stocking, either drawn up and secured by 
"points" over the breeches, or allowed to 
droop loosely over the garter. 

(3) A pendant, detachable frill or flounce 
(of lace, linen, silk, &c.) below the knee. 
(This I take to be the " port-cannons " 
alluded to by Butler.) 

(4) A full, gathered trimming round the 
breeches' knees, somewhat like a stocking- 

For descriptive allusions see the curious 
tract entitled ' Les Lois de la Galanterie 
Franoise ' (1644),| the ' Journal d'un 
Voyage a Paris ' (entry under April, 1658), 
Moliere's ' Precieuses Ridicules' (1659), 
' L'Ecole des Maris ' (1666), &c. Illustrations 
of all of these are plentiful in contemporary 
prints and in the earlier fashion plates of 
the Mercure Galant. F. M. KELLY. 

Some interesting details as to the practice 
of reprinting English books abroad may be 
found in the Report of a Select Committee of 
the House of Commons which sat in 1802 
to consider the effect of the high duty on 
paper. Mr. Robert Faulder, "bookseller, 
stated that the high price of books printed 
in England had induced booksellers abroad 
to reprint editions of the English classics, 
instead of importing them, as formerly, from 
England ; and, having mentioned a press so 
to be set at work in Switzerland, he further 
instanced an application made to him by an 
agent from Paris for a copy of each edition 
of Thomson's ' Seasons,' with a view to re- 

* French literature is fairly rich in illuminating 
references to the later forms of canons. By 
Furetiere 's time they were virtually a mere 
memory, except in a sense (clearly descended 
from the original type of canions) used, says 
Furetiere, by tailors to indicate " ....les deux 
tuyaux de chausses, ou Ton met les cuisses." 
Elsewhere (s.v. chausses) he expresses the same 
idea thus : " ... .les canons de chausses sont les 
deux costez par ou on passe les jambes." 

t The passage relative to canons may be found 
quoted in Quicherat's treatise, or in Livet's 
' Lexique ' (s.v.- canons), which has a number of 
other quotations from seventeenth-century writers 
re these articles. 

J Also the quaint description of Mascarille's 
attire in Mile. Desjardins's ' Becit de la Farce des 
Precieuses ' (1659). 

1 28. I. FEB. 26, 1916.] 



printing the same abroad, and with an offer 
of re-delivery in London, so as to come 
much cheaper than if there first printed. 
Mr. Richard Phillips, bookseller (who must, 
I suppose, be the man who afterwards became 
Sir Richard Phillips), produced to the 
Committee a copy of Addison's ' Cato,' 
printed at Berlin and published at the price 
of eight groschen, while the price in England 
would have been at least a shilling. He 
added that this was only one of a dramatic 
series. It would be interesting to know 
whether any of these reprints are in the 
British Museum Library. Mi. Thomas 
Hood, bookseller (father of the poet), in- 
formed the Committee that a Mr. Nancrede 
of Boston was purposing to print new 
English works in France, for the American 
trade, and that he thought that by estab- 
lishing himself at Havre and setting up 
several presses there for more ready com- 
munication with America, he might engage 
in the competition for the first sale with 
advantage. Further particulars of this 
practice are given on p. 166 of the Report of 
the above Committee, which will be found in 
vol. xiv. of ' Reports from Select Com- 
mittees of the House of Commons, 1793- 
1802.' I was not previously aware that the 
reprinting of English standard works abroad 
was in vogue considerably more than a 
century ago. R. B. P. 

THE SAWING-HORSE. In the inventory of 
the effects of Peter Bright, stationer, of 
Cambridge, whose will was proved in Febru- 
ary, 1545, is the item : " In the backyard. 
Imprimis a horse to sawe wood ijcf." (' Ab- 
stracts from the Wills of Cambridge 
Printers,' by G. J. Gray and W. M. Palmer, 
M.D., p. 9, printed for the Bibliographical 
Society, 1915). The earliest quotation in 
the ' Oxford Dictionary ' for this use, 
s.v. " Horse," II. 7, b, is dated 1718, while 
foi " saw r -horse " the earliest is 1778. Under 
" Sawing-horse " only one quotation is 
given, dated 1846. The Cambridge example 
takes the history of the word in this con- 
nexion back nearly two centuries. 


FAMILY OF J. M. W. TURNER. The great 
painter was named after his mother's eldest 
brother, Joseph Mallord William Marshall, 
" itterly of New Brentford, Middlesex, who 
larried, firstly, Ann Haines, June 7, 1776, 
id, secondly, Oct. 11, 1798, Mary Haines 
New Brentford aforesaid, both marriages 
?ing solemnized by licence at the parish 
lurch of Hanwell, Middlesex. 


" CJESAR GLORIOSUS ES." Ce mot histo- 
rique a ete recueilli par le Temps du 29 Jan- 
vier ; il est de Ferdinand de Bulgarie, dans 
une harangue latino de son cru, adressee au 
Kaiser, au cours d'un banquet a Nich. 
L'expression, qui voudrait etre louangeuse, 
est a signaler aux dictionriaires, ou elle 
aurait sa place aussitot apres les citations 
suivarites qui s'y trouvent : " epistolae jac- 
tantes et gloriosce," Plin. Ep. 39 ; " pavo, 
gloriosum animal," Plin. 10, 20, 22 ;" deform e 
est, de se ipsum praedicare, falsa prEesertim, 
et, cum irrisione audientium, imitari Militem 
gloriosum," Cic., ' Off.' i. 38, 137. 


MACK SURNAME. I recently vaccinated 
an infant whose surname was Mack. In- 
quiring the meaning of this patronymic, I 
was informed that the name was originally 
a Scotch one with four or five syllables. 
The child's great grandfather, however, 
declaring that such a name was too long to 
go through life with, had shortened it to 
its first syllable, a practice which had been 
followed by his descendants. The original 
name was forgotten. M.D. 

" HARPASTUM " : FOOTBALL. According 
to Wm. Smith's ' Diet, of Greek and 
Roman Antiquities ' (1848) : 

"Harpastum (apTraardv from apirdfa) was a ball 
used in a game of which we have no accurate 
account ; but it appears both from the etymology 

of the word and the statement of Galen that a 

ball was thrown among the players, each of whom 

endeavoured to obtain possession of it Hence 

Martial speaks of harpasta [manu] pulverulenta, 

[rapis\. The game required a great deal of bodily 

In Calepini ' Dictionarium Decem Lin- 
guarum ' (1594) no English equivalent is 
given, but the following explanation : 

" ita dictum ab apirdfa verbo Greeco, quod 

est rapio, eo quod plures proiectum harpastum 
conenturarripere, et extra ludi limites eiicere." 

Martial is quoted, of course, and the further 
explanation given that, the players being 
divided into two teams, everybody tried to 
get hold of the ball, and pass it on to a 
member of his own team in order to get it 
out of bounds, in trying to do which the 
players threw each other on the ground, and 
became covered with dust and perspiration. 

Hence it is not difficult to see that the 
Latin commentator meant " football " ; 
his Italian contributor boldly translates the 
word as " palla del calzo " (shoe-ball). 

If any further proof be required as to what 
was the meaning assigned to harpastum in 
the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, we 
can quote from Danielis Southeri, Flandro- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. 112 s. i. FEB. 20, me. 

Britanni, ' Palamedes, sive de Tabula 
Lusoria, Alea et Variis Ludis Libri Tres ' 
(Leyden, 1622), the following : " Quartum 
genus pilse fuit Harpastum (Anglis foeth- 
balj." L. L. K. 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
iorniation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

any reader tell me whether David Martin 
painted any portraits of the family of Keir, 
or of the Bruces of Kiriloch, about the years 
1765-75, and where I can obtain information 
about them ? JOHN MURRAY. 

50 Albeniirle Street, W. 

JOSEPH BRAMAH. We are desirous of 
obtaining a portrait of Joseph Bramah, who, 
we understand, died in 1814. We shall be 
glad of any information which will enable 
us to obtain one. 

11 New Street, Birmingham. 


particulars of pedigree of this family between 
1600 and 1800. J. PARRY LLOYD. 

Tachbrook, Alderley Edge. 

"MONIALIS." Touching the transfeienceof 
Leofric and his see from Crediton to Exete^ 
in 1050, William of Malmesbury wrote 
(c. 1125) : " Hie Lefricus, eject is sanc- 
timonialibus a Sancti Petri Monasterio, 
episcopatum et canonicos statuit ...."* 

The Rev. F. E. Warren (' Leofric Missal,' 
Preface, p. xxv), who renders the word 
sanctimonialibus " nuns," remarks that 
" all modern writers, except Mr. Freeman, 
assert, without making any mention of nuns, 
that monks were ejected by Leofric." He 
sites Dagdale, ' Monast,,' li. 513; Leland, 
' Itin.,' iii. 67 ; and " Dr. Oliver, following 
Godwin." I may add that both Britton 
(' ExeterCath."p. 14) who gives Malmesbury 
as his authority and Dr. E. A. Freeman 
("Historic Towns " : ' Exeter,' p. 32) translate 
the word in question " monks." But Hooker, 
in his (MS.) ' History of Exeter,' tells us that 
nuns as well as monks had their houses within 
the Close, which were " vnited by Bysshoj:/ 
Leofricus unto the Cathedrall Churche." 
Assuming this to have been a fact (though 

* 'Gesta Pdntificum Anglorum,' Rolls Series, 
No. 52, ed. by N. Hamilton, p. 201. 

it is possible that Hooker himself derived 
his "nuns " only from Malmesbury 's version), 
and granting that Ducange (' Diet. Med. 
et Infim. Lat.') equates monialis, sancti- 
monialis, with monacha, I am led to query 
whether the word monialis was ever used 
indifferently for both genders. (Cf. the 
adj. monasterialis = monastic.) I should be 
very glad to be informed if any instance of 
such use is known. 


your readers help me to find a book with 
some such title as the above, published, I 
think, during the second quarter of the last 
century ? I saw it in a bookseller's cata- 
logue some few years ago, but I was too 
late to procure it. 

I have been unable to find any trace of it 
at the British Museum, for want, no doubt, 
of sufficient particulars. 

J. S. UDAL, F.S.A. 

ST. MARY CRAY (SUDCRAI). I should be 
glad to obtain any information concerning 
the past history of St. Mary Cray, more 
especially with regard to the parish church. 
Arch. Cantiana, Glynne, Hussey, Grayling, 
Hasted, and Harris have been consulted. 
References to other authorities would be 
much appreciated. R. C. STEVENSON. 

' The Book of Common Prayer ' (Pullan), 
p. 118, it says that Feckenham " spoke of 
the revolting blasphemy of the Protestants, 
who trampled on the sacraments and hung 
the Knave of Clubs over the altars in de- 
rision." What does this mean ? I am 
informed that there was a picture of the 
Knave of Clubs in Limber Church, Lincoln- 
shire, about 1800, and am anxious to find 
out if there is any possibility of this having 
been a case in point. J. rr. CHAMBERLAIN. 

Oldmead, Freshwater, Isle of Wight. 

SUFFOLK. Was he a brother of Adrian 
Drift (1675 ?-1737), Mat. Prior's secretary 
and executor ? G. F. R. B. 

JANE BUTTERFIELD. She was tried at 
Croydoii on Aug. 19, 1775, on the charge of 
having poisoned William Scawen of Wood- 
i cote Lodge, arid acquitted. See " Trial of 
Jane Butterfield for the Wilful Murder of 
William Scawen. . . .Taken in shorthand by 
Joseph Gurney and Wm. Blanchard . . . . " 
(W. Owen and G. Kearsly) ; ' Observations 
on the Case of Miss Butterfield ' (Williams). 
Walpole alludes to the excitement caused by 

12 S. I. FEB. 26, 1916.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


her trial, for she was a young and pretty 
woman. Scawen had made a will in her 
favour, but, thinking that she had given him 
poison, revoked it on his deathbed. After her 
acquittal she contested the validity of the 
new will on the plea that it was founded on 
error, but lost her case. In 1783 it was 
stated by the newspapers that she was going 
on to the stage. When did she die ? Did 
she ever marry ? References will oblige. 


been said of our new commander on the 
Western front, Sir Douglas Haig,'that he has 
more than once escaped death " by the skin 
of his teeth." 

Many users of this familiar phrase would 
hardly turn to the Bible for its origin, and 
its inclusion there (Job xix. 20) suggests 
that the expression was a colloquialism with 
the translators of the epoch of James I. 

Is there any reference in contemporary 
or other literature as to whence it arose ? 
Neither Brewer's nor the ' Century ' dic- 
tionaries throw any light on it. 


Glendora, Hindhead, Surrey. 

' LONDON DIRECTORY,' 1677. Oamden 
Hotten's admirable reprint published in 
1863 has made this interesting little work 
familiar to most students of London biblio- 
graphy. His introduction is excellent, but 
would have gained by an attempted census 
of existing copies and a suggestion of the 
format of the book. 

It may be described as scarce, but not of 
great rarity ; in little more than five years 
I have examined and noted fourteen copies, 
and three copies are before me now. 

It may be inferred that Samuel Lee, its 
publisher, and keeper of "the address shop" 
in Lombard Street, offered the work as a 
pocket book, whole bound in russet calf with 
clasp. This binding had no ornamenta- 
tion, unless a narrow blind fillet can be so 

I have not seen or heard of any copy in 
original boards or paper covers, so this 
pocket-book binding desirable for the 
purpose of the work was probably the 
publisher's intention when preparing the 
lists of merchants. The volume of county 
maps engraved by Hollar, and published 
1676 by John Garrett, was issued as a 
narrow 8vo pocket-book, bound in russet calf 
and fastened with two clasps. Ready 
reckoners were also, about this date, offered 
as pocket-books; and as late as 1734 a 
less essentially " pocket " volume, Ralph's 

'Critical Review of the Publick Buildings,' 
&c., was also bound in this manner. 

Some of the copies of the ' London 
Directory ' seen have had three or four blank 
leaves added, presumably for additional 
names, but I have no note of an extended 
copy, and if such exists the names would be 
of the greatest interest. The two pages of 
names which finish the work were evidently 
only those of merchants received too late to 
insert in the body of the work. 

The copies in the London libraries are 
well known to me, but I shall be glad to have 
particulars of copies in other public libraries 
or private collections, either at home or 

51 Rutland Park Mansions, N.W. 

Disraeli would not have excluded even 
" Dando the Oyster-swallower " from his 
Hebrew Pantheon ; so that we must look 
warily whenever he proposes any one for 
admission to " the select circle." In his 
* Political Biography of Lord George Ben- 
tinck ' he brackets Mozart with Mendelssohn 
for honour as a distinguished member of 
the race, adding that " it seems difficult 
to comprehend how these races [Germans, 
&c.] can persecute a Jew." Is there ground 
for including Mozart among Semitic musi- 
cians ? M. L. R. BRESLAR. 

anxious to know where may be found : 
(1) a picture entitled ' A Dutch Merrymak- 
ing,' painted in oils on wood, by Polsrierd ; 
and (2) an oil painting on canvas of the 
' Madonna and Child,' by Pellegrirno ? 

Please reply direct. L. VENDEN. 

12 Quebec Avenue, Southend-on-Sea. 

LAWRENCE : GEDDING. It appears from 
a herald's collection, temp. Elizabeth, that 
" Mr. Lawrence " bore arms quarterly : 

1 and 4, Sable, three pigeons volant or ; 

2 and 3, a chevron argent between three 
griffins' heads erased or (Add. MS. 26,753, 
fo. 123). The latter are the arms of the 
Gedding family, Suffolk. I should be much 
obliged to any one who would give me any 
information about this Mr. Lawrence and the 
Lawrerice-Gedding marriage. 


13 Cheyne Row, 8.W. 

any registers of this college which can be 
consulted for the period 1857-77 ? 

Louis A. DUKE. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. i. FEB. n, me. 

a last attempt to locate any manuscript 
material relating to Thomas Holcroft (1745- 
1809), I should be very glad to be put in 
touch with any of his descendants, through 
Col. Harwood, Major Marsac, and Carlyle's 
friend Badhams, whom his daughters 
married; through James Kenney (1780- 
1849), his fourth wife's second husband, or 
any of their descendants through the 
Kenney daughters Virginia and Maria, the 
sons James Kenney and Charles Lamb 
Kenney (1821-81) ; or through Charles Horace 
Kenney and Miss Rose Kenney. It is not 
improbable that somewhere, either in the 
direction I have indicated 01 elsewhere, 
there are letters and manuscripts which 
would be of value to me, perhaps even the 
original draft of the ' Memohs ' or the 
' Diary.' My work would be marvellously 
facilitated if any one could come forward with 
such assistance. ELBRIDGE COLBY. 

52 West 126 Street, New York City. 

song was first sung in " Monk " Lewis's 
opera ' Rich and Poor,' the music of which 
was composed by C. E. Horn. 

1. Is it certain that Horn was actually the 
author of the well-known air ? 

2. Where is the Allan Water referred to in 
the song ? JOHN HOGBEN. 


" TREFIRA SARACIN." Can any one teJl 
me the meaning of these words ? I found 
them in Roman capitals, an inch high and 
one-sixth broad in the perpendicular stroke, 
blue on a white label of what I should think 
was a Delft-ware vase, shaped like a Chinese 
ginger-jar, of about 1800, judging from the 
forms of the letters. The vase is about 8 in. 
high a,rid 6 in. across the top, decorated with 
formal designs roughly drawn, arid coarsely, 
though richly, coloured purple and blue on 
white (enamel ?) ground. I should imagine 
it was some chemist's confection. 


" BATTELS." Can any of your readers 
tell me what is the derivation of the Oxford 
term " battels," which seems to be applied 
not only to the accounts, but also to the 
food supplied by the buttery of a college ? 


Windham Club. 

[The 'X.E.D.' has interesting articles on this 
word and on the verb "to battel," for which the 
compilers found an instance in 1570, 130 years or so 
earlier than the first for the substantive. Prof. 
Skeat contributed at 10 S. ix. 305 a note carrying 
the use of the substantive back to 1574. 

Report of the Oxford Heraldic Society 
(1839) is said to contain a testimonial to 
the descent of Foulke Salusbury, &c. 
What connexion is there between this man 
and one of the same name who married, 
about or after 1686, Frances, the widow of 
John Buckeridge of Bread Street ? She 
was, before her first marriage, Frances 
Percival of Henley- on-Thames, and her 
daughter Mary Salusbury married Charles 
Blandy, uncle to the notorious Mary Blandy 
of Henley. 

I can find no copy of the Reports at the 
British Museum. A. STEPHENS DYER. 

207 Kingston Road, Teddington. 

the origin of this word as applied to an 
innkeeper, and what is the earliest instance 
of its use ? 

Brewer's ' Reader's Handbook ' states 
that it is derived from the name of a real 
innkeeper, and gives a quotation from 
Farquhar's ' Beaux' Stratagem.' 

[The ' N.E.D.' assigns the origin to Farquhar.j 

AUTHOR W r ANTED. In 1876 was published 
" Masonic Portraits, by J. G.," a collection 
of biographical sketches which had appeared 
in a periodical. Some years since I was 
told, 011 seemingly direct authority, that the 
initials on the title - page were those of a 
Mr. John Gannon, who held an appointment 
at the City of London Guildhall, and had 
not long before died. From matters lately 
come to my knowledge I think the above 
attribution must be incorrect, and shall be 
glad if information as to the authorship can 
be afforded. A second series of * Portraits ' 
was collected and published in 1879, but by 
a different hand, and giving the author's 
name. W. B. H. 

of your readers give me the descendants of 
the martyr Anne Askew ? I have it that 
she married a man named Kyme (wretch) ; 
that she afterwards resumed her maiden 
name ; that she had son Wm. Askew ; 
his son, John Askew ; his children, son, son, 
daughter Margaret ; there a break which 
I am seeking to fill. 

I have : Francis Ayscough married Joan, 
daughter of Hugh Whistler, who died in 
1662, Rector of Faccombe, Hants ; and so on 
down to the present time. 


University Club, New York. 

12 S.I. FEB. 26, 1916.] 



TRAVELS.' I have a ' Supplement to Baron 
Munchau sen's Travels,' giving an account of 
his ascent to the Dog Star. The book ends 
with four pages of music set to Dog Star 
songs. Who might be the author ? It was 
printed for J. Mawman, in the Poultry, 1802. 
It is on rough paper, and is well printed. 
The music score is from engraved plates. 

ORANGE LODGE APRON. I recently ac- 
quired a lodge apron bearing many Masonic 
symbols and a figure of William of Orange. 
The Orange Institution is stated to have been 
suppressed by the Government in 1836. Is 
there an existing organization, and, if so, to 
what extent does it resemble Freemasonry ? 

CLAVERHOUSE. 1. Is it a fact that Claver- 
house, Viscount Dundee, had an old woman 
and a young girl tied to stakes by the shore 
at low tide, and then left them to perish by 
a lingering death ? 

2. Is it a fact that Claverhouse was killed 
at the Battle of Killiecrankie by a silver 
bullet ? A. S. E. ACKERMANN. 

POWDERED GLASS. Is powdered glass a 
poison ? It may not be so in the strict sense 
of the word, but if very finely powdered 
and put in coffee, for example, would it 
cause the death of the person drinking it ? 

" L'HYVET." This is a French word, and 
occurs in the ' Academie Universelle des 
Jeux ' (Paris, 1725, and probably in earlier 
editions). I know its meaning in this 
instance, but cannot find it in dictionaries, 
ancient or modern. Before a game of 
billiards the two players " string " for the 
option of first stroke, and " celuy qui met 
le plus pres de la corde a le devant, et le 
dernier a Thy vet." 

Perhaps some correspondent could kindly 
help me. L. L. K. 

refer me to a description of the aspect of the 
Sussex ironworks at night during the seven- 
teenth century ? This query is suggested 
by a passage in a paper read by Mr. 
H. P. K. Skipton before the St. Paul's 
Ecclesiological Society in the early part of 
1915, in which he attempts to identify some 
of the places mentioned in Bunyan's 
' Pilgrim's Progress.' Mr. Skipton shows 
that Bunyan was acquainted with certain 
districts in the south of England, and he 

suggests that the glare and smoke of the 
furnaces of the Sussex ironworks may have 
inspired the following passage in ' The 
Pilgrim's Progress ' : 

" About the midst of the Valley [of the Shadow 
of Death] I perceived the mouth of hell to be, and 
it stood also hard by the way-side. Now, thought 
Christian, what shall I do? Forever and anon the 
flame and smoke would come out in such abund- 
ance, with sparks and hideous noises (things that 
cared not for Christian's sword, as did Apollyon 
before), that he was forced to put up his sword, and 
betake himself to another weapon, called All- 
prayer ; so he cried, in my hearing, ' Lord, I 
beseech Thee, deliver my soul ! ' Thus he went on 
a great while ; yet still the flames would be reach- 
ing towards him " 

Mr. Mark Antony Lower's ' Contributions 
to Literature ' contains a chapter on the 
Sussex Ironworks, but he says nothing about 
the lurid aspect of the furnaces at night. 

R, B. P. 

HAYLER, THE SCULPTOR. Could any one 
say where any biographical information 
is to be found concerning Hayler, the 
sculptor ? He exhibited at the Royal 
Academy and other exhibitions in the 
fifties, and was very prominent in a law r case 
about " nude sculpture " in the seventies. 
After this he seems to have disappeared. 

T. H. 

Arms were granted to Wright (London. 
Northampton, and Surrey, 1634) similar to 
arms on tomb erected to Judge Gore, 
Tashinny Churchyard, co. Longford, Ireland. 
Alex, and Capt. John Payne settled in 
Longford, related to General Sankey. Had 
grandson Samuel Payne, married Catherine 
Wilder about 1735. Information as to 
descent wanted. E. C. FINLAY. 

17*29 Pine Street, San Francisco, California. 

Chronicle of the Kings of England from 
William the Norman to the Death of 
George III.,' written after the manner of the 
Jewish historians by Nathan ben Sadi, 
and published in 1821 : information on 
other works in this field w r ill interest many. 

W T ANTED. Can any reader of ' N. & Q.' 
inform me where I could obtain a portrait of 
the Rev. James Bentham, M.A., 1708-94, 
who compiled the ' History of the Church 
and Cathedral of Ely ' ? Two were published 
of him one by " Cook," the other by 
" Kerrick." R. H. 



[12 S. I. FEB. 26, 1916. 



OF 1873. 

(12 S. i. 10, 56, 96.) 

IN 1873 I was a member of the old Inns of 
Court R.V. ("the Devil's Own") at the 
autumn manoeuvres held on Dartmoor in 
August of that year. This was the second, 
I believe, of these new manoeuvres following 
the close of the Franco-Prussian War the 
first having been held on Wolmer Down, 
Hants, a year or two previously. I cannot 
now remember whether our brigade (the 
" grey brigade ") formed part of the sup- 
posed invading force or of the defending one 
I think the latter. But it made no 
difference, for during the fortnight in which 
we were " out " very little fighting practice 
was possible, owing to 1he rain and mist 
which were precipitated as soon as ever the 
artillery had been any time in action, and 
practically obscured everything from view 
at any distance. At least so it seemed to 
us, and so we were told. It further afforded 
a very good excuse for our commanding 
officer, who was obliged like " the brave 
old Dnke of York" having marched his 
men " to the top of the hill," to " march 
them down again." This happened more 
than once, until r.ll attempts at serious 
campaigning at least so far as artillery 
action was concerned were abandoned. I 
must f-t,y, though, that Dartmoor is pro- 
verbially known to be a very rainy place at 
certain seasons of the year ; but one would 
have thought that that would have been a 
matter for the Intelligence Department. 

Our corps started from Paddington station 
one Saturday afternoon (I remember how 
lovely the city of Bath looked, bathed in 
moonlight, as we passed), and, reaching 
Moretonhampstead in the early hours of the 
following morning, we marched thence direct 
to oui allotted camp on the moor. Our baggage 
was supposed to have come on with us, 
but it did not reach us until the following 
Wednesday afternoon. four days after our 
arrival so that many of our fellows did not 
even ventuie to take off their wet boots at 
night, for fear lest they might not get them 
on again in the morning ! No one could get 
any change of clothes, so, after being pretty 
well wet through every day, we used to sit 
in the canteen, as near as we could to the 
fire, and dry, or steam ourselves dry, in our 

capacious military overcoats before retiring 
to rest, eleven in a tent ! We learnt after- 
wards that the delay in the delivery of our 
baggage was caused by its having been taken 
to " the enemy's " camp first ; this being 
rendered possible by the economical (?) 
arrangement of one and the same transport 
having to serve both armies, whilst the state 
of the roads over the moor, rendered 
almost impassable by the mud, did not make 
the task any the easier ! It must be 
remembered that these were not the days of 
motor-transport. Each day the transport 
had to move the equipment of one " army " 
before it could move the other's ! In con- 
sequence many a time did we have to wait 
a long time for our "commissariat" to 
turn up. 

I remember one particular occasion when 
we left camp about 4 o'clock in the morning, 
after a hasty cup of tea and a biscuit or 
two, and I got nothing more to eat until the 
evening, when, in exchange for treating a 
" Tommy " to some beer, he procured me 
some bread and cheese from his canteen. 
Our own corps did not get their rations 
served out until about 10 o'clock ! But, 
then, we were only " playing at soldiers," 
so what did it matter ? 

This " system " was carried out right 
through the manoeuvres, with the result that 
a large number of horses were killed by- 
overwork or sank exhausted in their 
t lacks. At least, no we were told. And 
after the manoeuvres, I believe, many of the 
survivors, which had cost some 60Z. each, 
were sold at Plymouth and other places for 
about ]QL apiece ! I remember a few days 
subsequently seeing some sorry-looking 
animals- presumably the " survival of the 
fittest " passing through one of the western 

But it must not be supposed that nothing 
happened to relieve our monotony during 
our stay on Dartmoor. The whole thing was 
itself extremely humorous. An amusing 
incident occurred one Sunday when we had 
a day's " leave," and most of our fellows 
celebrated it by going to Plymouth, by road 
and rail, and indulging in a good shave, a 
hearty lunch, and a most excellent bathe at 
the Hoe. At the railway station a large crowd 
had assembled to see the various troops 
arrive, and evidently serious conjectures 
were going en as to what our corps was; for 
doubtless, mostly unshaven, in our rather 
weather-beaten very plain, but serviceable 
drab undress uniform and Glengarry caps, 
we did not present a very smart appearance. 
Opinions were freely ventured that we were 

12 S. 1. FKB. 26, 1916.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


the convicts from Princeton Prison on the 
moor (the scene of the " Dartmoor Shep- 
herd " of later history !) ; but when the crowd 
saw that we seized all the available vehicles 
in our haste to reach the best hotels, they 
changed their minds and acclaimed us as 
the " Scots Greys " ! 

Another event occurred which might have 
had a more serious ending, which I mention 
here because I consider that ' N. & Q. 1 had 
something to do with it. During one of the 
occasions when we were held up by a dense 
mist we were warned not to stray far from 
where we weie ; so to amuse ourselves for 
the several hours we were so entombed we 
engaged in various camp sports. One of 
these was " tournament fighting," which 
consisted of couples from various corps 
engaging each other as knights and horses, 
the lighter men being the riders, who would 
seek to unhorse each other. I happened to 
be a "horse," and having overthrown the 
couple opposed to us, I was so elated by our 
victory that I began " bucking," with the 
result that my unfortunate rider was thrown 
violently over my head and lay motionless 
on the ground. As I sprang forward to 
render assistance I heard loud whisperings 
from more than one spectator, " His neck is 
broken ! " It happened that shortly before 
we left London the famous " Soapy Sam " 
late Bishop of Oxford, and then of Winchester 
whilst out riding on the Hampshire 
Downs, had been thrown over his horse's 
head, through the animal's foot having 
caught in a rabbit-hole, and had broken his 
neck. Following this incident, a corre- 
spondent in 'N. & Q.' had suggested that a 
dislocated neck under such circumstances 
might often be put right if the body were at 
once turned over on its face and a person 
were to place his knee firmly between the 
shoulder-blades, at the same time sharply 
lifting or bending up the head. So, stricken 
with remorse, and horrified at what might 
be the result of what I had done, I knelt 
down by the side of my fallen friend, and 
was in the act of turning him over in order 
to effect this hoped-for cure, when I was 
inexpressibly relieved by hearing him groan 
and mutter : " Oh ! leave me alone." 
Presently he sufficiently recovered to be 
able to be raised up, he being terribly shaken 
and having had all his " wind " knocked out 
of him. Needless to say neither he nor I 
felt inclined to take any further part in the 
tournament. But the irony of it remains 
to be told. Subsequently, when I returned 
to London and got my next number of 
' N. & Q.' (I was a subscriber and contributor 

then as I am now), I found that another 
correspondent had written and demonstrated 
the absolute impossibility or uselessness of 
any such suggested remedy ! (See 4 S. xii. 
106, 157, 216.) 

However, these were only " manoeuvres." 
But we understood that the object of these 
manoeuvres was to afford our officers and 
men and particularly the higher command 
the opportunity of learning something of 
the tactics of actual warfare. The whole 
thing seemed to us to be conducted in a 
way so as to avoid necessary, as well as 
unnecessary, expense. And it soon became 
obvious to the merest tyro amongst us 
though apparently not to the country 
generally, or to the powers that be that 
manoeuvres conducted in such a manner as 
these were must be devoid of the slightest 
military value. 

This was forty-three years ago. " Eheu, 
fugaces !. . . .Tempora mutantur, nos et mu- 
tamur in illis." Yes, the times indeed are 
changed ; but are we changed so much 
in them ? I think I can mention one nation, 
at least, that has changed much more during 
that time ! Anyhow, I only wish that I 
were capable of undergoing such an ordeal 
again ! J. S. UDAL, F.S.A. 

If my memory is not at fault, there was a 
suggestion some years ago in the Transvaal 
that cannon should be fired with the inten- 
tion of bringing on rain, and that the Boers 
objected, on the ground that it would be 
an unrighteous interference with Providence. 


MS. (12 S. i. 127). The latter, and perhaps 
less important, part of DR. KREBS'S query 
can be easily answered. The facsimile of the 
MS. of the ' De Imitatione ' in the hand of 
Thomas a Kempis, published by Elliot Stock 
in 1879, is preceded by an Introduction by 
Charles Ruelens, Keeper of the Department 
of Manuscripts in the Royal Library at 
Brussels. The codex written by Thomas 
a Kempis, and containing, besides other 
treatises, the four books of the ' De Imita- 
tione Christi,' is there said to be in the 
Royal Library, Brussels, numbered 5855- 
5861. The MS. was finished in 1441. The 
oldest extant MS. of the ' Imitation,' also 
n the Royal Library, is of the year 1425. 

DR. KREBS gives 1424 as the date of the 
autograph, but I have assumed that the 
3odex to which he refers is that which is 
ntroduced by M. Ruelens. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. i. FEB. 26, wie. 

CLOCKMAKEBS : CAMPIGNE (12 S. i. 47, 97, 
117). The "David Compigne " whose 
memorial tablet on the south wall of the 
church is a familiar object to the frequenters 
of " St. Michael's passage " at Winchester 
was not a clockmaker, if The Hampshire 
Chronicle, or Portsmouth, Winchester, and 
Southampton Gazette for Saturday, June 3, 
1780, can be trusted. For one item of its 
Winchester news runs : 

" Monday last died Mr. David Campigne [sic], 
late an eminent grocer in this city, but who had 
for sometime retired from business." 

It would seem from this item and the 
tablet that the surname was written some- 
times " Campigne " and sometimes " Com- 

One " Compigne " was a Quirister at the 
College in 1723 and 1724 (see the School ' Long 
Rolls '). At the " election " of 1724 he was 
placed 011 the Roll, but too low down to 
gain admission as a scholar. Unfortunately, 
the " Election Indenture," which should have 
stated his native parish and date of birth, 
merely describes him as " David Compigne." 
I cannot say whether he became the " emi- 
nent grocer " who died in 1780. 

On Fob. 16, 1728/9, " Richard Mitchell 
and Susanna Compigne, both of Winchester," 
were married in the cathedral (see ' Hamp- 
shire Parish Registers,' iv. 61). He was a 
linendraper and she a spinster (see ' Hamp- 
shire Allegations for Marriage Licences,' ii. 
39, Harleian Society Publication). 

John Farnham. Is anything known of this 
clockmaker (c. 1429) ? "He is mentioned in 
the College Account-roll for 1428-9 (under 
' Custus domorum cum necessariis ') thus : 

In solutis Colvyle iuniori pro cariagio 
horelogii a london' reparati ibidem per Johannem 
Farnham, xiiic/." 

Winchester College. Ht C ' 

" COLLY MY cow!" (12 S. i. 91.) Can 
Guido's exclamation be a reminiscence of the 
old sixteenth-century term of abuse applied 
to Huguenots in its original form " the 
cow of Colas," la vache a Colas ? A stray 
cow, belonging to a certain Colas Pannier, 
entered a Protestant place of worship at 
Bionne. The Huguenots, thinking the cow 
was driven in among them on purpose, 
seized and killed it. The sheriff (bailli], 
however, made them indemnify its owner. 
Songs were soon written and sung by the 
Catholics in memory of the incident. Vide 
note to M. Louis Batiffol's ' The Century of 
the Renaissance,' as translated in ' The 
National History of France ' just published, 
P- 245. A. R. BAYLEY. 

There does not appear to be any statue of 
Maximilian at Innsbruck with a crown of 
thorns on the helmet, but among the colossal 
figures surrounding his tomb in the Hof- 
kirche, that of Godfrey .de Bouillon has a 
crown of thorns. Godfrey de Bouillon was 
proclaimed King of Jerusalem, and is so 
represented in memory of his refusal to 
wear a crown of gold where his Saviour had 
worn one of thorns. It may be interesting 
to record that an Italian traveller, Antonio 
de Beatis (whose itinerary is summarized in 
an article in The Quarterly Review for July, 
1908, entitled ' A Grand Tour of the Sixteenth 
Century '), was at Innsbruck in 1517 and 
visited the Imperial foundry at Miihlau, 
where these gigantic figures were then being 
cast. Eleven of the intended twenty-eight 
were complete, together with a number of 
smaller statues, some of which are still to be 
seen in the Silberne Capelle at Innsbruck. 

RUSHTON (12 S. i. 110). The poem on 
Chatterton will be found in " Poems and 
Other Writings, by the late Edward Rushton. 
To which is added a sketch of the life of the 
author, by the Rev. William Shepherd. 
London, 1824." An interesting letter on 
this book appeared in The Times Literary 
Supplement of Jan. 20, 1916. C. W. S. 

Rushton' s verses on Chatterton will be 
found at pp. 45-53 of his ' Poems and Other 
Writings,' 1824. A copy is in the British 
Museum. They were published first under 
the title " Neglected Genius : or Tributary 
Stanzas to the Memory of the unfortunate 
Chatterton. By the Author of The Indian 
Eclogues," published London, 1787, 4to, but 
this I have not been able to see. 


I think your correspondent is mixing up 
the two Edward Rushtons so well known in 

Edward Rushton the poet, 1756-1814, 
was the father of Edward Rushton the 
politician. The latter was born in Liverpool 
in 1795, and died at Parkside House, 
Smethom Lane, Liverpool, in 1851. He was 
called to the Bar in 1 831, and in 1839 was ap- 
pointed Stipendiary Magistrate of Liverpool. 

The poem by the elder Rushton, respecting 
which your correspondent inquires, is in- 
cluded "in the first edition of his poems, 
published in London in 1806, and is also to 
be found in an edition of his poems and other 
writings, to which is added a sketch of the 

12 S. 1. FEB. 26, 1916.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


life of the author by the Rev. Wm. Shepherd, 
another well-known Liverpool character 
published in 1824. 

1 have a copy of both editions, and should 
be glad to lend either of them on hearing. 

Elmhurst, Oxton, Birkenhead. 

If MB. POTTS will refer to The Times 
Literary Supplement of Jan. 20, 1916, he 
will find a letter from C. H. H. on the subject 
of Rushton and his poem on Chatterton. It 
is to be found in " Poems and Other Writings, 
by the late Edward Rushton," London, 1824. 
The poem is in fourteen stanzas of twelve 
lines each, and, according to the writer of 
the letter, '' the mannerisms of its period do 
not prevent it from being a fine and vigorous 
piece of work." Rushton, as stated by your 
correspondent, -was a sailor who, after he 
lost his sight, settled in Liverpool, where for 
a brief period he edited The Liverpool Herald. 
He afterw r ards became a bookseller there, and 
died in 1814. T. F. D. 

INGS (12 S. i. 69). Probably the growth of 
the Christinas tree in England was promoted 
by such books as ' Struwwelpeter ' and 
'King Nut-cracker, or the Dream of Poor 
Reinhold,' both by Dr. Heinrich Hoffman. 
They made their appearance with English 
text about, I think, 1850. The former has 
two Christmas trees on p. 1. The latter has 
two, the first on p. 23 : 

At a sign from the Cook, come three 
Urchins, who bear a Christmas tree, 
The largest and finest ever seen 
A taper on ev'ry branch so green, &c. 
The second is on p. 28 : 

The Christmas tree, 
Glittering with its many tapers, 
Decked with bells and birds so fair ; 
And beneath it hang a pair 
Of Jackadandies that cut capers, &c. 
Among the toys hanging from this second 
tree is a book with the title ' Der Struwwel- 
peter.' Besides little Reinhold there are 
in the story Karl, Casper, Hans, Mary, &c. 
Although a fairy with wdngs appears at 
Reinhold' s bedside, there is no mention of 
St. Nicholas or of a stocking. 

In ' The History of a Nut-cracker,' bv 
Hoffman, presumably Dr. Heinrich Hoff- 
man, being the second story in ' A Picture 
Story Book,' 1850, is the following, chap. i. 
p. 9 of the first part : 

" In England, New Year's Day is the grand day 
tor making presents, so that many parents would 
>e glad if the year always commenced with the 
2nd of January. But in Germany the great day 
for presents is the 24th of December, the one 

preceding Christmas Day. Moreover, in Germany, 
children's presents are given in a peculiar way. 
A large shrub is placed upon a table in the drawing- 
room ; and to all its branches are hung the toys 
to be distributed among the children. Such 
play- things as are too heavy to hang to the shrub, 
are placed on the table ; and the children are then 
told that it is their guardian angel who sends them 
all those pretty toys." 

Chap. ii. describes the Christmas tree. 
Reference is made to the joy of English 
children in seeing and choosing toys on the 
toy-stalls in the Soho Bazaar, the Pantheon, 
and the Lowther Arcade, and comparison is 
made with the joy 

" felt by Fritz and Mary when they entered the 
drawing-room and saw the great tree growing as 
it were from the middle of th< table, and covered 
with blossoms made of sugar, and sugar-plums 
instead of fruit the whole glittering by the light 
of a hundred Christmas candles concealed 
amidst the leaves." 

Then follow the toys. 

The scene of the story is Nuremberg. 
Who translated arid adapted the story from 
the German I do not know\ No doubt the 
passages in which the English New Year's 
Day custom, and the Soho Ba/aar, &c., are 
mentioned are interpolations by the adapter. 

' King Nut-cracker, or the Dream of Poor 
Reinhold,' was " freely rendered " by J. R. 
Planche, published at Leipsig and London. 
My copy has on the title-page an embossed 
stamp giving the arms of Saxony, and 
" Vertrag vom 13 Mai 1846." 

In Hone's ' Eveiy-Day Book,' vol. i. 
col. 1604, under ' Customs on Christmas 
Eve,' in a quotation from S. T. Coleridge's 
Friend, is a description of a Christmas tree 
at Ratzeburg, in the north of Germany. A 
great yew bough is fastened on the table, a 
multitude of tapers are fixed thereon, with the 
presents meant by the children for their 
parents laid out underneath, while those 
meant by the children for each other are 
concealed in their pockets. According to 
custom the bough takes fire at last. On 
Christmas Day the parents lay on the table 
presents for the children. The Christmas 
Eve ceremony is spoken of as a practice 

" very similar to some on December the 6th, 
St. Nicholas' -day." 

" Formerly, and still in all the smaller towns 
and villages throughout North Germany, these 
presents were sent by all the parents to some one 
fellow, who, hi high buskins, a white robe, a mask, 
and an enormous flax wig, personates Knccht 
Rupert, i.e., the servant Rupert. On Christmas- 
right he goes round to every house, and says 
that Jesus Christ, his master, sent him thither," 

In ; A Laughter Book for Little Folk,' from 
the German of Th. Hosemann, by Madame 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. i. FEB. 26, uie. 

de Chatelairi (c. 1850), p. 17, is a picture of a 
Christmas tree. 

One may, at all events, conjecture that the 
Christmas tree was " made in Germany," and 
that Father Christmas is an English re- j 
presentation of Knecht Rupert. 

Probably the American si cry which ST. 
S WITHIN remembers is ' How Santa Claus j 
came to Simpson's Bar,' by Bret Harte, 
c. 1872. 

Is not Santa Claus, for St. Nicholas, a 
spurious Am eric an- Germ an term ? 

Like ST. S WITHIN, I do not remember 
anything about gifts being found in stockings 
when I was a child. 


Santa Claus really looks like a mixture 
of Italian and German, but, according to 
' Chambers' s Encyclopaedia,' ** it is a corrup- 
tion of the name introduced into England 
from America ; the old Dutch settlers in New 
York kept a San Claus holiday." The 
custom of giving presents to the children on 
St. Nicholas's feast may have been kept in 
England before the Reformation ; we have a 
reference to it in the ' Diary ' of the Catholic 
Henry Machyii (1550-63) :' 

" In many places it was the custom for parents, 
on the vigil of St. Nicholas, to convey secretly 
presents of various kinds to their little sons and 
daughters, who were taught to believe that they 
-owed them to the kindness of St. Nicholas and his 
train, who, going up and down among the towns 
and the villages, came in at the windows, though 
they were shut, and distributed them. This 
custom originated from the legendary account of 
that saint having given portions to three daughters 
of a poor_ citizen whose necessities had driven 
him to an intention of prostituting them, and this 
he effected by throwing a purse filled with money 
privately at night in at the father's bedchamber 
window, to enable him to portion them out 

We ought, perhdpe, to notice the exact 
similarity between the tradition so described 
and the same as actually known on the 
Continent. But I should like to know what 
was understood as St. Nicholas's train. 
Was it something remaining of the old 
humorous pomp of the " episcopus In- 
nocent ium " ? The ass, for instance, on which 
the saint bishop sits, or the terrible-looking 
old personage known in France as the 
" PC re Fouettard " (Whipping Father). I 
expect the allusion of Henry Machyn is not a 
unique instance. The legend of St. Nicholas, 
in any case, was, everywhere through 
England, represented in painted glass. 
Many examples are given in Mr. Philip 
Nelson's book ' Ancient Painted Glass in 
England,' but his list is far from being ex- 

I had, last year, the pleasure of finding 
in the church of Upper Hardres (Kent) 
a- very good early thirteenth - century 
medallion on the said subject. It had never 
been described before, arid I had some 
difficulty in identifying it, as the painter had 
mixed together two different legends of 
St. Nicholas. I hope the description will be 
of some interest to the readers of ' N. & Q.,' 
and give it. On the left of the medallion 
the three daughters are standing, lifting up 
their hands to heaven ; the father is sitting 
with his chin in his hand, looking sad and 
depressed. On the right stands the saint, 
dressed as a bishop with mitre and crosier ; 
he opens the doors of a curiously-shaped tower, 
which is in the middle of the medallion, 
though, as far as I know, it has nothing to do 
with the subject, and may only be an allusion 
to another well-known legend of the saint. 

A second contemporary medallion, in the 
same place, represents the saint standing 
with this text in two parts : NTERFI. , . .LAVS, 
the first part seeming obviously to have 
been misplaced, the second one being the end 
of the word Nicholaus. I took a drawing of 
both of these medallions. 

A third one, of the same size, represents 
the Blessed Virgin sitting on a throne, holding 
a Lceptro " flory," arid having the child 
Jesus on her lap, between two kneeling 
figures. Around the medallion is the 
puzzling Lombardic inscription " Salamoni 
Philipi." Though it really looks ancient, 
so cleverby is it made, it is, of course, to be 
understood as the name of the stained-glass 
artist who in 1795, according to Hasted, 
transferred the glass from the church of 
Stelling (Kent), its former place, to Upper 
Hardres Church. I supposed he was called 
Salamon Philip, and made an inquiry about 
him in ' N. & Q.,' 11 S. xii. 379, but, unfor- 
tunately, I have not had any answer. 


The I'ayle, Folkestone. 

Aii interesting account of the series of 
feasts which lasted, in the Middle Ages, 
from Dec. 16 (the day of O Sapientia) to 
Jan. 6, will be found in the last book pub- 
lished by the late Mr. A. F. Leach, to wit, 
' The Schools of Medieval England/ pp. 144- 
155. Santa Claus (Nicholas of Myra) and 
Father Christmas are direct descendants 
from the performances of the Boy-Bishop, 
and through him, to a. certain extent, from 
the Roman Saturnalia. Th(P three days 
following Christmas Day became known as 
the Feast of Fools, the Feast of Asses, and the 
Feast of the Boy-Bishop."' On the eve of 

128. 1. FEE. 26, 1916.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

Innocents' Day the priests gave way to the 
schoolboys and choirboys, whence its name 
of Childermas. At first the boys' service 
was a solemn celebration of the slaughter of 
the Innocents by Herod ; but towards the 
^nd of the eleventh or beginning of the 
twelfth century the cult of St. Nicholas of 
Myra was introduced from the East, and 
-antedated the Boys' Feast by transferring 
the beginning of it from Innocents' Day to 
his day, Dec. 6. But although elected on 
St. Nicholas's Eve, the Boy -Bishop did not 
officiate until after Christmas, on the evening 
of St. John's Day at vespers, from the words 
of the Magnificat " Deposuit potentes " 
onwards. An Eton statute of 1443 said of 
St. Nicholas's Day, which was the birthday 
of the founder, Henry VI. : 

" On which day, and by no means on the feast of 
the Holy Innocents, we allow divine service, 
except the sacred portions of the Mass, to be per- 
formed and said by a boy-bishop of the scholars 
-chosen yearly." 


GEORGE INN, BOROUGH (12 S. i. 90, 137). 
'The references at p. 137, ante, to Lillie 
"Smith, Lillie Smith Aynscombe, and an Act 
of Parliament in 1785, are not quite correct. 
Valentinia Aynscombe (who died on April 1, 
1771) was daughter of Philip, who died in 
1737. Philip's father, Thomas, died in 
1740, and bequeathed 200Z. to Christ's 
Hospital and 200Z. to St. Bartholomew's, 
of both of which he was a governor. 
Thomas's will was proved on Oct. 23, 1740, 
and in it he made his granddaughter 
Valentinia his heiress. By this will money 
was provided to enable Valentinia's husband, 
when she should marry, to procure an Act 
of Parliament authorizing him to assume 
the surname of Aynscombe. Valentinia 
married Lillie Smith, and he assumed the 
name in accordance with the terms of the 

ALLAN RAMSAY (12 S. i. 109). Ramsay's 

* Ever- Green ' was first published in 1724. 

* David Malloch ' will be found in Ramsay's 
L Poems,' vol. ii. (1761), and consists of 
eleven verses. 

The ' Tea-Table Miscellany ' is rather 
rare : four vols. in one, Edinburgh, 1768. 

Most of Ramsay's productions first saw 
daylight in sheets at a penny each. 


( 'THE TOMMIAD' (12 S. i. 128). ' The 
Tommiad ' was written by George James, 
Earl of Winchilsea and Nottingham ; its 
subject the soi-disant adventures of Thomas, 
second Earl of Wilton, in his salad days. 

These noblemen were contemporaries, though 
Lord Wilton, well known in certain circles 
as " the Wicked Earl," was the older of the 
two ; his appearance in Rotten Row is 
described in the ' Modern Timon ' something 
in the following fashion I write from 
recollection : 

See next on switch-tailed bay 
Attenuated Wilton leads the way. 

Though Lord Wilton was born as far 
back as 1799, his widow's death was recorded 
by the press only a few days since. 

My copy of ' The Tommiad ' has a photo- 
graph of the author inserted as frontispiece, 
which is perhaps the " portrait " referred to 

108). With reference to the statement that 
" the usually received story of the Black 
Hole of Calcutta has been seriously chal- 
lenged," the following paragraph is of 
interest : 

" Calcutta, Feb. 2. 

" A theory propounded at great length in the 
Calcutta papers by an English investigator that 
the Black Hole tragedy was an invention of 
Holwell, the leading survivor, has recently 
attracted general attention in India. A school 
of Bengali neo-historians had previously pro- 
pounded the theory, but the present is the first 
occasion on which English support has been 
prominently accorded. Mr. Rushbrook Williams, 
Fellow of 'All Souls,, Professor of History at 
Allahaoad, now writes controverting the theory* 
which he characterizes as ' distinctly regrettable 
because entirely lacking in justification and 
tending only to discredit the study of Indian 
history as pursued among us. That Holwell was 
a clever rascal was known even in his clay ; that 
he greatly exaggerated the duration of the siege 
of Calcutta is well re.-ogiiized ; bxit that he 
invented the Black Hole episode is believable 
only by those who have little acquaintance with 
the* principal sources of the history of that time. 
....The main fact that over one hundred 
Europeans were imprisoned and that only a 
score came forth is as well authenticated as any 
in history.' "Morning Post, Feb. 7, 1910. 


Quisisana, Walton-by-Clevedon, Somerset. 

i. 11, 56, 131). My mother used to sing us a 
different version of this song to the tune 
printed at the last reference, which she had 
probably brought beck from the boarding- 
school in France at which she had been about 
the year 1820. It ran : 

Ah ! vous dirai-je, maman, 
Ce qui cause mon tourment ? 
Papa veut que je raisonne 
Comme vine grand e personne ; 
Mais je dis que les bonbons 
Valent mieux que les raisons. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. i. FEB. 26, 

As she was a very small girl when she was 
at school in France this may have been a 
bow^dlerized version of an older song. When 
she sang it, she did not repeat the last line. 

Queen's College, Oxford. 

In the fifth edition (1850) of Du Mersan's 
' Chansons Rationales et Populaires de la 
France/ at p. 230, the song ' Ah ! vous 
dirai-je, Maman,' has six verses. Nos. 1 
and 2 are the same practically as 1 and 3 
on p. 131 ; the others are different. 

The English publisher of the words and 
music would have found the process of 
anastatic printing serviceable. 


i. 124). A traditional version of this ballad, 
entitled ' King Henrie the Fifth's Conquest,' 
is to be found in Mr. J. H. Dixon's ' Ancient 
Poems, Ballads, and Songs of the Peasantry 
of England,' published by the Percy Society 
in 1846. It was taken down by Mr. Dixon 
from the singing of Francis King, well 
known in the Yorkshire dales as " the 
Skipton Minstrel." Stanzas xi. and xii. are 
here given : 

Go, call up Cheshire and Lancashire, 
And Derby hills, that are so free ; 
Not a married man, nor a widow's son, 

For the widow's cry shall not go with me. 
They called up Cheshire and Lancashire, 

And Derby lads that were so free, 
Not a married man nor a widow's son, 
Yet they w ere jovial bold companie. 

A slightly different version is reprinted 
from an old broadsheet by Mr. Llewellynn 
Jewitt in his ' Ballads and Songs of Derby- 
shire ' : 

Recruit me Cheshire and Lancashire, 

And Derby hills that are so free ; 
No marry 'd man, or widow 's son, 

For no widow's curse shall go with me. 
They recruited Cheshire and Lancashire, 

And perby Hills that are so free, 
No marry'd man, nor widr,w s son, 

Yet there was a jovial bold company. 

The evidence that is available as to the 
date of the composition of the ballad is very 
slight. According to Mr. Dixon it can be 
traced to the sixteenth century ; and Mr. 
Jewitt informs us that 

" a tradition still obtains in the Peak that when 
Henry V. was recruiting Derbyshire and the 
adjoining counties, he declared that he would 
take no married man, and that no widow's son 
should be of his company." 

Mr. Endell Tyler emphatically states that 
the ballad is of ancient origin," and that it 
was probably written and sung within a 
few years of Henry's expedition to France 

(' Henry of Monmouth,' ii. 121). From the- 
concluding lines of the ballad, we are led 
to believe that it may have been composed 
just after Henry's marriage with Katha- 
rine : 

And the fairest flower in all French land, 
To the rose of England I will give free. 

Whatever the date of its composition may 
be, it undoubtedly ranks among the earliest 
of our English songs, and Mr. Tyler was of 
the opinion that the various renderings 
which exist may be accounted for by the 
fact that it was handed down orally from 
father to son. 

In view of the particular reference in the 

ballad to Cheshire, Lancashire, and Derby, 

it is worthy of note that Henry V. was Duke 

of Lancaster c.,nd Earl of Chester and Derby, 


REBELLION AT ETON (12 S. i. 90). 
Probably the refeience which HARROVIAN 
wants is The Observer of Jan. 2, 1916, in 
which the following paragraph is reprinted 
from The Observer of Dec. 31, 1815 : 

" The spirit of insubordination in Eton School 
vsas entirely quelled before the Christmas recess 
by the exemplary expulsion of the five boys who 
refused to submit to the discipline of flogging for 
their cruel conduct to a fag in their dame's house : 
they said they would have submitted to the 
infliction had they not been sentenced to it at the 
request of their dame." 

I need scarcely say that Dr. Keate w r as 
head master when this incident, not worthy 
of the word " rebellion," occurred. I have 
found nothing about it in any of my books 

VERDUN, 1810 (11 S. xi. 116, sub * English 
Prisoners in France'). DR. CLIPPINGDALE 
does not seem to be aware that he possesses 
a choice book, of which I hope that he will 
take great care. This Prayer Book was 
printed at Verdun in 1810 for the use of the 
British prisoners of war in France, and the 
editor was J. B. Maude. The British 
Museum copy (3408 b. 33) has a letter 
attached, addressed to Dr. Bliss, as follows : 

DEAR DOCTOR, T have not forgotten my 

Promise of a Verdun Prayer Bool; printed in 
810 and beg your acceptance of this J wish you 
could call upon me either on Friday or Saturday 
morning to see our Chapel and also our splendid 
Communion Plate which is in my room. 

Yours truly, 
Queen's, Wednesday. J. B. MAUDE. 

I have a note stating that 1,500 copies 
the book were printed, but I cannot give my 
authority for the statement. It is not of 
very frequent occurrence. B. B. P. 

128. 1. FEB. 26, 1916. J 



CRUELTY TO ANIMALS (12 S. i. 69). The 
following quotations afford some illustration 
of the attitude of the Church in England 
towards this question. In ' L'eglise et la 
pitie envers les aiiimaux ' (Lecoffre, 1903) 
" a book of seventy witnesses to the fact that 
mercy to animals has been and is* inculcated 
in the Church from the fourth century to the 
present '* at p. 25 De Sancto Anselmo 
archiepiscopo Cantuarensi in Anglia ('Vita' 
auctore Eadmero, monacho Cantuarensi) 
we read : 

" Discendente autem Anselmo a curia, et ad 
villain sua,m nomine Heysem properante, pueri, 
quos nutriebat. leporem sibi occursantem in via 
canibus insecuti sunt, et fugitantem infra pedes 
equi, quern Pater ipse insedebat, subsidentem 
consecuti sunt. Ille seiens, miseram bestiam sibi 
sub se refugio consuluisse,retentishabenis,equum 
loco fixit, nee cupitum bestiae voluit presidium 
denegare ; quam canes circumdantes, et baud 
grato obsequio hinc inde lingentes, nee de sub 
cquo poterant ejieere, nee in aliquo laedere. Quod 
videntes, admirati sumus. At Anselnius, ubi 
quosdam ex equitibus adspexit ridere, et quasi 

Ero capta bestia laetitiae fraena laxare, solutus in 
icrymas, ait : Ridetis ? Et utique infelici huic 
nullus risus, lastitia nulla est . . . . Quibus dictis, 
laxato fraeno, in iter rediit, bestiam ultra per- 
sequi clara voce canibus interdicens. Tune ilia ab 
omni Isesione immunis, exultans praepeti cursu, 
campos silvasque revisit .... 

" Alia vice conspexit puerum cum avicula in 
via ludentem. Quae avis pedem filp innexum 
habens, saepe, cum laxius ire permittebatur, fuga 
sibi consulere cupiens, avolare nitebatur. At 
puer filum manu tenens, retractam usque ad se 
dejiciebat : et hoc ingens gaudium illi erat. 
Factum est id frequentius. Quod Pater aspiciens, 
miser condoluit. avi, ac ut rupto filo libertati 
redderetur, optavit. Et ecce filum rumpitur, 
avis avolat, puer plorat, Pater exultat. ..." 

In the centuries following, St. Thomas, 
king of thought then in England too, taught 
(ibid., p. 33) : 

" Potest in homine consurgere misericord ise 
affectus etiam circa afflictiones animalium . . . . Et 
ideo, ut Dominus populum judaicum ad crudeli- 
tatem pronum, ad misericordiam revocaret, voluit 
eos exercere ad misericordiam etiam circa bruta 

The teaching works out in the wish, at 
least, of even the un-" humanitarian " 
Cardinal Newman : 

" Gain me the grace to love all Grod's works 
for God's sake .... Let me never forget that the 
same God who made me made the whole world, 
and all the men and animals that live in it." 

His brother Cardinal, Donriet, Archbishop 
of Bordeaux, came down to a rule : 

" Every animal should have the distance 
measured which it has to go ; the burdens it has 
to bear should not exceed a certain weight ; it is fit 
for work only a certain number of hours in the 
day and of days in the w'eek. It is the universal 
law, the divine dispensation. It can- never be 
transgressed with impunity." 

But, because Belgian Catholics sometimes 
do transgress the law, the late Ouida ( : A 
Dog in Flanders,' p. 16) taught that there 
is no law : 

" He [Patrasche, the dog] had been fed on 
curses and baptized with blob's. Why not ? 
It was a Christian country, and Patrasche was 
but a dog. . . .To deal the tortures of hell on the 
animal creation is a way which the Christians 
have of showing their belief in it." 

See also the English adaptation of the 
French work, * The Church and Kindness to 
Animals ' (Bums & Gates, 1906). 


University College, Cork. 

i. 49, 97). This is surely the most con- 
spicuous case known of the persistence of a 
transparent fallacy. Nothing, of course, is 
more certain than that memory is particu- 
larly busy upon the near approach of dis- 
solution ; and that no form of dissolution 
better serves for this than the last few 
struggling gaspings of the drowning is equally 
obvious, too, but the popular conception 
does not at all stop at this far from it. 

The current delusion is that death by 
drowning has in it something apart in kind, 
not merely from death in any other form, 
but even from suffocation by any other 
medium, an idea not remotely connected, 
probably, with the aspect of water as the 
sacred element in baptism and spiritual life, 
proving thus, as it were, the element of 
death. I do not think the popular mind on 
the matter w T ould accept as possible this 
lively last picture of the past if drowning 
occurred in some other way as with Clarence 
in his Malmsey butt, for instance. It must 
be drowning by water. 

I was " drowned " myself in an Irish lake 
exactly well, no matter how long ago, but 
I was just 15 at the time. I and my victim, 
a lad of my own age, to whom I was giving 
a swimming lesson in ten feet of water, were 
dragged out by two boatmen and laid side 
by side on the grass just in the nick of time. 
We came to almost at once, dressed, and 
got back to school before " the bell," feeling 
nothing the worse for the adventure. 
There was no revival of the past in all the 
frightfully distressing experience, none what- 
ever ; and I venture to think my time of 
life was the very best that could be chosen 
for the experiment. If there were the 
slightest physical or psychical basis for the 
belief, I was perfectly old enough to have had 
a glimpse at least of the supposed vision 
could not, in fact, have possibly escaped it. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. i. FEE 26, i9i&. 

It was a horrible experience, however, and 
every incident of it is as vividly present to 
me to-day as it was on the day of its 
occurrence the roaring noise in the ears, 
the whirling spectrum colours gradually 
darkening, the leaden weight on the chest, 
above all the swallowing and getting nothing 
down, though the final melting into oblivion 
was easeful enough, the capacity to feel 
being just gone. But the. past, as I have 
said, gave no sign whatever. MONA. 

With reference to the second query, so 
far unanswered, whether being frozen to 
death is a very painful process, I have 
always understood that people when 
exposed to intense cold are seized with 
extreme drowsiness, and, having succumbed 
to this, are frozen to death in their sleep. 
This is borne out by one of Tshekov's short 
Russia n stories in which Grigory, the turner, 
does not discover the death of his wife in 
the cart until he notices that the snow will 
no longer melt on her cheeks. Then again, 
only SL few days ago, one of the London 
dailies printed an account of the retreat in 
Serbia in which the writer, a Serbian officer, 
related that he had the greatest difficulty 
in keeping his men awake when resting and 
preventing them from being frozen to death. 

L. L. K. 

70, 133). In Wilfred Holme's 'Fall and 
Evil Success of Rebellion,' 1537 (see 11 S. xii. 
125), there is a list of saints and their relics 
as follows : 

For one shewed me of two Roods besides the 

Friers habitation 
In Greemvitch, which wold sweat for equal 

Y* William of York (quod another) will sweat in 


To kcepe House bridge from floods 

For (thanked be God) Sainct Frauncis' cowle is 

spied , 
And St. Bride's bead, with St. Hellyn's quicking 


Their girdles invented, and their faire hayres died. 
With their chaulk oled for the milk of our lady. 
Sainet Sith and Trenian's fast, with works of 

As Sainet Nicholas' chaire, and Sainet Antho rue's 


With Turpine stone, and Moyses yarde so thee ; 
With St. Katharine's knots, and St. Anne of 

Buckstones well ; 
And St. Wilfred Boome of Rlpon to kepe cattel 

from pa me, 
And his needle which sinners cannot pass the 

eye ; 

With St. John and St. Peter's grease, for to con- 
serve the braine ; 
And St. Thomas hoode of Pomfret for migraine 

and the rie ; 

And St. Cuthbert's standard of Duresme to make- 

their foes to flee ; 

And St. Benet's bolte, and St. Swithin's bell ; 
And St. Patrike's staff e, and Sainet William's: 

head, pardy ; 
And St. Cornell's home, with a thousand more to- 


At Newburgh Priory near Coxwold, in 
Yorkshire, was " the girdle Sancti Sal- 
vatoris," which, as it was said, was good 
for those in childbirth (1536, ' L. and P.^ 
Henry VIII.,' x. p. 137). 

St. Osyth's Well in Bishop's Stortford was- 
held to cure sore eyes (11 S. vi. 413). 

According to Macaulay, James II. in 1686 
visited the Holy Well" of St. Winifred in 
order to pray for an heir (Macaulay. ' History 
of Krigland,' vol. i. p. 742, Everyman ed.). 


" A STRICKEN FIELD " (11 S. xii. 379, 409 r 
450). This phrase is of considerable an- 
tiquity, being frequently used by Andrew 
of Wyntoun (? 1350- ? 1420) in his metrical 
' Crony kil of Scotland.' In the prose * Brevis. 
Cronica,' which is appended to some of the 
copies of the ' Crony kil,' occurs the sentence :. 
" This battaill was striken att Bannok- 
burne in Scotland." The ' Brevis Cronica * 
ends with the death of Robert II. in 1390. 


xii. 183, 266, 362, 467). The Bible of 161 1, 
being only a revised edition, was not entered 
on the Stationers' Registers, nor is there any 
information at present available as to the 
month in which it was issued. See A. W. 
Pollard's very valuable ' Records of the 
English Bible,' 1911, p. 61. 

The names of those who took part in 
bringing out this edition of the Bible are all 
well known. Possibly an investigation into 
the lives of some of them might reveal a 
clue as to the exact date of issue. 


187 Piccadilly, W. 

THUNDER FAMILY (US. xii. 501; 12 S. 
i. 36). The following may interest the 
querist : 


" STUBKS : THUNTTRR. On the 18th Jan., 1866, 
at Hurstpierpoint, by the Revd. Carey Borrer,. 
Quintin Robert, youngest son of James Stubbs, 
West Tisted, Hants, to Helen, second daughter 
of Edwin Thunder, of Brighton, and ' Wood- 
lands,' Hassocks. Present address, 75 High- 
street, Marylebone, W." 



12 S. I. FEB. 26, 1916,] 



The Peace of the A ugustans : a Survey of Eighteenth- 
Century Literature as a Place of Rest and 
Refreshment. By George Saintsbury. (Bell & 
Sons, 8s. Qd. net.) 

WE give the title of this book in full, as it may 
save the reader some trouble in discovering among 
he earlier pages what precisely is the novelty of 
the author's views. Something more portentous 
seems to be promised. Here, as elsewhere, Dr. 
Saintsbury uses a multitude of words which fail 
to convey to the present reader, at any rate 
any exact impression. It is sincerely to be hoped 
that none of the pupils who sat under him at 
Edinburgh has chosen his later style as a- model, 
while all of them have been doubtless amazed at 
his wonderful range, of knowledge. For the 
reader moderately acquainted with the eighteenth 
century Dr. Saintsbury's brief survey in his ' Short 
History of English Literature ' (!898), might, we 
think, be preferable to this volume ; for it lacks 
the extravagances of style, and the clumsy and 
roundabout methods of expression, which flourish 
here. " He that useth many words shall be 
abhorred," saith the son of Sirach. 

Yet ' The Peace of the Augustans ' is a book 
which deserves to secure a wide appreciation. It 
is the work of the most learned man of letters in 
the country ; it has a gusto which goes far to 
vivify moribund reputations : and it should do 
genuine service in rehabilitating a century which 
has been unduly disparaged. The virtues of these 
Augustans might well be studied by the twentieth 
century, and not the least trenchant part of this 
book is its denunciation of the twaddle, slipshod 
work, and cheap " rotting " which find a large 
audience to-day. 

Dr. Saintsbury's idea of " refreshment " (not to 
speak of " rest ") does not preclude lusty thwacks 
at several professionals hi his own line. He is 
fond of asking what the great author would think 
of this or that critic if he knew him. What, \ve 
wonder, would a great stylist think of Dr. 
Saintsbury, and, if his book were approved for its 
quality of " cut-and-come-againness," would that 
portentous compound be used ? 

The merits of the period rather than its defects 
are (rightly enough for the author's purpose) 
emphasized ; but we are somewhat surprised to 
find no carte d" pays in the matter of sentimen- 
talism and " enthusiasm." The author leaves the 
last word as if all his readers understood it. and 
in dealing with perhaps the greatest figure, as 
man and man of letters, of the whole of his century, 
he makes no point of the marked protest against 
sentimentality which is an essential part to us of 
that greatness. We are not, however, inclined to 
cavil at details of the survey. Our midriffs are 
not seldom tickled, and our withers are rarely 
wrung by Dr. Saintsbury's judgments and nbifcr 
dicta, the latter including various hearty ap- 
preciations of wine and the praise of cats and 
bulldogs. The book was written, we should say, 
at a fine speed, which may account for some lapses 
such as the use of " moreover " twice within a 
few words, or a phrase like " a not easily tiring 
or tired-of diversion," in . which the second, 
adjective seems to add nothing. It is hopeless, 
at this date, to protest against such a characteri- 

.ation as "the what-shall-any-man-in-a-single- 
vord-call-it of North," for these extensions of our 
anguage have become a habit with the author. 

Many of his lesser lights are, as he admits, not 
'eadily procxirable, but we gladly recognize that 
others are, and can respectfully follow our learned, 
guide in maintaining that much of the good sense 
and good wit of the unread eighteenth century is. 
preferable to the popular stuff of the present day 
levoured by the half -educated. Here Walter 
Scott's neglected critical work is of leal value,. 
s he points out. 

As for the poetry. Dr. Saintsbury's obvious and 
omnivorcms delight should infect others ; and, if he 
occasionally overrates it, the opposite process has 
?een so common that we cannot object. He 
ascribes to the " goose-step tramp of the eighteenth, 
century " the fact that " the public ear at large 
las no't been really spoilt." We wish we could 
say as much of present knowledge or aptitude,, 
tor we see clear evidences that the elements of 
rhythm, alike in prose and poetry, are nothing like 
so \\ell appreciated as they were by the public as 
a whole. Advertisements and recruiting posters 
have been hideously deficient in this respect. 

On most of the greater figures of the century 
Dr. Saintsbury is at once enthusiastic and 
judicious, and he often throws side-lights of great 
interest on the period, as when he maintains that 
Grub Street was largely a fiction, a point on 
which there is no sufficient evidence, perhaps, to- 
form a secure opinion. The present writer does 
not easily tire of Pope, but would have no such 
confidence in coming on good things in a casual' 
perusal as Dr. Saintsbury cherishes. ' The 
Dunciad ' is for a highly polished piece somewhat 
obscure, and dare we add ? ineffective. The 
splendid and miserable genius of Swift is hit off in. 
memorable phrases ; but is it fair to say that 
" man, pure and simple, man as he is, has always 
not far from him " the Yahoo ? The French 
Revolution, a Trade Tnion agitator, and a 
millionaire who gives " freak " suppers are Dr. 
Saintsbury's examples of Yahooism. That is not 
quite our view of the essential quality of tbe 
Yahoo. He has a positive delight in dirt and 
mere nastiress, which concerns the pathologist 
more than the literary historian. The normal 
ma,n is not such, we hope and believe. 

Prior we are glad to see praised, for he is 
commonly neglected, and began, we note, that 
long line of light academic versifiers who, taking 
Horace as their model, have added so much to the 
delight of the world. The new things of Prior 
given to letters recently by Mr. A. R. Waller are 
of piime importance ; but we think the ' Dialogues 
or the Dead,' though admi'-able in patches, have 
their longueurs. The account of Johnson and his 
circle is one of Dr. Saintsbury's best things, 
for in a brief space he is both vivict and illu- 
minating. A modern Johnsonian a breed the- 
author rather deprecates might suggest a point 
or two of value for consideration, but the man in 
all his true colours is there, and the reasonable 
side of his prejudiced views is well exhibited. 
Justice is done to Goldsmith's admirable style,, 
and his essays are wisely commended. The 
defects of heightened colour and political pre- 
judice in Macaulay (probably still the most 
popular guide to the period) are fairly and firmly 
set down. 

" Rest and refreshment " are not so easy to 
find in satirists whose victims are long since- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. i. FEB. 20, iwe. 

forgotten. The world no longer knows Anna 
Matilda's lines 

A feast so dear to polished taste 
As that thy lyre correctly flings, 
and other insufferable ineptitudes. Still we are 
glad to have a brief dissection of the futility of the 
Della-Cruscans, with a reference to A. T. Kent's 
account in his delightful ' Otia.' This is one of a 
host of instances in which Dr. Saintsbury's over- 
flowing foot-notes are much to the point. In him 
and Mr. Austin Dobson the eighteenth century 
has champions unequalled in their several ways. 
The w'orld, perhaps, in the brief moments not 
devoted to its trivial curiosities and restless haste, 
may discover that we owe to these Augustans not 
only some of the solid conveniences of the 
Philistine such as the sandwich and the umbrella 
but also the initiation of much that is indis- 
pensable to the cultivated mind to-day. The 
twentieth century has its faults, which are now 
by way of being scrutinized more closely than they 
were. One of the worst of them is the self- 
sufficiency which goes with ignorance of its debt 
to the past. 


IT would not be difficult to fill the whole of the 
space at our disposal with an account of the 
seventeenth-century works which occur in the 
Catalogue No. 300 of Mr. Francis Edwards, 
devoted to criminology, folk-lore, the occult 
sciences, old medical books, and old cookery 
books. We can mention only a few items, but 
the Catalogue as a whole may be recommended 
to the attention of the curious. Here are, under 
' Criminology,' a copy of ' The Catterpillars of 
this Nation 'Anatomized in a Brief yet Notable 
Discovery of House-breakers....' (1659, 51.) ; a 
' Histoire Generale des Larrons ' (Rouen, 1645, 
2L 2s.) ; a complete and good copy of Head's 
' The English Rogue Described' (1666-'71-'74-'80, 
the four parts bound in two small 8vo volumes, 
111. 10s.) ; and, in black-letter, the ' Success of 
Swaggering, Swearing, Dicing. . . .described in the 

Life and Downfall of Peter Lambert ' (1610, 

31. 10s.). The next section contains a description 
of a good copy of the ' Anthropometamorphosis ' 
of John Bulwer (1653, 101.). Under ' Old Medical 
Books ' of which seventeenth-century examples 
are numerous we noticed two MS. books of 
recipes, offered at 4?. and 5Z. respectively ; a copy 
of the works of Ambrose Parey, translated from 
the Latin (1634, 101.) ; and the first English 
treatise on Midwifery, the work of Thomas 
Raynalde, entitled ' The Byrth of Mankinde,' 
mostly black-letter (1613, 51.). Sir Hugh Plat's 
' Delightes for Ladies ' (1609, 61. 15s.) and ' The 
Queen's Closet Opened,' a first edition in con- 
temporary calf, but lacking the portrait of 
Henrietta Maria (1655, 4Z.), may be mentioned 
from among the cookery books. 

Messrs. Maggs's new Catalogue (No. 343) of 
Autograph Letters and MSS. describes a score or 
somewhat more of seventeenth-century items, 
among them two autograph letters of Charles II. 
one to the Marquis of Argyle from Breda in 1650 
(21Z.) ; and the other, from London in 1673, 
written in French to the Comte d'Estrees (221. 10s.). 
Another most interesting Stuart item is a letter, 

in French, from Mary of Modena to the Mother 
Superior of Chaillot, at St. Cyr (c. 1690, 10Z. 10s.). 
One of the best items in the Catalogue, from the 
historical point of view, is the letter in which 
Sir John Meldrum, acting as Parliamentary 
general, on Oct. 1, 1644, demanded the surrender 
of Liverpool, which is here offered for 121. ICs. ; 
and we may also mention a signature, accom- 
panied by a note of four lines in his handwriting, 
of Sir Edward Coke, which appears upon a 

petition to him of one William Bull of Kelling 

the note referring the petition to the cognizance' 
of Sir Nathaniel Bacon (1606, 101. 10s.). 

Another catalogue which students of the 
seventeenth century will find full of gcod matter 
is the new one (Nc. 106) of the books of Mr. 
P. M. Barnard of Tunbridge Wells. Several such 
items appear on almost every page ; and , for want 
of space, we restrict ourselves to mentioning one 
or two of foreign interest. There are five letters 
by Martin W r escombe, Consul at padiz, to the 
English Ambassador at Madrid, Sir Richard 
Fanshawe, concerning the movements of the 
Dutch and English fleets (1665 aifd 1666. 5Z.) ; a 
letter, sent by the hand of Hugo Grotius, Swedish 
Ambassador in Paris, of Turenne to Christina of 
Sweden (1645, 21. 2s.) ; three documents relating 
to the Scotch Guards in France, of which the best 
is a petition signed " Crafurd Lindesey " to 
Anne of Austria, from the " Committ5 des Estats 
du Parlement d'Escosse," asking that the Scotch 
Guards in France may serve on the same footing 
with the French and Swiss Guards (1648, 21. 2s.) ; 
and a plan of the siege of Rheinberg, by Prince 
Maurice of Nassau, which has numerous MS. 
notes adding several good details (1601, 31. 10s.). 
A copy of Gustavus Adolphus's ' Swedish 
Discipline,' &c., complete with the copper plate 

of the battle of Leipsic, printed in London, 1632 

the battle-piece " here imitated by Michaell 
Droshaut, London, 1632 " may also be men- 
tioned (21. 10s.). 

[Notices of other Catalogues held over.] 

to <K0msp0ntottis. 

We must call special attention to the following 


EDITORIAL communications should be addressed 
to "The Editor of 'Notes and Queries ' "Adver- 
tisements and Business Letters to "The Pub- 
lishers '^' at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery 
Lane, E.C. 

To secure insertion of communications corre 
spondents must observe the following rules. Let 
each note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and 
such address as he wishes to appear. When answer- 
ing queries, or making notes with regard to previous 
entries in the paper, contributors are requested to 
put in parentheses, immediately after the exact 
heading, the series, volume, and page or pages tc 
which they refer. Correspondents who repeat 
queries are requested to head the second com- 
munication " Duplicate." 

G. W. E. R. Forwarded to J. T. F. 

MR. ROLAND AUSTIN (" Duncan's Horses"). See 
Macbeth,' II. iv. 18ff. 

128. 1. MAR. 4, 1916.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



CONTENTS.-No. 10. 

NOTES : Contributions to European Travel, 181 
Shakespeare and Patriotism, 184 Casanova in England, 
185 Documents discovered at Lyon, 186 The Three 
Pigeons, Brentford John Oliver -Halley and Peake 
Families in Virginia, 187. 

^QUERIES : Literature for Boys Two Holoroft Anecdotes 
Arthur Webster, Dancer Heraldry E. Wortley 
Montagu, 188 Wooden Hats "Coat and Conduct 
Money "Turkish Crescent and Star Hawthorn Hive- 
Rev. Rowland Hill Song Wanted " Montabyn "John 
Moyle's Second Wife St. Anthony in Roseland Sir R. 
Carey's Ride, 189 Gerald Griffin " Parapet "=Footpath 
Onion-Flute Sir Christopher Corwen Rev. John 
Gaskin, 190. 

HEPLIES : Stuart, Count d'Albanie, 190 David Ross, 
191_Opening a Coffin, 192 Coffin-shaped Garden Bed 
Gennys of Launceston Village Pounds Epigram by 
J. C. Scaliger, 193-" Blighty "Heart Burial, 194 Small 
Republics, 195 ' Blazon of Gentrie ' " Domus Cruciata " 
Decamerone,' 196" Government for the people " 
The Emerald and Chastity " Popinjay," 197 Cleopatra 
and the Pearl 4 Gentleman's Calling ' Sticking-Plaster 
Portraits, 198. 

JNOTES ON BOOKS:- 'The Dialect of Hackness ' The 
Seconde Part of a Register' 'The Order of the Hospital 
of St. John of Jerusalem.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 


(See ante, pp. 61, 101, 141.) 


KHEVENHULLER belonged to a noble house 
which gave many famous men to Austria 
and was born at Villach in 1539. A detailed 
account of his life and travels, based upon 
Tiis own diaries, is printed in B. Czerwenka's 
'Die Khevenhiiller,' Wien, 1867, 117-215; 
"his travels are also noticed by Viktor 
Hantzsch in his ' Deutsche Reisende des 
sechzehnten Jahrhunderts,' Leipzig, 1895, 
pp. 90-92. 

At the early age of 10 Khevenhtiller was 
-sent with his brother Hans in the charge of a 
tutor to Padua, where they attended a high 
school. They remained there until 1555, 
when an outbreak of plague occasioned their 
recall, and the summer of 1556 was spent at 
Villach with their father. In September of 
this same year Bartholomaus Khevenhuller 
returned to Padua to resume his studies. He 
travelled with his preceptor, Martin Sieben- 

biirger, and crossed into Italy by the Brenner, 
reaching Roveredo on Sept. 25. The next 
day, being unable to reach Verona before 
nightfall, they were obliged to seek shelter 
in a peasant's cottage about three miles 
from Borghetto ; and as the peasant 
possessed only one bed, there was no alter- 
native but for Khevenhuller and his tutor 
to share it with the peasant and his wife and 
child, which they accordingly did. Kheven- 
huller reached Padua on Dec. 7, 1556, but 
in April of 1557 his father died, and he was 
obliged to return home. 

On June 15, 1557, he left Villach once 
more for France. He spent the Whitsuntide 
holidays at Salzburg, took part in the 
festivities, and admired the castle. Munich 
he describes as the finest town in Germany, 
but he found little there to detain him, and 
after inspecting a collection of wild beasts 
in which were nine lions and lionesses, he 
continued his journey. Augsburg, with its 
magnificent fortifications, its fine houses and 
broad streets, its pleasure gardens and 
waterworks, pleased him vastly. Still more 
was he impressed with the city's commercial 
activity and its amazing prosperity. Anton 
Fugger, one of its richest merchants, received 
and entertained him, gave him good advice, 
and provided him with letters of recom- 
mendation for use on his travels ; and on 
July 1 Khevenhuller reached Constance with 
a guide. The next day, as was often done at 
this time, a number of leading townspeople 
waited upon him at his inn, and, after regaling 
him with wine, took him to see the sights. 
Below Constance Khe-venhiiller admired the 
falls of the Rhine, and speaks with astonish- 
ment of the foaming and roaring of the 
waters. At Baden, which was reached on 
July 4, he found a number of people bathing 
and taking the waters;* and at Geneva on 
July 14 he heard Calvin preach, but could 
not understand him as he knew no French. 
Lyons was reached next ; and on July 28 
Khevenhuller arrived at Orleans. Here he 
decided to remain for some time as he had 
found a relation in the town, and the uni- 
versity attracted him. He therefore sold his 
horse, provided himself with books, and 
settled down to learn French and continue 

* Baden was then very popular as a bathing resort. 
When Montaigne was there in 1580 he stayed at a 
house where beds were made for 170 sojourners. 
The house contained 11 kitchens, and was provided 
with bathrooms, hot water being drawn from the 
springs for each bath. Here too, as was not 
always the case with other bathing resorts, ladies 
could be sure of bathing alone. Montaigne's 
4 Travels,' translated by W. G. Waters, London, 1903, 
i. 77-9. 



his studies. On Sept. 15 he was attacked 
by the plague, but appears to have been 
cured by playing a violent game at tennis. 
The exercise threw him into a tremendous 
perspiration, and left him so weak that he 
could scarcely stand. He thereupon took to 
his bed, and was soon restored to health. 

While he was at Orleans news came that 
the Spanish king had defeated the French at 
St. Quentin, and taken prisoner the Constable 
of France and many other famous men. 
As a result of this, all Germans not actually 
fighting with the French were regarded with 
considerable disfavour, and Khevenhuller 
found himself the object of suspicion and 
hatred. Indeed, at times he actually went 
in fear of his life. He decided, however, to 
set out for Paris, and arrived there without 
mishap, riding into the city on Christmas 
Eve. An incident on the road thither is 
interesting as throwing light on the con- 
dition of the highways in France at this 
time. On the way between Tours and 
Chartres he found a poor traveller lying by 
the roadside in great distress, having been 
robbed and wounded by brigands. The 
weather was bitterly cold and the horses were 
tired, so that Khevenhuller and his com- 
panions were unable to carry him along with 
them, but later that night they brought him 
in to Chartres, only to find that he had died 
from exposure. 

At Paris Khevenhuller lodged at first 
at the Rose Blanche in the Faubourg 
St. Jaques. Later he took lodgings with a 
printer named Mathia David in the Rue des 
Amandiers, an honest, decent kind of man, 
but greatly suspected on account of his 
evangelical tendencies. He spent eight 
weeks in exploring the city, visited the 
notable buildings and churches, and several 
times encountered the king, Henry II. 
Here, too, he saw Mary, Queen of Scots, and 
was present at her marriage with the Dauphin. 
He also took part in the festivities following 
the taking of Calais by the French in 
January, visited St. Germain, and witnessed 
the execution of a pastrycook, who had been 
condemned on a charge of using human flesh 
as an ingredient for his bake-meats, and was 
broken on the wheel. 

Leaving Paris, Khevenhuller proceeded to 
Blois, where he spent some time perfecting 
his French, and later travelled for more than 
a year in Central and Southern France. 
From Tours he visited the cloister of 
Marmutier, where it was said to be 
possible to hear the snoring of the Seven 
Sleepers who were lying there in apparently 
unchanged slumber after death ; but 

although Khevenhuller and his companions 
listened attentively, they could detect 
nothing. He visited Angers, Mont St, 
Michel, and St. Malo. At Nantes he- 
purchased two horses to take the place of 
those he had hired, and proceeded to La 
Rochelle. At Lusignan, where he arrived 
on April 19, 1559, he admired the castle, and 
saw the spring where the fairy Melusine 
is said to have bathed. From Poitiers he 
visited Brouage, where his heart was cheered 
by the sight of a number of German ships 
homeward bound, laden with salt. From 
Blaye he was anxious to proceed to Bordeaux 
by boat, but the sea was so rough that he 
was obliged to abandon the project and 
continue by road. At Toulouse he sold his 
horses, hired a lodging, and settled down until 
the following August, when he set out with 
his tutor, Fabian Stosser, and three com- 
panions for Spain. 

From Bayonne the travellers reached 
Fuenterrabia, the frontier town, and 
were shown the cannon which the 
Emperor Charles had captured from the 
Protestants in the Smalkaldic War. At 
Valladolid, where they found the Infante Don 
Carlos living a wild and reckless life, Kheven- 
huller and his companions had intended 
to make a lengthy stay ; but as they observed 
that preparations were being made on an 
extensive scale for a solemn auto-da-fe, they 
left the town in some haste and proceeded 
by way of Salamanca to Compostella, 
Here were the bones of St. James, the 
brother of our Lord, said to have been, 
brought thither from Palestine,* and the 
cathedral was a famous place of pilgrimage 
for Germans. It was not, however, a 
desirable spot for good Protestants. 
With his companions Khevenhuller visited 
the shrine, but when the holy relics 
were produced and the worshippers with 
one accord fell on their knees, he and his 
companions remained standing, thereby 
attracting universal attention. Not content 
with this foolish proceeding, they next 
flouted the authorities by declining to 
communicate or to come to confession when 
called on to do so ; and as a result of these 
indiscretions it is not to be wondered at that 
we next find our travellers in full flight, with. 

* This shrine numbered its pilgrims by thou- 
sands. So famous and frequented did it become 
that a special and indeed a professional class oi 
pilgrims came into existence known as Jacobs- 
briider, who were continually on the roads to or 
from Compostella, seeking pardon for themselves 
and others by their wandering devotion. See 
4 Cambridge Modern Hist./ ii. 105. 

128. 1. MAR. 4, 1916.] 



the Inquisition at their heels. They took 
refuge in a peasant's cottage outside the 
town, but about midnight they were dis- 
covered, their weapons were seized, and they 
were taken into the town. The next day 
their books were seized and examined. The 
prisoners were then taken to an adjoining 
town and formally handed over to the 
agents of the Inquisition. Their books were 
again examined, but as they were found to 
contain nothing incriminating or heretical, 
the prisoners were closely interrogated, and 
were finally offered their freedom if they 
would confess and communicate. This they 
declined to do, stating that they had already 
made their peace with God before setting out 
on their journey, and were again committed 
to prison. A few days later they were 
further interrogated, and were forced to 
repeat the Paternoster, the Creed, and the 
Ave Maria. Khevenhuller was then asked 
if he accepted the doctrine of Transub- 
stantiation. Sick of his confinement and 
hardships, he replied that he did ; and on the 
Inquisitor suggesting that it was the fear of 
the stake which had made him change his 
mind, he even went so far as to protest that 
he was ready to die for his new-found faith. 
The prisoners were then returned to Compo- 
st ella and brought before the Archbishop, 
after which they were dispatched to the 
headquarters of the Inquisition at Valladolid. 
Here, confined in a dungeon and guarded by 
the common hangman, they received the 
comforting assurance that they would 
certainly be burnt alive. Khevenhuller 
thereupon made a solemn vow that if he 
ever regained his freedom he would go on 
pilgrimage to the Holy Sepulchre at 

Five weeks later, to their intense relief, 
came an order from the Inquisition that 
they were to be set at liberty, but that 
certain of their books were to be burnt. A 
copy of ' ^Esop's Fables,' the Psalms of 
David, and an edition of Dictys Cretensis, 
' De bello troiano,' were accordingly confis- 
cated, the prognostications were removed 
from an almanac of Nostradamus, and the 
travellers were permitted to depart. Kheven- 
huller' s companions had had enough of 
Spain, and set off post haste for France, but 
Khevenhuller and Stosser continued their 
journey to Lisbon. Here they took note of 
all that was remarkable in the town ; visited 
the slave market, where negroes and apes 
were being sold ; and saw the youthful King 
Sebastian, who is described as a beautiful 
lad with long fair hair. The sight of the 
ships in the harbour fired Khevenhuller with 

a longing for the New World, and had funds? 
permitted it he would certainly have sailed 
for the Indies. As it was, he had to content 
himself with visiting Toledo, where he saw 
King Philip II. and the Duke of Alva as they 
attended Mass. At Segovia he was amazed 
at the wonderful Roman aqueduct, with its 
arches spreading far away over the roofs of 
the houses, and, in common with the in- 
habitants, he took it to be the work of 
the devil. At Guadalajara he was present 
at a bullfight, and at Madrid he witnessed 
the state entry of Elizabeth of France- 
into the town. He then paid a visit to 
the Benedictine abbey and hermitages at 
Montserrat, and returned across the Pyrenees- 
into France. Travelling by way of Mont- 
pellier and Aries, he reached Chalon on 
April 20, 1560, and paid a visit to Nostra- 
damus himself, who discussed all kinds of 
things with him, and no doubt supplied the 
imperfection in the almanac which had been 
despoiled by Holy Church. On May 31 
he reached Paris. Ten weeks later he 
obtained fresh funds and set out for Brussels, 
Here he visited the Duke of Alva, passed 
through the Spanish Netherlands to the Rhine 
Provinces, and at Cologne took boat for 
Bingen. He then hired posthorses, and rode 
home through Suabia and Bavaria to Villach^ 
which he had not seen for three years. 

But his travel fever did not suffer him to- 
rest. Mindful of his vow to visit the Holy 
Land, he started on his pilgrimage on 
Dec. 9, 1560, accompanied by the faithful 
Stosser. The travellers rode to Venice 
across the Tarvis ; but as no pilgrim ship was 
available until Whitsuntide, Khevenhuller 
set out to see something of Italy. He visited 
the towns of Emilia, and from Rimini took 
the coast road to Ancona and Loretto, which 
he found thronged with people, and spent 
Easter in Rome. The magnificence of the 
Easter celebrations impressed him greatly, 
and at St. Peter's on Holy Thursday he had 
the satisfaction of being solemnly cursed by 
the Pope, who in his presence denounced all 
heretics, especially the Lutherans : a proceed- 
ing which must have reminded him vividly of 
his uncomfortable Spanish experiences. From 
Rome he returned by way of Florence to 
Venice, where twenty-seven German pilgrims 
had already assembled, among them Kheven- 
huller' s own cousin Franz. On July 4 they 
set sail with four hundred other pilgrims for 
Jaffa, where they arrived in safety on 
Aug. 1 9. The pilgrims then visited the holy 
places at Jerusalem, and returned in small 
parties to the coast ; and on Sept. 20 Kheven- 
huller again reached Venice. He straight- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. i. MA*. 4. me. 

"way returned to Villach, reaching home on 
March 23, 1562. After being presented to 
the Emperor Maximilian II. he took service 
against the Turks, married a 15-year-old 
fcride, and died on Aug. 16, 1613. 



IN a leading article headed ' Shakespeare the 
Patriot ' a London daily paper recently 
remarked : " If Shakespeare had been living 
at this hour. . . .can we not pick out with 
confidence the themes which would have 
inspired him ? " And it proceeded to enu- 
merate a number of the more striking episodes 
of the war, such as " the heroic stand of 
Belgium ; the first battle of Ypres ; the 
immortal deeds of Anzac and Lancashire 
Landing." It is clear that no opinion, 
however confident, as to what Shakespeare 
"would write about if he were alive now can 
either be proved or refuted conclusively. 
But, seeing that, in view of the approaching 
Tercentenary celebrations, statements of the 
kind just quoted are likely to be made 
somewhat freely during the next few 
months, it may be permissible to point out 
that they are not supported by what we 
know of his practice when he was alive. 

Hidden and allegorical allusions to persons 
and events of his own time have been dis- 
covered in plenty in his works; but these 
are necessarily uncertain in their application, 
and as a rule carry complete conviction to 
iew besides their discoverers. The remark- 
able thing is that direct and unmistakable 
references to contemporary history are so 
rare. Shakespeare, as the writer already 
quoted reminds his readers, " lived through 
the great days of the war with Spain, and 
had seen Elizabeth's sea captains." Yet he 
makes comparatively little mention of naval 
matters, and none of the great conflict which 
culminated in the defeat of the Armada, 
unless the name of the bragging Spaniard 
in * Love's Labour's Lost,' Don Armado, is to 
Tae taken as a reference to it, a petty one 
enough, considering the greatness of the 

It is instructive to compare the fine 
outburst of patriotism at the end of * King 
John ' with the lines in ' The Troublesome 
Haigne of King John ' on which it is 
"based : 

If England peeres and people ioyne in one 
.Nor Pope nor Fraunce nor Spaine can doo them 


Shakespeare's transformation of doggerel 
into ringing verse is not more noteworthy 

than his deliberate suppression of anything 
which might seem to bear directly on the 
affairs of his own time. His patriotism 
stands out clearly enough in his writings. 
But he chose to express it not by allusion to 
contemporary events, but through themedium 
of his country's history. National unity 
under a strong ruler is his political ideal. 
He had studied the history of the preceding 
century, and had seen how Lancastrian 
constitutionalism had led to disastrous 
foreign wars and still more disastrous internal 
conflicts. The reign of Henry VI., in which 
these things were at their worst, had formed 
the subject of his earliest apprenticeship to 
historical drama, and the miseries of that 
time of weak central government and 
powerful nobles seem to have made a deep 
impression on him. And he accepts the 
Tudor autocracy as a bulwark of the nation 
against any recurrence of these disasters. 

In holding these views he was a true child 
of his age. With them is bound up the 
consciousness of independent national exis- 
tence, which was stronger under the Tudors 
than ever before. And this, again, led men 
to study and take pride in the history of 
their country; so in choosing that history 
for his subject Shakespeare was gratifying 
the patriotic instincts of his readers or 
spectators as well as his own. At the same 
time he could treat the episodes which he 
selected in their due perspective and pro- 
portion, while avoiding the danger of rousing 
the passions or prejudices which might still 
linger round recent events, to the detriment 
of the effect he sought to produce. 

Thus he deals very freely with the reign 
of John, placing the king in a more favourable 
Sight than the facts warrant because he 
stands for national unity against the forces 
which threaten it both from without and 
rom within. Conversely ' Richard II.,' 
which also contains the most famous of his 
Datriotic utterances, shows how the reign 
of a weak, ineffective king is followed by 
disastrous results which last for generations. 
Henry V.' is an epic of national glory. 
Treating, as was his wont, the facts of 
listory as raw material for a work of art, 
Shakespeare produces the picture of a land 
happy and united under a hero-king who 
wins undying fame in a righteous war 
against heavy odds, crowned by a glorious 

In this play occurs almost the only explicit 

llusion in Shakespeare to a contemporary 

event of importance, the Irish expedition of 

Sssex. From the scarcity of such allusions 

n his works it seems reasonable to draw the 

12 S. I. MAR. 4, 1916. ; 



conclusion that he thought that his un- 
doubted love for his country could be more 
effectively and artistically expressed through 
the medium of history freely manipulated to 
suit his purpose. No doubt the rough out- 
line of his political philosophy here indi- 
cated could be subjected, did space permit, 
to considerable modification in various 
particulars. But its main outline, as well 
as his mode of expressing it, seems to be as 
here stated. GORDON CROSSE. 


(See 10 S. viii. 443, 491 ; ix. 116 ; xi. 437 ; 
US. ii. 386 ; iii. 242 ; iv. 382, 461 ; v. 123, 
484; 12 S. i. 121.) 

CASANOVA gives an interesting, though an 
inaccurate description of " Sunday observ- 
ance " in England at the period of his 
visit : 

" I went to St. James's Park to call on Lady 
Harrington,* for whom I had a letter, as I have 
mentioned. This lady lived in the precincts of 
the Court, and for this reason she had an Assembly 
every Sunday. It was allowable to play in her 
house, as the park is under the jurisdiction of the 
Crown. In all other places one does not dare to 
play cards or have music on Sundays. The 
town abounds in spies, and if they have reason to 
suppose that there is any gaming or music going 
on they watch for their opportunity, slip into 
the house, and arrest all the bad Christians who 
dare to profane the Lord's Day by an amusement 
which is thought innocent in any other country." 
' Memo ires de Casanova ' (Gamier), vi. 364. 

Perhaps the memoirist, wearied by the 
dullness of an English Sabbath, like many 
foreigners, was exaggerating the extent of 
our Puritanism unconsciously, or else some 
one had been "pulling his leg." From 
references in The Rambler, The World, and 
The Connoisseur, the late Mr. Lecky has 
shown that Sunday card-parties were fashion- 
able amusements about the middle of the 
century. " Sunday concerts were somewhat 
timidly introduced," the same writer con- 
tinues, "but soon became popular" ('Hist, 
of England,* vol. ii. 534). Still, there was 
the danger of a vigorous protest from the 
man in the street, as indicated by the state- 
ment of Dr. Burney that a Lady Brown 
" was one of the first persons of fashion who 
had the courage, at the risk of her windows, 
to have concerts on a Sunday evening " 
(' History of Music,' iv. 671). There was no 

* Caroline, Countess of Harrington, nee Fitzroy, 

died June 28, 1784. Married William, second 

Earl of Harrington, Aug. 11, 1746. She lived at 

> Stable Yard, so Casanova is correct in regard to 

her place of residence. 

rigorously enforced law to prevent these 
recreations, as Casanova declares, but there 
undoubtedly was a prejudice against them, 
fostered no doubt by the pious example of 
King George III., both at the time of the 
Venetian's visit to England and long after- 
wards. Speaking of the Berrys a quarter of 
a century later, Horace Walpole says : 

" This delightful family comes to me almost 
every Sunday evening . . . . to play at cards .... I 
do not care a straw for cards, but I do disapprove 
of this partiality to the youngest child of the week.'* 
' Letters ' (Toynbee), xiv. 89. 

Lady Mary Coke, however, made no bones 
about playing cards on Sundays, as her 
' Journal ' testifies. 

There is, I think, a satisfactory explana- 
tion of the riot at Drury Lane Theatre 
described in the ' Memoires ' (Garnier), vi. 
369. During the year 1763 there were 
several theatrical riots, the most famous of 
which took place at Drury Lane on Jan. 25 
and 26 during the performance of * The Two 
Gentlemen of Verona,' five months before 
Casanova arrived in England. These dis- 
turbances, which were directed against 
Garrick (as related by Casanova), were 
inspired by an Irishman named Thaddeus 
(known as "Thady") Fitzpatrick. On 
Jan. 26 John Moody (as well as Garrick) was 
called upon to apologize, because he had 
prevented a maniac from setting fire to the 
theatre. " I am sorry," he retorted, sar- 
castically, " that I have displeased you by 
saving your lives." Enraged by this reply, 
the audience demanded that he should 
apologize " on his knees," which the actor 
refused to do ( ' Account of the English 
Stage,' J. Genest, v. 14-16). A memoir and 
portrait of "Thady" Fitzpatrick will be 
found in The Town and Country Magazine, 
vii. 177. Probably Casanova, having been 
told of these occurrences by Martinelli, has 
given his description from hearsay, or it is 
possible, since the feud between Garrick and 
Fitzpatrick continued for some time, that 
the Italian may have witnessed a similar 
disturbance in the playhouse. I am inclined 
towards the former supposition, since it is 
incredible that David Garrick was compelled 
by the audience (as Casanova says he was) 
to apologize " on his knees." 

I have remarked previously that it is a 
curious thing that Casanova does not 
mention John Wilkes, who was the most- 
talked-of man in England during the year 
1763. It is possible, however, that the 
adventurer and the " patriot " met one 
another four years later. Through the 
kindness of M. Charles Samaran I have 


NOTES AND QUERIES. 112 s. i. MA. 4, 

seen a reproduction of an autograph letter 
{obviously in Wilkes's handwriting) written to 
Francois Casanova, the painter, brother 
of the memoirist. It is dated from Long- 
<3hamp, where Wilkes had rooms (if not 
a, small villa), Friday, Oct. 15 (it should 
be Oct. 16), 1767. Wilkes addresses the 
^artist as " mon cher compatriote," an odd 
phrase, at first sight, but it should be 
remembered that the Englishman was an 
-outlaw at the time. He goes on to speak of 
the " sentimens favorables dont monsieur 
votre frere [i.e., Giacomo Casanova] veut bien 
m*honorer. Je serai charme de faire sa 
<5onnaissance sous vos auspices," and con- 
cludes by accepting the painter's invitation 
to supper on Friday, Oct. 23 (see ' Jacques 
Casanova, Venitien,' Charles Samaran, 
pp. 281-2). Perhaps the two famous men 
met on that date, for the adventurer was 
then in Paris, though distressed on account 
of the illness of a chere amie. Wilkes did not 
leave for Ostend until Nov. 22, whence he 
reached Dover on Dec. 2. 

One of Casanova's stories indicates that 
the English magistrate had learnt a lesson 
from the mistake made a few months pre- 
viously in arresting Wilkes under a General 
Warrant : 

" I went to a magistrate who, after hearing my 
information, granted me a Warrant. .. .but he 
did not know the women, which was necessary. 
He was certain of arresting them, but it was 
necessary that those whom he arrested should only 
be those mentioned in the warrant, and there might 

"be other women present .. ." ' Me'moires,' 

vi. 548. 

Under the famous General Warrant of 
April 26, 1763, forty-nine persons are said 
to have been apprehended, in addition to 
Wilkes, so there is much significance in 
Casanova s statement that only those named 
by a warrant could be arrested. 

Casanova's assertion that the Duke of 
Cumberland was present at the subscription 
ball given in honour of the Hereditary Prince 
of Brunswick at Madam Cornelys's in Soho 
Square on Jan. 24, 1764, is corroborated by 
the newspapers (cf . ' Memoires,' vi. 552), and 
the peeress whom he calls " Milady Grafton " 
was in all probability Anne Liddell, Duchess 
of Grafton, for, according to Horace Walpole, 
the Duke of Grafton was one of the principal 
promoters of the entertainment (' Letters 
of H. Walpole' [Toynbee], v. 441). The 
statement that she wore her hair *' without 
powder, 1 * thereby causing much amazement, 
and setting a fashion that was adopted all 
over Europe, suggests an interesting problem 
for the students of the history of costume. 
It is curious to note that J. P. Malcolm in 

' Anecdotes of the Manners and Customs of 
London in the Eighteenth Century,' ii. 348, 
gives the year 1763 as the date of " the 
rational change .... of wearing the natural 
Hair instead of Wigs." 

I had hoped to find some record of 
Casanova's presentation at Court, but, un- 
fortunately, no lists of the presentations 
at St. James's appear to exist prior to 
the year 1773, so search at the Public 
Record Office has been of no avail. 

It will be remembered that Ange Goudar 
showed the adventurer a remarkable arm- 
chair with concealed springs which fastened 
themselves on to the arms and legs of any 
one who sat down in it, holding him a 
prisoner ('Memoires* [Garnier], vi. 511). 
On the authority of * L'Espion Anglois, ou 
Correspondance secrete entre Milord All* Eye 
et Milord All' Ear' (Loiidres, Chez John 
Adamson, 1779), vol. ii. 363 (of. ante, pp. 
29, 78), there was a similar chair in the 
house of the notorious Madame Alexandrine 
Ernestine Jourdan, known as "la Petite 
Comtesse," in the Rue des deux Portes, 
Saint-Sauveur, Paris. A chair of the same 
kind is described by G. W. M. Reynolds 
in the second series of ' The Mysteries of the 
Court of London. 1 

Although I have looked through the files 
of The Public Advertiser, St. James's 
Chronicle, and The London Chronicle from 
June, 1763, to April, 1764, for references to 
the window-card advertisement, the parrot 
episode, and the report of Casanova s ap- 
pearance before Sir John Fielding (all of 
which he says were noticed in the newspapers), 
my search has been entirely fruitless. 


19 Cornwall Terrace, N.W. 

1916. My old friend Prof. Henri Gaidoz of 
Paris has sent me the ficho de Paris of 
12 fevrier, 1916, containing the following 
interesting news. It deserves a niche in 
1 N. & Q.' : 


" Le ' Grand Cartulaire de 1350 ' de I'archeveche 
de Lyon, recherche pendant plus de trente ans et 
qui etait conside're' com me de"finitivement perdu, 
vient d'etre retrouve d'une maniere tout & fait 
singuliere, en menie temps qu'un grand nombre 
de parchemins et papiers preeieux, notamment un 
diplome original, le seul connu, du roi Charles, fils 
de 1'empereur Lothaire I., dat6 de 861 et accor- 
dant des privileges a I'archevech^ de Lyon. 

" Cette decouverte, annonc^e hier a l'Acade'mie 
des inscriptions par M. Omont au riom de M. 
Guigne, vient d'itre faite par des ouvriers qui 


12 s. i. MAE. 4, 1916.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


r^paraient la toiture d'une des chapelles de la 
oath^drale, et qui y d^couvrirent quatre grandes 
caisses en bois renfermant, outre les pieces capi- 
tales cities plus haut, de nombreux registres des 
actes capitulaires de 1447 a 1734, et plus de 700 
pieces originates allant du neuvieme au dix 
'huitieme siecle. 

"II y a tout lieu de croire que ce magnifique 
tre"sor arch^ologique avait e"te" cache" pendant les 
troubles reVolutionnaires. 11 sera transport^ au 
depot des archives du d^partement du Rhone 
t mis a la disposition des erudits. 


The Union Society, Oxford. 

well-known inn having been closed, its 
demolition will not be long delayed. Its 
interest to-day is largely that of association 
and literary celebrity, because it has been so 
modernized, and is frankly so unpicturesque, 
that a visit to it diminishes rather than feeds 
our regard for its splendid history. It is 
mentioned in several local histories ; and 
Faulkner (' History of Brentford,' p. 144) 
writing before 1845, says the interior was 
*' still in its ancient state, having above twenty 
sitting and sleeping apartments, connected by a 
projecting gallery at the back, and communicating 
by several staircases to the attics, with numerous 
'dark closets and passages." 

Not a very vivid description, but, having 
devoted six pages of his work to Mrs. 
Trimmer, the writer would not be capable of 
describing this old inn. The Observer of 
Jan. 16 provides an illustration and interest- 
ing summary of its history. 


The passing of this historic inn at Brent- 
ford was noted in a recent issue of The Times, 
which quoted the following extract from 
Halliwell's notes to * The Merry Wives of 
Windsor ' : 

"This house is interesting as being in all likeli- 
hood one of the few haunts of Shakespeare not 
removed, and as being, indeed, the sole Elizabethan 
tavern existing in England, which, in the absence 
ot direct evidence to the contrary, may fairly be 
presumed to have been occasionally visited by him." 

"Ben Jonson alludes to the tavern in 'The 
Alohymiat, 1 and Middleton in ' The Roaring Girl,' 
and the former tells how 'We '11 tickle it at the 
Pigeons. Shakespeare, Jonson, Middleton, and 
Peele used the house. Peele made it the scene of 
some of his 'Merry Jests.' Goldsmith used it as 
the scene of Tony Lumpkin's conviviality in ' She 
otpops to Conquer,' and Dickens alludes to it in 

Our Mutual Friend.' " 

John Lowen, who acted with Shakespeare 
and Ben Jonson at the Globe as a member 
of the King's Company, and who created 

the part of Henry VIII., became, on the 
suppression of the theatres by the Puritans, 
landlord of this tavern, and died here in 1659. 
The Three Pigeons closed its doors on Jan. 7 
last by order of the Middlesex licensing 
board, presumably to make room for 
municipal improvements. ^ ^y JJ ILL 

JOHN OLIVER, of Worcester diocese, 
described as a pensioner of King Edward VI., 
and probably, therefore, educated at King 
Edward's School, Birmingham, was ordained 
deacon in London in December, 1553 (Dr. 
Frere's 'The Marian Reaction,' S.P.C.K., 1896, 
at p. 267), and was subsequently ordained 
priest. Dr. Gee in ' The Elizabethan Clergy, 
1558-64' (Oxford, 1898), in his Index at 
p. 314, seems disposed to identify him with 
the Rector of Baddiley, Cheshire, who was 
absent from the Visitation of 1559 ; but 
this is not a correct identification. In a 
letter from Louvain, addressed to Cardinal 
Morone, dated March 28, 1573 (' Archivio 
Vaticano,' Arm. Ixiv. 28, p. 73), John Oliver 
says that he had been domestic chaplain to 
Richard Pate, Bishop of Worcester, and 
had been promised a prebend in Worcester 
Cathedral. As he states that he said Mass in 
presence of the Bishop just before he, Oliver, 
went abroad, and as the Bishop of Worcester 
(who seems to have been in private custody 
some months previously) was committed to 
the Tower of London, May 20, 1560, it is 
probable that Oliver fled abroad in 1559. 
He appears from the ' Concertatio Ecclesiae ' 
to have been still living abroad in 1588. In 
his letter to the Cardinal he says that two 
years previously he had dedicated a book 
of prayers to his Eminence. Is anything 
known of this book ? and is anything known 
of the author or compiler, or whatever he 

GINIA. (See 11 S. xii. 339 ; 12 S. i. 9.) Mr. 
Henry I. Hutton of Warrenton, Virginia, 
writes me under date of Dec. 23, 1915, as 
follows : 

"I wrote you some time ago about one Sybil 
Halley marrying Jesse Peake, which was taken 
From some old family records in Kentucky ; but 
last week I went to Fairfax Courthouse (Virginia) 
ind found a marriage contract between Sybil 
Halley and Wm. Harrison Peake, made and re- 
corded in 1791 ; so this is positive proof that his 
name as last given [in another letter] is correct. 
The contract was witnessed by his brother John 
Peake, and her father James Halley." 

1200 Michigan Ave., Chicago, U.S. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. i. MAR. 4, 


WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 


FOB BOYS. I am extremely interested in 
the history, &c., of the old penny weekly 
numbers of " dreadfuls," boys' periodicals, 
and similar literature of the forties, fifties, 
sixties, and seventies. 

Have any articles or answers appeared in 

* N. & Q.' bearing on the subject, or on the 
old-fashioned " penny-a-liner " writer of 
those decades ? I believe something of this 
nature has appeared somewhere, but I 
cannot, trace it. I have searched through 
the ' Dictionary of National Biography,' 
Boase's ' Biography,' and also Allibone's 

* English and American Literature,' and can 
find mention only of Percy B. St. John and 
his father and brothers, E. J. Brett (Boys 
of England), and W. S. Hayward. There 
was, however, a multitude of similar authors, 
such as Bracebridge Hemyng (Jack Harka- 
way), Chas. Stevens, R. Proctor, Geo. and 
William Emmett, Chas. Fox, E. Harcourt 
Burrage, and Chas. Ross, who knocked about 
Fleet Street in the old days of journalism, 
and whose works I occasionally come across. 

Any information will be gratefully re- 
ceived by FBANK JAY. 
St. Malo, 21 Fircroft Road, Upper Tooting, S.VV. 

[Much information on the subject will be found in 
MR. RALPH THOMAS'S series of articles dealing 
with Sir John Gilbert, J. F. Smith, and The 
London Journal. See 11 S. vii. 221, 276, 375; viii. 
121, 142 ; x. 102, 144, 1&3, 223, 262, 292, 301, 318, 328, 
357, 426.] 

THE * MEMOIRS.' There are two anecdotes 
in Holcroft's ' Memoirs ' which I should like 
to have explained : 

" 30th [October, 1798] Young S , and B 's 

nephew, came in their fathers' name to ask for 
orders. Both families are rich, but I complied 

and procured them. B and N . M.P., being 

at Brighton, where Major R was, N praised 

the Major as a man of great information, his 

friend, and one with whom B ought to be 

intimate. B said, they had met and spoken, 

and as there could be no great harm, he would 

accompany N to visit R . They happened 

to meet him, and R presently took occasion 

to tell N , that, from the principles he pro- 
fessed, and the speeches he had mad